Popular Science Monthly/Volume 31/October 1887/Literary Notices
The Margin of Profits. By Edward Atkinson. New York: Putnams. 1887. Price, $1.
This work consists of a lecture delivered before the Central Labor Lyceum of Boston, in May last, together with a reply made at the time by Mr. E. M. Chamberlin, and Mr. Atkinson's rejoinder. The object of the lecture was to show that the capitalist is the friend and not the enemy of the laborer, whatever disagreement there may at times be between them. Mr. Atkinson first draws attention to the fact that the margin of profit—that is, the share of the capitalist in the product of industry—is by no means so large as workingmen are apt to suppose. To prove this, he cites the example of the cotton industry, with which he is perfectly familiar, and gives a statement of the entire cost of production, from the raising of the cotton to the completion of the cloth, showing how much is paid out at each step of the process for labor on the one hand and for capital on the other. He illustrates his analysis of the industry by a chart, and gives the following as the result of the examination:
"When you buy forty yards of cotton cloth at two dollars and fifty cents, you pay the owner of the mill fifteen cents profit, but you also pay about fifteen cents more to other people for profit—that is, thirty cents profit in all; and you pay two dollars and twenty cents directly for labor" (p. 28). It thus appears that in the cotton business the share of the capitalist is only one eighth of the product, while labor gets the other seven eighths; and, according to Mr. Atkinson, there is no other industry in which the capital is so large in proportion to the product as in this.
The author then proceeds to show that the great improvements in the production that have been made in recent times with the consequent increase of capital, though benefiting the capitalist largely, have benefited the laborer still more. He remarks that in his judgment "there has never been a period in the history of the world in which there have been so many important new inventions or so many applications of previous inventions, all tending to human welfare, as in the last twenty-five years" (p. 109). He adds that during this period, "while prices of the necessaries of life have diminished and while the cost of production has been reduced, the wages or earnings of labor, subject to temporary fluctuations, have been steadily increased." And he concludes that "we are not far away from a period when, either with or without legislation, but, as I myself believe, in spite of meddlesome legislation, the arduous struggle for life will be greatly relieved, both in the time which it will be necessary to give and in the intensity of the work which it will be necessary to apply thereto" (pp. 110, 111). In evidence of these statements he cites a number of statistics showing how great has been the fall in prices in many branches of industry since 1860, while the wages of labor have largely increased.
Mr. Atkinson is strongly opposed to the eight-hour law, holding that the hours of labor can not be permanently reduced except by improvements in production; and this is one of the principal points at issue between himself and Mr. Chamberlin. The latter gentleman, however, in his reply to Mr. Atkinson, takes the ground which many other labor-champions do, that capital and labor are natural enemies; that labor, meaning manual labor, is the sole creator of wealth; with other views of like character and as little foundation, his argument for the laborer's cause is, indeed, far from being a strong one, and his opponent has little difficulty in answering it.
Mr. Atkinson's views are given in a plain colloquial style, but often very apt and expressive. He quotes from Emerson the saying that "mankind is as lazy as it dares to be," and tells his hearers and readers that efficiency in work and economy in expenditure are the only means of acquiring wealth and improving one's condition. He estimates that the American people waste on an average five cents a day for each person, which amounts to a thousand million dollars a year for the whole nation. He affirms that the capitalist is the laborer's friend, not his enemy; and that the prosperity of each is necessary to that of the other. He declares it to be "a great blunder to say that, while the rich are growing richer, the poor are growing poorer; it is only the poor who can't work well or who won't work well, who grow poor while the rich are growing rich in this country. And he adds that "there are two things very much needed in these days: first, for rich men to find out how poor men live; second, for poor men to know how rich men work" (p. 47). Mr. Atkinson's work, if read by those to whom it is specially addressed, can not fail to be useful; and it is to be wished that we had more books of a similar character.
Abuse of Alcoholics by the Healthy. By Stanford E. Chaillé, of Tulane University, Louisiana. Pp. 36.
In this paper, which is a part of the transactions of the American Public Health Association, is given one of the most temperate, candid, and useful estimates of the effects of alcoholic drinks on the system that we remember to have seen. A brief review of the history of the use of spirituous liquors satisfies the author that we have no reason to be discouraged respecting the progress of temperance principles and practice; for it "renders it obvious that for many centuries our forefathers have imbued their descendants with faith in the health-giving virtues of alcoholic indulgence. Who can expect the results of such long-continued convictions and customs to be eradicated easily or promptly, and what wonder is it that men continue to credit alcoholics with many virtues that they do not possess?" With regard to the physiological action of alcohol—"Repeated experiments on robust, healthy men have proved that not even the strongest of these can exceed in a day more than two ounces that is, only four tablespoonfuls without diminishing their capacity for work. . . . Whoever does not die before his time, and yet habitually drinks more than two ounces of alcohol daily, will very surely have to pay for it in pains far harder to bear than those inflicted by payment in cash." The almost certainty that those who indulge in even this quantity will demand more, is the universal temperance argument. The complaint of those who apprehend that drunkenness is increasing is answered by citations, century by century, which show that as a whole the present is decidedly the most temperate age in history. As to remedies for the evils of drunkenness, the author has much faith in prohibition, and believes that local option is as nearly sovereign as we are likely to attain.
Ten Great Events in History. Compiled and arranged by James Johonnot. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1887. Price, 63 cents.
This book is intended for young readers; and its object is not merely to teach history, but also to cultivate certain noble sentiments, such as patriotism and love of liberty. The author holds that "patriotism, or love of country, is one of the tests of nobility of character," and adds that "from the earliest times the sentiment of patriotism has been aroused in the hearts of men by the narrative of heroic deeds, inspired by love of country and love of liberty. This truth furnishes the key to the arrangement and method of the present work" (preface). The historical examples which the author has chosen are, in the main, well adapted to his purpose. Some of them, however, can hardly be called struggles for liberty, however interesting and important in other respects, such, for instance, as the Crusades and the conquest of India. The Crusades especially, though having an interest of their own, and, constituting, in one sense, a great historical event, are chiefly memorable as a stupendous example of superstition and folly.
The most interesting portions of Mr. Johonnot's book are those describing struggles for liberty in modern Europe and in our own country. Of ancient events only one is treated—the victorious contest of the Greeks against the Persians. Coming down to modern times, considerable space is given to the struggles of the Swiss with the Austrians and with Charles of Burgundy; to the defense of Scotland by Bruce and his men; and to the gallant and successful fight of the Dutch and the English with the mighty power of Spain. An account is given of the discovery of America, and of the settlement of the Pilgrim Fathers, and the work is fitly closed by a brief sketch of some of the chief battles of the Revolution.
The work is, as the author states on the title-page, a compilation, and some parts of it are quoted directly from other writers. Some of the authors quoted from are inferior in style to Mr. Johonnot himself, which makes one wish that he had written the whole work with his own pen. The book will doubtless find a place for itself and fill it usefully, notwithstanding the many rivals with which it will have to contend.
Indiana: Department of Geology and Natural History. Fifteenth Annual Report. By Maurice Thompson, State Geologist. Indianapolis. Pp. 359.
This is one of the most comprehensive and compact reports of the whole series. Besides presenting the record of the special work done during the year by the department, Mr. Thompson has sought, in a "Compendium of Geology and Mineralogy," by which this is preceded, to give an outline sketch of all that has been discovered and reported upon by his own corps and by his predecessors in office, so that the volume might, in a certain degree, place the student, who can not get the earlier reports, in a situation fairly to understand the geology of the State. In doing this, he has made a treatise that is readable throughout as well as scientifically acceptable. It is claimed that the work of the department, as a whole, has done more than all other agencies combined to advertise the coal, clay, iron, and building-stone of Indiana, and to direct attention to the peculiar advantages offered by their situation and quality. The reports of the former incumbents of the office, though long since exhausted, are still sought for by intelligent inquirers all over the world; and the present chief of the department has found the answering of letters from outside the limits of the State, as well as within them, touching the results of the surveys, no unimportant part of his official duties. Mr. Thompson's "Compendium" includes sketches of the several geological formations, in their order, which are exposed in the State, from the Hudson River Group to the Coal-measures; an account of the building-stones, of which the oölitic-limestone of the Sub-carboniferous is considered the best in the world; and descriptions of the clays, chalk-beds, glacial deposits, and terminal moraine which "passes into Illinois from Warren and Benton Counties, and into Ohio from Randolph and Wayne Counties," and may be seen in section in railroad-cuttings just south of Lafayette. Attention is called in a special study by S. S. Sorby to the Wabash Arch, a line of disturbance whose general direction is indicated by its name, which, it is believed, may have some connection with the occurrence of natural gas. A paper on the "Origin of the Indiana Flora," considered with reference to localities as well as in general, is contributed by Professor Coulter and Harvey Thompson; Mr. Thompson describes the Post-Pliocene mammals and the developments of natural gas; and Mr. Sorby gives a study of the prehistoric race of the State. The report of the year's special work includes the surveys of thirteen counties or parts of counties in the central and northern central parts of Indiana.
Home Sanitation. By the Sanitary Science Club of the Association of Collegiate Alumnæ. Boston: Ticknor & Co. Pp. 80.
The club which avows the responsibility for this book was organized in November, 1883, for the study of home sanitation. It found, after two years of devotion to this purpose, that the expenditure of time and effort had been "amply repaid by positive and satisfactory results"; and that it had a store of information, derived from the experiences and observations of its members, worthy to be given to the public. This information is embodied, in the form of preliminary statement and questions, in short chapters on the "Situation of the House and Care of the Cellar," "Drainage and Plumbing," "Ventilation," "Heating," "Lighting," "Furnishing," "Clothing," "Food and Drink," and "Sanitary Work for Women." The important part of the text is in the questions, which suggest more than they express or than is conveyed in the statement above them, and "are so framed that an affirmative answer implies a satisfactory arrangement, and also suggest a remedy if the answer is negative." They have been practically tested by the members of the club in their own homes and by other housekeepers, and have been adopted as the basis of a course in sanitary science offered by the Society to Encourage Studies at Home.
Geological Survey of New Jersey. Annual Report of the State Geologist for the Year 1886. By George H. Cook, State Geologist. Trenton: The John L. Murphy Publishing Company. Pp. 254.
The report, which simply records the work done during the year, is arranged under the four heads of "Geographic Surveys," "Geological Surveys," "Economic Geology," and "Miscellaneous Items." The work of the geodetic and topographic surveys, though it has all been under the direction of the State Geologist, has been done at the expense chiefly of the United States Coast and Geodetic and Geological Surveys. The work has been going on for twelve years, and will require two years more for completion. Under it the latitude and longitude have been precisely determined for four hundred and fifty-two points, which stand at an average distance of about twenty-five miles apart. The topographic survey has been rapidly advanced, and has been carried over a larger area than in any previous year, and now covers eighteen hundred and ninety-seven square miles. The results are to be recorded in engraved maps on a scale of one inch to a mile, of which there will be seventeen, twenty-seven by thirty-four inches in size. The contour-lines are drawn on these maps so as to show every change of twenty feet in elevation in the hilly portions of the State, and of ten feet in the more level portions. Another important work in this department has been the fixing of bench-marks for the accurate determination of elevations, which, besides being capable of practical use in many ways, will be serviceable in the future for the detection and measurement of whatever changes of levels may take place. The tides have been made subjects of observation, and show peculiarities, particularly in the bays, which indicate that much is yet to be learned about them. The department of "Geological Surveys" is largely occupied by a close study, by Dr. N. L. Britton, of the "Archæan or Primitive Rocks of Northern New Jersey," illustrated by sections and colored maps, and of their minerals. The "Palæozoic Rocks of the Green Pond Mountain Range" are described by Mr. F. J. H. Merrill; the theory of the Triassic rocks receives further discussion; and the "Yellow Gravel" of the region south of the terminal moraine is the subject of a special report. The department of "Economic Geology" includes the reports of the mines and a republication to meet frequent calls for information, of a special report made in 1876, on the greensand marls. An account is given of the successful drainage of the Great Meadows on the Pequest, in Warren County, and their conversion into excellent farming-lands; and a strong presentment is made of the necessity of draining the meadows of the upper Passaic.
Fourth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Director of the Smithsonian Institution. J. W. Powell, Director. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 532.
The work of the Bureau has been prosecuted on the plan of employing scholars trained in the special researches contemplated, to conduct the necessary investigations and present results for publication. Attention has also been given to promoting and guiding research on the part of collaborators not officially connected with the Bureau, and results of value have been gained in this way. The principal researches mentioned in the present report are mound explorations in West Tennessee and Arkansas, under the direction of Dr. Cyrus Thomas; explorations of cave and cliff dwellings in the canons of New Mexico and Arizona; Mr. Cushing's Zuñi researches; Mr. Victor Mindeleff's researches among the Moki; photographs of aboriginal ruins, by Mr. J. K. Hillers; work in linguistics, by Mr. J. O. Dorsey; Mrs. E. A. Smith, Dr. J. W. Hoffmann, and Dr. Washington Matthews; and the compilation, in the office, of papers embodying the collected results of field-work, in which many of the correspondents of the Bureau have participated. Several of these papers are given as "accompanying papers" to the report. They are an elaborate treatise or "Pictographs of the North American Indians," by Garrick Mallory, which is profusely illustrated; "Pottery of the Ancient Pueblos," "The Ancient Pottery of the Mississippi Valley," "Origin and Development of Form and Ornament in Ceramic Art," all by William H. Holmes; and "A Study of Pueblo Pottery as Illustrative of Zuñi Culture-Growth," by F. H. Cushing. The illustrations to the whole volume include eighty-three full-page plates and five hundred and sixty-five figures in the text.
Proceedings of the American Society of Microscopists. Ninth Annual Meeting. Chautauqua, New York, August 10 to 13,1886. D. S. Kellicott, Secretary. Buffalo, New York. Pp. 243.
This volume contains, besides the accounts of the sessions, reports, and other matters of regular recurrence, twenty-four papers on subjects connected with microscopic science and manipulation. Among the papers of more general interest are the annual address of the president, Thomas J. Burrill, on "Bacteria and Disease"; Mr. R. H. Ward's "Remarks on Making Microscopical Societies Successful," which are of interest to every one concerned in such societies or contemplating the formation of one; Professor H. A. Weber's "Microscopical Examination of Butter and its Adulterations"; Mr. Ernst Gundlach's "Optical Errors and Human Mistakes"; and Mr. Charles E. West's relation of his "Forty Years' Acquaintance with the Microscope and Microscopists."
Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution to July, 1885. Part I. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 996.
Under the operation of an act of Congress permitting the printing of the Smithsonian reports, like those of the heads of departments, previous to presentation to the two Houses, this volume appears earlier than has been usual. It also covers a shorter length of time, or only half of the year. The report reviews the progress of work in all the departments of the Institution; the explorations in which it has been interested, in all parts of North America, with researches in the remains of prehistoric man in parts of France; publications, including Dr. Rau's "Prehistoric Fishing in Europe and North America"; Vols. XXIV and XXV of the "Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge"; the "Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections," in which are included several monographs; the scientific writings of Professor Joseph Henry; the "Report on the Reptiles and Batrachians of North America"; the "Bulletin," and "Proceedings" of the National Museum; and the publications of the National Museum. Information is given concerning international exchanges, and lists of some four thousand foreign correspondents and of the institutions in the United States to which the Smithsonian publications are sent. In the "Appendix" are found the record of scientific progress in 1885, in the several departments of research; various papers relating to anthropology; an "Index to the Literature of Uranium," by H. Carrington Bolton; and a priced list of Smithsonian publications.
Willem Usselinsk, Founder of the Dutch and Swedish West India Companies. By J. Franklin Jameson. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 234, paper. Price, $1.
This memoir is one of the papers of the American Historical Association (Vol. II, No. 3). It is devoted to one of that class of promoters of American settlement to whom the author thinks that less than full justice has been given—"of those who, without themselves having come to this country, or shared in the picturesque adventures of the age of settlement, stood behind all efforts toward colonization, and assisted them in ways more prosaic, but not less efficient, nor less deserving of grateful remembrance—the class of colonial projectors. . . . It is the object of the present essay to relate in sufficient detail to enable its importance to be correctly estimated, the career of a member of this latter class, a man almost unknown to the English-reading public, yet who was, though not directly the founder, at any rate the originator of two of our colonies—that upon the Hudson, and that upon the Delaware." In another place Usselinsk is styled "the Lesseps of the seventeenth century." The materials for the biography have been derived from the books and pamphlets of Usselinsk, his manuscripts, and manuscripts concerning him. The abundance and scope of these sources are illustrated by the copious bibliography which is affixed to the end of the work.
Voice, Song, and Speech. By Lenox Browne and Emil Behnke. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 248.
This is the seventh edition of a work to the merits of which we have already called attention in a notice of a previous edition in the "Monthly" for July, 1884. It owes its origin to the fact that each of the authors—one a surgeon, and the other a teacher—having contributed to the literature of the human voice, both found their views one-sided and needing to be complemented from the experience of the other. They therefore joined to produce a single comprehensive work. In the present edition, as well as in the sixth, the substitution of engravings for the expensive photographs of the larynx and soft palate has made possible a very considerable reduction in price from that of the earlier editions.
Local Government in Canada. By John George Bourinot. Baltimore: N. Murray. Pp. 72. Price, 50 cents.
This is an historical study in the series of Johns Hopkins University. The author, by the public positions he has held, and by the preparation of an account of the "Origin and Growth of Parliamentary Institutions in the Dominion," has enjoyed excellent opportunities for qualifying himself for this special research. His attention was drawn to the subject through the interest awakened by reading the histories of local government in various of our own States, which have appeared in this series. He was convinced that a similar paper on local government in Canada would be of value to students of political science. The political history of the Dominion is divided, for the purposes of the study, into three important epochs: The era of the French régime, from 1608 to 1760; the period of slow growth and accruing experience in the working of representative institutions under British rule, 1760 to 1840; and the period of enlarged political liberties and responsible government, 1840 to 1867. "Since 1867, the various provinces, united as the Dominion of Canada, have entered on a fourth era, pregnant with promise."
Bulletin of the Scientific Association. Peoria, Illinois. 1887. William H. Park, Recording Secretary. Pp. 92.
According to the historical address of Dr. J. T. Stewart, the Association was organized in 1875, as a summer school for the study of the natural sciences, at which Professors Wood, Hyatt, Wilder, and Comstock lectured. Meetings were held monthly, except in summer, for seven years, and afterward weekly. During the period of the society's existence, two hundred and two papers have been read, on a wide range of subjects of scientific interest. The society began with thirteen members, and now has one hundred, while the average attendance upon the meetings has increased from about twelve to one hundred and five. The museum contains more than ten thousand specimens, and the herbarium embraces the entire flora of the Peoria section, "and more," and the records of visitors to the rooms show that interest in the collections is growing fast among the public. Besides a number of papers having a broader scope in discussion, the "Bulletin" contains articles of more special interest on the geology, paleontology, flora, climate, and coleoptera of Peoria and its vicinity, a study of "The Lake as a Microcosm," and a memoir on the "Immigration of Animals and Plants."
Third Annual Report of the Commissioners of the State Reservation at Niagara. Pp. 37.
The commissioners report the reservation nearly clear of obstructions, only two of the old buildings yet remaining on the premises, and one of them to be removed shortly. Improvements have been made in many of the appurtenances of the property, for the convenience of visitors and greater security. Plans were in preparation for the restoration of the scenery of the shore and islands. Some of the fruits of the work of the commission are seen in the improved government of the village of Niagara Falls. A company having been formed to build a railroad along the gorge of the river from below the Falls to the Whirlpool, an act has been secured protecting the reservation against intrusion. The commissioners regret that the whole debris, slope from the Falls to the Whirlpool has not been included within the reservation. The Falls were visited during the excursion season by 187,781 persons coming in excursion trains, and probably as many in regular trains. The stay of the visitors is "longer than in former years." The latest measurements give the rate of recession along the whole contour of the Horseshoe Fall since 1842 as about two and four tenths feet per year. The recession of the American Fall has been slight. The heights above the level of the water in the river are, American Fall, one hundred and sixty-seven feet; Horseshoe Fall, one hundred and fifty-eight feet. It is estimated that more than one thousand species of flowering plants and ferns are native at the Falls or in their neighborhood.
Report of the Commissioner of Education for the Year 1884-'85. By John Eaton. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 848.
The present (the fifteenth) annual report of Commissioner Eaton is the last of the series prepared by him. The year has afforded abundant evidence of the value attached to the annual reports of the Bureau in the demand for copies at home and abroad; and, in consideration of this fact, the Commissioner emphasizes the need of uniformity in the general plan and nomenclature of State and local reports, as a means of facilitating analysis and comparative study. Attention is called to several particulars in respect to school attendance. The actual attendance is undoubtedly increasing, but improvement in respect to regularity is not so decided as could be wished. "One of the chief hindrances to the progress of our common schools is the multiplicity of school districts and of independent local authorities. . . . Wherever these 'petty school sovereignties' have been abandoned, the schools are nourishing; where they are maintained, the reverse is true. Among hopeful indications for the future of the common schools are the efforts for the improvement of the teaching force and for bringing the rural schools under efficient supervision, and the increase of the local school-tax in sections of the country which have hitherto been negligent of that provision." Brief histories are given in the report of "Governmental Provisions for Education," and of the growth of State and local educational reports. Space is given to the discussion of the methods of colleges, and of the development of the university system, and to the subject of industrial training; and the usual full and detailed information is given concerning the schools in the several States; the different classes of schools for special and the higher instruction; and to the record of educational progress in other countries.
The Latest Studies on Indian Reservations. By J. B. Harrison. Philadelphia: Indian Rights Association. Pp. 232.
The author, as a representative of the Indian Rights Association, spent six months in 1886 in visiting the schools at Carlisle and Hampton, and the principal Indian reservations. His purpose was to observe whatever was connected with the condition and character of the schools, farming, home-life, and missionary work, and the general and special relations of the Indians to civilization and their progress therein; the character and efficiency of the administration of affairs; and the quality of Indian land and its adaptation to sustain an agricultural population. This book embodies, in terse language, the results of his observations. The first part of it consists of picturesque descriptive notes of what he saw; the second part, of opinions and reflections suggested to him by it.
Poetry and Philosophy of Goethe. Edited by Marion V. Dudley. Chicago: S. C. Griggs & Co. Pp. 300.
This book comprises the lectures and ex-tempore discussions that were given before the Milwaukee Literary School in August, 1886. They are an "Address of Welcome," by President John Johnston; "Goethe's Wilhelm Meister," by Professor W. T. Harris; "Goethe as a 'Scientist'," by Mr. James MacAlister; "Goethe's Relation to English Literature," by Mr. F. B. Sanborn; "The Divine Comedy and Faust," by Mrs. Caroline K. Sherman; "Mythology of the Second Part of Faust," by Professor D. J. Snider; "The Elective Affinities," by Mrs. M. A. Shorcy; and "What is most valuable to us in German Philosophy and Literature," by Professor W. T. Harris. To these are added "Some Birthday Tributes," including essays on "Goethe as a Man," by Professor W. T. Hewitt; and "Goethe as a Writer, Savant, and Citizen," by Mrs. Horace Rublee; a letter by Goethe, poetical tributes, and an analysis of "The Erl-King."
Miscellaneous Papers relating to Anthropology. From the Smithsonian Report for 1885. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 49.
The first paper in this group "Observations on Stone-Chipping" by George Ercol Sellers, gives the results of the author's personal observations and researches regarding a prehistoric art of which little is known, and adds to our knowledge on the subject. The other papers, each also having its own peculiar interest, are on "Copper Implements from Bayfield, Wisconsin," by Colonel Charles Whittlesey; "Ancient Remains in Ohio," by J. P. MacLean; "A Primitive Store-house of the Creek Indians," by Charles C. Jones, Jr.; "Shell-Heaps and Mounds in Florida," by James Shepard; "Ancient Earthworks in China," by Mark Williams; and a "Plan for American Ethnological Investigation," by the late Henry R. Schoolcraft.
The Doctorate Address delivered at the Semi-Centennial Anniversary of the University of Louisville, Medical Department. By David W. Yandell, M. D. Pp. 26.
Dr. Yandell gives a retrospect of the history of the institution, which was founded in 1817, with brief notices of the many distinguished physicians who have filled chairs of instruction in it. Among these were Dr. Benjamin Silliman, Jr., and Dr. J. Lawrence Smith, who also became famous in general science. A view is also given of the advance that has been made in fifty years in the opportunities for medical instruction. When the university was established, it was the fourth medical school founded west of the Alleghanies. Louisville alone now has as many medical schools, and there are almost as many between the Ohio River and the Pacific Ocean, as the university is years old.
Contributions to the Anatomy of Geococcyx Calfiornianus. By R. W. Shufeldt. Pp. 281, with Four Plates.
Geococcyx is the ground-cuckoo. The author had already published a paper on the genus in 1886. The present memoir, which is based on a specimen obtained in California, may be considered a second installment on the subject. While ornithologists usually place the genera Geococcyx and Coccyzus in the same sub-family, Coccyginæ, the author's examination discloses anatomical characters in his specimen which are essentially different from the corresponding ones as found in the true cuckoos. He therefore proposes for them two sub-families—the Centropodinæ, to contain the ground-cuckoos; and the Cuculinæ for the true cuckoos; these, with the third sub-family, Crotophaginæ, to make up the family Cuculidæ, or North American cuckoos.
List of Astronomical Observatories. By George H. Boehmer. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 16.
The list simply gives the names of the observatories and the places where they are situated, classified as "American" and "Foreign." The arrangement is alphabetical, by the names of the places.
American Jurassic Mammals. By Professor O. C. Marsh. Pp. 20, with Four Plates.
The author, who is in possession of all the known remains of mammals from the Jurassic in this country, had already published several articles descriptive of them; but a large amount of new material has been secured, including representatives of several hundred individuals, and bones of various parts of the skeleton. The fossils, though fragmentary, are usually well preserved; but, as a rule, no two bones of the skeleton are found together. This fact, with the diminutive size of the animals and other circumstances, makes investigation difficult. The first specimens discovered in this country proved to be very near allies of European forms; later ones resembled others described by Owen, but, as the skeletons were more complete, differences appeared. A few American genera have no known representatives in Europe, while some forms found there are unknown here.
Farlow, William G. Vegetable Parasites and Evolution. Salem, Mass.: Salem Press. Pp. 19.
Thomas, Cyrus. Work in Mound Exploration of the Bureau of Ethnology. Washington: Government Printing-Office. Pp. 15.
Willson, F. N., Princeton, N. J. A Completed Nomenclature for the Principal Roulettes. Pp. 15.
Abbott, Helen C. De S., Philadelphia. Plant Analysis as an Applied Science. Pp 35; Plant Chemistry as illustrated in the Production of Sugar from Sorghum. Pp. 16.
Huston, H. A., Director, Lafayette, Ind. The Indiana Signal Service, July, 1887. Pp. 10.
Hay, O. P., Irvington, Ind. A Preliminary Catalogue of the Amphibia of the State of Indiana. Pp. 10. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Indiana. Pp. 23.
Jordan, David S., and Evermann, Barton W. The Food-Fishes of Indiana. Pp. 16.
Parker, Professor H. W., Grinnell, Ia. Fruit and Fruit Culture as related to Health. Pp. 8.
Shufeldt, R. W., M. D. The Skull in the Apaches. Pp. 10.
Weed, Clarence M. Notes on some Illinois Microgasters. Pp. 8.
Godfrey. John, Louisville, Ky. Medicine and Medicine-Men (Poem). Pp 34.
Investigation of the New York City Asylum for the Insane. Report of the State Board of Charities. Pp. 43.
Colonial and International Congress on Inebriety. London. Report of a Reception given to T. D. Crothers, M. D., London. Pp. 15.
Crothers, T. D., M. D., Hartford, Conn. The Alcoholic Question Medically considered. Pp. 5. Temperance, Parties, Politics. Pp. 3.
Iowa State Board of Health, Monthly Bulletin, August, 1887. Pp. 16.
Bulletin of the New England Meteorological Society. June and July, 1887. Pp. 7 each.
The Workhouse, New York City. Report of State Board of Charities. Pp. 15.
Perkins, J. McC. Letters-Patent for Inventions. Boston: Rand, Avery & Co. Pp. 24. 25 cents.
Georgia, Department of Agriculture. Crop Report for August, 1887.
Riley, C. V. United States Department of Agriculture: Division of Entomology. Reports of Practical Work. Pp. 62. The Icerya, or Fluted Scale, otherwise known as the Cottony Cushion-Scale. Pp. 40. Washington: Government Printing-Office.
McGill University, Montreal. Faculty of Medicine. Annual Calendar, 1887-88. Pp. 91.
Vassar Brothers' Institute, Poughkeepsie, New York. Transactions in the Scientific Section. Pp. 282.
Garden City Dairy Company of Chicago. An Abstract of the Oleomargarine Question. Pp. 30.
Turner, J. B., Jacksonville, 111. Differentiation of Energy as the Basis of Philosophy and Religion. Christ and Creeds. Christ and Creeds contrasted. Pp. about 50.
Grove, Sir George. A Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Part XXII. London and New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 130. $1.
Geikie, Archibald. The Teaching of Geography. London and New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 202. 60 cents.
Quackenbos, John D., and others. Physical Geography. Prepared on a New and Original Plan. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 146. $1.60.
Garlanda, Federico. The Fortunes of Words. New York: Lovell & Co. Pp. 225.
Walker, Jerome. Health Lessons. New York.: D Appleton & Co. Pp. 194. 56 cents.
Byeily, W. E. Chauvenet’s Treatise on Elementary Geometry, revised and abridged. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company. Pp. 322. $1.20.
Haddon, Alfred C. An Introduction to the Study of Embryology. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston, Son & Co. Pp. 336.
Proceedings of the United States National Museum, Vol. IX, 1886. Washington. Government Printing-office. Pp. 714, with Twenty-five Plates.
Powell. J. M., Director. Sixth Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey, 1884-'85 Washington: Government Printing-Office Pp. 570.
Carroll Lewis. The Game of Logic. London and New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 96. $1.
Finck, Henry T. Romantic Love and Personal Beauty. London and New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 660. $2.
Paz, Dr. Campos da A Questão dos Vinhos (on the Question of Wines). Rio de Janeiro. Pp. 384.
Ph. Pellin. Catalogue Special des Instruments de Météorologie (Special Catalogue of Meteorological Instruments). Paris, France: Rue de l'Odeon, 21. Pp. 32.
Nelson, Dr. Wolfred, of Montreal. Aperçu de quelques Difficultés a vaincre dans la Construction du Canal de Panama (Summary of some of the Difficulties to be overcome in the Construction of the Panama Canal). Paris, France: T. Symonds, 90 Rue Rochechouart. Pp. 71.