Popular Science Monthly/Volume 33/August 1888/Literary Notices

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A History of Political Economy. By J. K. Ingram, LL.D. With preface by Prof. E. J. James, Ph.D. New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 15 + 250. Price, $1.50.

The author of this book is the writer of the article "Political Economy" in the latest edition of the "Encyclopædia Britannica," and the book is, for the most part, a reproduction of that Article. Prof. James, in his preface, characterizes the present treatise as "the first serious attempt by a properly qualified English writer to present a view of the progress of economic thought," and adds that it "will compare favorably with any work of similar compass in any other language." The book is designed to aid the mode of studying this science which is insisted on by the so-called "historical school" of political economists lately arisen. It aims to trace the successive economic doctrines of the past, in connection with the conditions of the time in which each one appeared. Passing quickly over the economic thought of ancient and mediæval times, the author enters upon the modern period, which he divides into three phases. In the first phase, or during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the "Catholico-feudal system" was breaking down, while a new order, the commercial, was rising beneath it. In the second phase, the collapse of the mediaeval social structure is followed by the advance of the central government, which, while promoting the growth of commerce, levies tribute upon it to obtain the necessary supplies for military operations. The conditions of this time give rise to the "mercantile school" of political economy. In the last phase—during the eighteenth century—a spirit of individualism arose, and the dogma of laisser faire was received with general favor. This tendency, in the absence of the moral discipline partly established in the middle ages, led to the domination of national selfishness and private cupidity. But the rising elements—science and industry—are bringing with them a discipline more effective than the old, and the effort to press forward in the path which they point out gives the character to the period in which we live. The author then proceeds to indicate that the respective features of the second and third phases are reflected in the contemporary economic speculation; those of the first, he says, can scarcely be said to find an echo in any literature of the time. He gives an exposition of the mercantile doctrine, with comments on each important economic treatise which appeared during the prevalence of the tendencies which formed the mercantile school. In treating the doctrine of the third modern phase, or the system of natural liberty, the author takes up first the economic writers of France, Italy, Spain, and Germany before Adam Smith, and follows these with an extended review of Smith's teachings. The later economists of England and the Continent next receive attention, and a few pages are devoted to those of America. The rise of the historical school in the chief countries of Europe and in America is then traced. In conclusion, the author says that political economy has been heretofore governed to its detriment by the methods of metaphysics, and that its progress depends on the substitution of scientific methods; that it must be studied in its relations with the science of sociology which includes it; and that the doctrine of right which lay at the basis of the system of "natural liberty" must be replaced by a new doctrine of duty regulating the co-operation of each class and member of the community.

Three Cruises of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Steamer Blake, in the Gulf of Mexico, in the Caribbean Sea, and along the Atlantic Coast of the United States, from 1877 to 1880. By Alexander Agassiz. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. Two vols. Pp. 314 and 220. Price, $8.

The author styles this work "a contribution to American Thalassography," meaning by that word the science which treats of oceanic basins. While we have had narratives of explorations with general summaries of results and special treatises and papers on particular points, which may altogether cover the whole subject, there has previously been no American work treating it comprehensively and systematically; although the fruits of English research have been embodied in the masterly books of Wyville Thomson and Wild. The expeditions of the Blake were by no means of minor importance among the enterprises for investigation of the deep seas. They covered a less extent of territory than the Challenger Expedition, but the region in which they operated is among the most interesting divisions of the ocean in the lessons which it affords concerning the relations of currents and temperature with the development and distribution of organic life; and its well-defined limitation made a thorough and nearly exhaustive survey all the more feasible. That the survey has been fruitful in results, in both the physical and biological departments, is attested by this careful and well-arranged presentation of the facts which were learned from it. Condensing the narrative into a very few pages, the author goes at once to the consideration of the immense variety of facts which the expeditions have added to knowledge, separating them according to their classes, and relating those of each class topically. Mr. Agassiz may call himself a veteran in thalassographic work, for his connection with it began in 1849, when, as a boy, he accompanied Prof. Agassiz in his cruise of the Bibb off Nantucket. He afterward, in 1851, served as the professor's aid in his survey of the Florida Reef. Afterward he reported upon a part of the collections made by Pourtales in the Bibb in deep water in 1867-68. Since then he been almost continuously engaged on deep-sea work. In the brief chapter in which is embodied the narrative of the expeditions are given some observations, with pertinent illustrations, on the physiognomy and structure of the smaller West India Islands. In the first volume, after a full account of the equipment of the Blake for its work, including Sigsbee's improvement in sounding-apparatus, and a "Historical Sketch of Deep-Sea Work," the characteristic features are general discussions of the fundamental facts and principles ascertained in the research. The chapter on "The Florida Reefs" embodies a study of the manner in which the peninsula of Florida and its hemming reefs originated and have come to their present condition—in which Darwin's theory of coral reefs is found not to apply. Next is considered the "Topography of the Eastern Coast of the North American Continent," of which only the most general features were known before the explorations of the Blake. The further presentation of the general principles comprises the discussion of such topics as the "Relations of the American and West Indian Fauna and Flora"; "The Permanence of Continents and of Oceanic Basins"; "Deep-Sea Formations"; "The Deep-Sea Fauna"; "The Pelagic Fauna and Flora"; "Temperatures of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and Western Atlantic"; "The Gulf Stream"; "Submarine Deposits"; and the "Physiology of Deep-Sea Life." All these papers are of great physiographical importance, and present at considerable length and in detail the results obtained by the Blake expeditions, supplemented by those derrivedfrom the Challenger and other investigations. The second volume is occupied with fuller and specific descriptions of the various forms of deep-sea life obtained by the surveys and dredgings, beginning with a summary review of the "West Indian Fauna," and continued with chapters, illustrated by original figures, either prepared for this work or borrowed from the office of the Coast Survey, on "The Fishes," "Crustacea," "Worms," "Mollusks," "Echinoderms," "Acalephs," "Polyps," "Rhizopods," and "Sponges." The essentials to every good book, a list of figures and an index, are not forgotten, but are given in a full and satsfactory style.

American Fishes. By G. Brown Goode. Illustrated. New York: Standard Book Co. Pp. 496. Price, $5.

The rule which has guided Prof. Goode in selecting, from the 1,750 species indigenous to our waters, the fishes to be described in this book, is to include "every North American fish which is likely to be of interest to the general reader, either because of its gameness or its economic uses." The. author gives the physical features of each, fish, tells its range and season, its habits in regard to feeding, migration, and breeding,, with something about methods of capture,, and value as food. Mingled with these facts is much curious information about the different names of fish in different places, many exciting fishing adventures, and appropriate quotations in prose and verse from Izaak Walton and other writers, both old and recent. "This volume has been prepared," says Prof. Goode, in his prologue,, "for the use of the angler, the lover of nature, and the general reader. It is not intended for naturalists, and the technicalities of zoölogical description have therefore been avoided. . . . . A figure of almost every species discussed is presented, by the aid of which any one interested in fishes can determine the correct zoölogical name of the form before him." To prevent a possible mistake as to the scope of the work it may be well to repeat the author's caution that it contains "no discussions of rods, reels, lines, hooks, and flies, and no instructions concerning camping out, excursions, routes, guides, and hotels." The field occupied, however, is wide enough to make the book interesting to a large circle of readers, and its reliability may be inferred from the author's intimate acquaintance with the subject, which made him the first choice as successor to Prof. Baird in the office of Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries. His own work, too, has been supplemented by that of the late Commissioner, and of Dr. Jordan, Dr. Bean, Capt. Collins, Mr. Earll, and Mr. Stearns. The classification followed is the system elaborated and advocated by Dr. Gill.

The Story of Creation: A Plain Account of Evolution. By Edward Clodd. Illustrated. London and New York: Longmans, Green & Co. Pp. 2-12. Price, $1.75.

The purpose of this book is to give a view of the doctrine of evolution throughout the realm of Nature, and of the kind of evidence which supports it. The book is divided into two parts—descriptive and explanatory. In the former, the relations of matter and power in the universe, and the chief features of the solar system are touched upon, while the past life-history of the earth and an account of the present life forms are given more at length. In the explanatory part, much the same order is followed. Beginning with the universe, the accepted theory of its becoming and growth is stated; then follows a discussion of the origin of life, after which the question of the origin of species is taken up, and the proofs of the derivation of species are given. Finally, the author enters the field of social evolution, and shows the application of the doctrine to psychology, society, language, art, science, morals, and theology. He insists on a distinction between morals and theology, but does not Join issue in the vexed question of the relations of science and religion. The style of the text is popular and picturesque, and the volume is abundantly illustrated.

The Geological Evidences of Evolution. By Prof. Angelo Heilprin. Illustrated. Philadelphia: The Author. Pp. 99.

In this brief sketch, which is extended from a discourse delivered at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Prof. Heilprin presents a popular view of some of the evidences in support of organic transmutation afforded by geology and paleontology. He shows first that in geologic time "there has been a steady advance in the type of structural organization from first to last—not a necessary elimination of forms of low degree, but an overbalancing of these by forms of a more complicated or higher grade of structure." He then traces back the history of several groups of animals, showing that by gradual modification they are derived from ancestral forms which are connected also with other and very dissimilar modern groups. In the greater part of this discussion, data drawn from the vertebrate animals are used, but the author adds, in closing, a few cases drawn from the mollusks, which present equally striking proofs of modification. The book is exceedingly well adapted to promote a general intelligent belief in the doctrine of evolution.

In Nesting Time. By Olive Thorne Miller. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co, Pp. 275. Price, $1.25.

This volume belongs to a class which is happily becoming more common than formerly, namely, accounts of observations of nature. The habits and actions of birds, both free and in confinement, form the subject of the book, and the modest introductory note claims for the sketches only that they are genuine studies from life, not that the facts are all new to science. The glimpses at bird-life which the author gives have a freshness and sprightliness that make them intensely fascinating reading, while they have also an instructive value due to their revelations of bird habits and character.

A treatise on The Fundamental Principles of Chemistry has been written by Prof. Robert Galloway of London (Longmans), which differs widely from the common textbooks on chemistry. The author holds that the ordinary chemical works intended for beginners follow too much the cyclopædic plan of great reference books, and he quotes Prof. J. P. Cooke as saying of such works: "To the great mass of learners the study of these text-books is uninteresting and profitless, for before the student is made familiar through long laboratory practice with the materials and processes described, such a book is little more to him than a catalogue of names, to which he attaches no significance." The present volume is more like Prof. Cooke's "New Chemistry" than any other chemistry with which American teachers are acquainted. It is a presentation of principles without much descriptive matter. The first part of the hook is devoted to physical properties and forces, merging into chemical physics, which prepares the way for the course on pure chemistry that follows. "In the teaching of this portion of the work," says the author, "the exercises, illustrations, etc., have been selected to bear on the after-course and on chemical operations generally. Thus, in explaining porosity, filtration is illustrated and taught practically; the collecting and storing of gases, under impenetrability; the determination of boiling-points, fractional distillation, etc., under heat; the action of charcoal and dyeing, under adhesion, etc.; so that when the purely chemical portion of the work is reached the student will not be perplexed and impeded when reference has to be made to physical properties and physical forces. The principles are taught by experimental and arithmetical exercises and examination questions. Answers to many of the exercises are given at the end of the work." The book is suitable for students in colleges and high schools. It is strange to see a work of this character without an index.

The Lackawanna Institute of History and Science has issued a first volume of its Proceedings and Collections. This society was organized in the winter of 1885-'86 at Scranton, Pa., for the promotion and diffusion of historic and scientific knowledge, especially that relating to the vicinity. The locality affords an exceptional amount of material for scientific study, for in addition to its fauna, flora, and minerals, it has the coal measures with their wealth of fossils, and it lies within the area traversed by the ice of the glacial epoch. The present volume contains a lecture on "Glaciation: its Relations to the Lackawanna-Wyoming Region," delivered before the institute by John C. Brauner. Professor of Geology in the University of Indiana, and "A Preliminary List of the Vascular Plants of the Lackawanna and Wyoming Valleys," compiled by William R. Dudley, of Cornell University. Following these are the proceedings and by-laws of the society.

Lessons in Geometry is a small text-book by G. A. Hill (Ginn, 70 cents), prepared for those who desire a short and easy introductory course in geometry, adapted to pupils between the ages of twelve and sixteen. In these lessons large use is made of exercises in drawing to scale. The training in consecutive reasoning is introduced very gradually, and is confined mainly to the laws of equal triangles and a few of their simple applications. As here presented, geometry is intended to be studied before algebra. The contents of the book may form a course for two years or may be abridged so as to be covered in one year.

The first number of Science and Photography (Jas. W. Queen & Co., Philadelphia, $1 a year) has come to hand. It comprises articles bearing on various points in the practice of photography and a few papers on other scientific matters.

The Annual Report of the State Geologist of New Jersey for 1887 (G. H. Cook, State Geologist, New Brunswick) is only a business statement of the affairs of the survey, the near completion of the work making it unadvisable to go into detail as fully as has been the case in former annual reports. The first part of the final report may be expected in a short time. It will be upon the physical geography of New Jersey, and will embody in its texts the results of the geodetic, topographic, and magnetic surveys. The main work of the year was given to the completion of the topographical survey and maps of the State. Some field work was done in the exploration and study of the archæan rocks in Sussex County, examinations were made of the glacial and terrace deposits of the Delaware above the Water Gap, a careful and detailed survey was made of the zinc-mines of Franklin Furnace for the purpose of making a model of the vein, and attention was given to the questions of water supply and drainage. A fine topographical map of the State by C. C. Vermeule accompanies the present volume. The survey and its documents are attracting increasing attention from citizens of the State.

The Fifteenth Annual Report on the Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota, by Prof. N. H. Winchell (Minneapolis, Minn.), has been issued. It covers the year 1886 and comprises a report by Prof. A. Winchell on the work of the party under his charge, a report by Prof. N. H. Winchell largely taken up with the geology of the iron-bearing rocks of northern Minnesota, and several brief papers. The volume is illustrated with geological maps and many structural figures.

Dr. M. E. Wadsworth was in charge of a surveying party during a part of the summer of 1886, but devoted the rest of the season to laboratory work, the result of which is published as Bulletin No. 2 of the Minnesota survey, entitled Preliminary Description of the Peridotyles, Gabbros, Diabases, and Andesytes of Minnesota. The paper comprises general descriptions of the Minnesota rocks belonging to these groups, with a great many special descriptions of specimens collected in the northern part of the State.

Bulletin No. 4 of the survey is a Synopsis of the Aphididæ of Minnesota, prepared by O. W. Oestlund, A general description of the Aphididæ and a bibliography of the family are prefixed to the synopsis, and a list of North American plants with the names of species known to attack them is appended. The species of plant-lice treated in this paper were mostly collected along the Mississippi River; but the author has also added notes from other localities, so that he considers the report as applying to the whole State, except the pine district in the northern part.

A quarterly journal called The Climatologist began life with the number for January (P. O. Box 274, Washington; 50 cents a year). Its chief object will be to present information as to the climatic conditions of various regions and resorts with especial regard to their influence on the preservation of health and the cure of disease. Various sanitary subjects will also come within its scope.

The instructors, pupils, and friends of Adam Todd Bruce, Ph. D., have issued a quarto memorial volume containing his thesis entitled Observations on the Embryology of Insects and Arachnids, written for his examination for the degree of Ph. D. Prefixed to the thesis is a sketch of the scientific work of Dr. Bruce by Prof. W. K. Brooks. This young biologist graduated from the University of New Jersey in 1881. He obtained the degree of Ph. D. at the Johns Hopkins University in June, 1886, and was appointed an instructor there in September following. He died in March, 1887. The volume contains six plates illustrating the thesis and a portrait of the author.

Inebriety: its Etiology, Pathology, Treatment, and Jurisprudence, by Norman Kerr, a physician, whose titles and offices indicate that he is an expert in the study of the subject (Philadelphia, P. Blakiston, Son & Co.), has been prepared in response to numerous inquiries which have been addressed to the author regarding the best course to be adopted in dealing with the inebriate. The one common feature of most of these inquiries "has been the non-recognition of a disease element in inebriety, and the acknowledgment of only a moral depravity." Dr. Kerr takes an opposite view, and holds, with Dr. Crothers, of Hartford, that inebriety is a disease, in the face of which the victim is helpless, and that it can be cured only by suitable medical treatment and regimen. In elaboration of this view, he has prepared the present full, methodical treatise on the subject in all its aspects, illustrated with copious citations from his own and other professional experience and observation. The disease inebriety having been described as allied to insanity, five chapters are given to the consideration of its various forms; four to its etiology, with special studies of its predisposing and its exciting causes; two to its pathology; five to its treatment, which, as the disease is a complex one, is necessarily intricate, and is most successful in special homes where the surroundings can all be made favorable; and five to its medico-legal aspects. Under the last heading it is very evident that the legal treatment upon the theory that inebriety is a disease must be quite different from the present system, which regards it as a vice.

The Journal of Physiology (Cambridge Scientific Instrument Co., England) presents in No. 1 of Vol. IX three papers, with notes of proceedings. The first paper, by C. A. MacMunn, is "On the Chromatology of some British Sponges," and consists of examinations of the coloring matters in twelve species of sponge from Tenby. In ten of them ho found chlorophyll, differing in no respect worth mentioning from vegetable chlorophyll; he also found lipochromes in nearly all, and a histohæmatin in seven. As to what use chlorophyll is to sponges. Dr. MacMunn suggests that it may sift out light-rays of a certain wave-length to be utilized in the synthesis of the carbohydrates, etc. The second paper is by G. N. Stewart, and deals with "The Effect of Stimulation on the Polarization of Nerve," and the third is by W. Griffiths, "On the Rhythm of Muscular Response to Volitional Impulses in Man." The third paper presents comparisons of myograms taken from voluntarily contracting muscles, and the conclusions obtained with different muscles, different persons, different weights, different times of contraction, etc.

The second number of the Journal of Morphology (Ginn) contains five papers, viz.: "Oökinesis," by C. O. Whitman; "The Embryology of Petromyzon," by Dr. W. Ct Scott; "A Contribution to the Embryology of the Lizard," by Dr. Henry Orr; "The Fœtal Membranes of the Marsupials," by Dr. H. F. Osborn; and "Some Observations on the Mental Powers of Spiders," by George W. and Elizabeth G. Peckham. The papers are illustrated with ten plates and several diagrams.

The first part of Professor W. Preyer's observations upon the development of The Mind of the Child, which relates to the senses and the will, has been translated for D. Appleton & Co.'s International Education Series, by H. W. Brown, of the State Normal School, at Worcester, Mass., an institution in which the students are taught themselves systematically to make and record observations upon the children whom they meet or come in contact with. The importance of the subject to teachers hardly needs enlarging upon; for it is obviously one of the most essential qualifications they should possess for their work that they should be acquainted with the nature of the object which they are to operate upon, whose continued development they are to aid. Of all the series of observations that have been recorded on the mind of the child, those of Professor Preyer have been probably the most thorough and systematic, and are described in the most lucid manner. He kept a complete diary of all childish acts and the acquisition of new powers from the birth of his son to the end of his third year; occupied himself with him at least three times a day, guarding him, as far as possible, against such training as children usually receive, and found nearly every day some fact of mental genesis to record. The substance of that diary has passed into this book. The record is enriched by notes of observations on other children and contributions from other persons. The whole forms a valuable foundation on which teachers may base their own individual studies, and a guide for the right conducting of them.

A paper on European Schools of History and Politics, read by Mr. Andrew D. White at the Johns Hopkins University in 1879, has been revised, and is published in the "Studies," edited by Prof. H. B. Adams. Although the editor puts only Mr. White's name on the title-page of the pamphlet, and runs the title of his paper as a heading over all the pages, scarcely half of the pamphlet is occupied by Mr. White's paper. The other contributions are "Modern History at Oxford," by W. J. Ashley; "Recent Impressions of the École Libre," by T. K. Worthington; and "Preparation for the Civil Service in German States," by L. Katzenstein, with a "List of Books upon the German Civil Service." Mr. White gives an account of the recent growth of the department of history and politics at some of the centers of European instruction, and then applies this European experience in discussing the need in our own country for men trained in these subjects.

In Mary F. Hyde's Practical Lessons in the Use of English, book two (D. C. Heath & Co.), the sound plan adopted in the former volume, of bringing only correct forms to the attention of the pupil, is adhered to. The exercises are a step more advanced in character than those of the former book, and are illustrated by selections from the works of Longfellow, Whittier, and Lucy Larcom. The aim observed throughout the work has been to lead the pupil to see for himself, to cultivate the powers of observation at every step; and, instead of discussing why certain forms are right and others wrong, to train him habitually to use the right expression.

D. C. Heath & Co. have added a second part of Mrs. Julia McNair Wright's Seaside and Wayside to the series of Nature Readers. It is substantially a continuation of the plan developed in the first part, and describes a walk with the child-pupil by the sea-shore and along the road, with easy conversations concerning the nature, habits, life-history, etc., of the living creatures which the pair meet. These living creatures in the present volume are ants, earthworms, flies, beetles, barnacles, jelly-fish, starfish, and dragonflies. The purpose is to lead the child by pleasant steps to the study of nature, and interest him in it. The talks are fitly illustrated.

The Report of the New York State Superintendent of Public Instruction for the year ending August, 1887, has been issued. The view of the condition of public education in the State, given by the Hon. A. S. Draper, the superintendent, is not characterized by that unalloyed complacency which pervades the generality of educational reports, but is a vigorous statement of what the schools of the State need for their further advancement. Among the special work of the year which he reports are the preparation of a new "Code of Public Instruction," the obtaining of a series of designs for schoolhouses, and an investigation in regard to compulsory education in other States and countries, made by Sherman Williams. The report on this investigation is printed with the superintendent's report. The usual statistics are given in the exhibits appended to the report.

The second "Monograph" of the Industrial Education Association (New York) is a brief paper on Education in Bavaria, by Sir Philip Magnus. It describes each kind of school maintained in that kingdom, and gives other general information on the organization of the Bavarian educational system.

No. 2 of The American Journal of Psychology, edited by Prof. G. Stanley Hall (N. Murray, $3 a year) contains an article on "The Relation of Neurology to Psychology," by Henry H. Donaldson, Ph. D., in which he summarizes certain recent advances in neurology, with a view to indicating what the field is and what some of the results are. There is also an article on "Insistent and Fixed Ideas," by Edward Cowles, M. D., which is illustrated by a detailed history of a complicated case of mental derangement. A paper by Joseph Jastrow, Ph. D., entitled "A Critique of Psycho-Physic Methods" deals with the methods and interpretation of such psycho-physic experiments as can be utilized for establishing Weber's law.

The Heart of the Creeds, or Historical Religion in the Light of Modern Thought, by Arthur Wentworth Eaton (G. P. Putnam's Sons), is an attempt to make clear the universal meaning in the rites and symbols of Christian faith, and to aid the believer in discriminating between what is necessary and what is accidental in religion. It is written from the orthodox point of view, and predominantly from that of the Protestant Episcopal Church. In this sense are considered the topics of "God," "Man," "Christ," "The Creeds," "The Bible," "The Church," "The Sacraments," "The Liturgy," and "The Future Life," each article being preceded, as in a sense of foretaste of what is to come, by a selection of terse expressions of thought on the subject by representative Christian writers of all ages,


G. P. Putnam's Sons have added to their series of "English History by Contemporary Writers," of which we have already noticed the first two volumes, Simon of Montfort and his Cause, by the Rev. J. Hutton, and Strongbow's Conquest of Ireland, by Francis Pierrepont Barnard. The former volume is made up chiefly of selections from the writings of Robert of Gloucester, Matthew Paris, and other contemporary chroniclers, and the latter from the works of Gerald of Barri and several other documents, including the Anglo-Norman poem on the conquest known as "Regan." This series is under the general editorial direction of Mr. F. York Powell, and aims at so setting forth the facts of English national history from contemporary documents, letters, and papers of all sorts, as to send the reader to the best original authorities, and at the same time to give a living picture of the effect produced upon each generation by the political, religious, social, and intellectual movements in which it took part, and thus to bring him as close as may be to the mind and feelings of the times he is reading about.

A work on finance, by Dr. Luigi Cossa, has been translated, and appears under the title Taxation: its Principles and Methods (Putnam, $1), with an introduction and notes by Horace White. It is essentially a volume of definitions and classifications, enumerating in short paragraphs the kinds of public expenditure, the sources of public income, the forms of property on which taxes are laid, the varieties of public debt, and the ways of managing it. There is little discussion of policies in the body of the book, though the chief reasons for and against certain financial methods are briefly stated. Mr. White has, however, inserted discussions on taxation of mortgages, of personal property, of corporations, of land values, and taxation on consumption. Prof. Cossa's bibliography of the science of the finances is reproduced with additions, and compilations of the tax systems of New York and Pennsylvania are appended.

The Modern Distributive Process, by John B. Clark and Franklin H. Giddings, is composed of four articles, two by each author, contributed to the "Political Science Quarterly." The titles of the papers are "The Limits of Competition," "The Persistence of Competition," Profits under Modern Conditions," and "The Natural Rate of Wages." They are studies of the new conditions of the distribution of wealth resulting from the interference with competition caused by pools, trusts, labor unions, etc., and aim to show how much of the Ricardian theory of distribution persists in this new stage of economic evolution.

A fourth edition (revised) of Constitutional History and Political Development of the United States, by Simon Sterne (Putnam, $1.25), has just appeared. It is a popular work, consisting of "a sketch of the Constitution of the United States as it stands in text, and as it is interpreted by the Supreme Court, accompanied by a history of the political controversies which resulted in the formation of and changes in that instrument, together with the presentation of the actual situation of political parties and questions, which, in their turn, may produce constitutional changes." In the new edition, part of the book has been rewritten, and addenda have been supplied bringing the constitutional history and political changes of the nation from 1882 down to the end of 1887.

There are many persons who will be enabled to transact their business more securely by means of Hints from a Lawyer, a little manual by Edgar A. Spencer (Putnam, $1.25). Its object is to present the laws and methods relating to the care of property, the investment of money, the distribution of estates, and to marriage and divorce. It aims also to instruct the reader as to when the lawyer's counsel should be sought, and how such counsel can be best utilized. A large part of the text is in the form of questions such as a client would ask a lawyer, with the appropriate answers. It is adapted to all the States.



Association for Moral and Spiritual Instruction. Second Unitarian Church, Brooklyn. Pp. 16.

Baltimore Manual Training School. Fourth Annual Catalogue. Pp. 59.

Bellamy, Edward. Looking Backward. Boston: Ticknor & Co. Pp. 470. 50 cents.

Bell, W. 8. The French Revolution. New York: Truth-Seeker Company. Pp. 81. 25 cents.

Büchner. Dr. Louis. Materialism. New York: Truth-Seeker Company. Pp. 28.

Clark, Dr. Daniel. The Public and the Doctor in Relation to the Dipsomaniac. Toronto, Canada. Pp. 20.

Cooper Union. Twenty-ninth Annual Report of the Trustees. Pp. 64.

Cornell University. Bulletin of the Agricultural Experiment Station. Pp. 8.

Davis, J. R. A. A Text-Book of Biology. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston, Son & Co. Pp. 462. $4.

Denslow, Van Buren. Principles of the Economic Philosophy of Society, Government, and Industry. Cassell & Co. Pp. 782. $3.50.

Eagle Sanitary and Cremation Co. George H. Warner, P. O. Box 1040, New York.

Fellows, G. S. "Loisette" Exposed. New York: G. S. Fellows & Co. Pp. 224. 25 cents.

Foster, Rev. John O. Life Sketches and Speeches of Gen. Clinton B. Fisk. Chicago: Woman's Temperance Publication Association. Pp. 108, with portrait. 25 cents.

Giddings, Franklin H., Springfield, Mass. The Sociological Character of Political Economy. Pp. 19.

Gilbert, C. K. Changes of Level of the Great Lakes. Pp. 12.

Gould, S. C. Manchester, N. H. Bibliography of the Polemic Problem, What is the Value of π? Pp. 82.

Grabfleld, J. P., and Burns, P. S. Chemical Problems. Boston: D. C. Heath & Co. Pp. 87.

Guernsey, Alice M. Programme for an Entertainment in Behalf of the Temperance Temple. Chicago: Woman's Temperance Publication Association. Pp. 24.

Harkness, William. The Progress of Science as exemplified in the Art of Weighing and Measuring. Washington: U. S. Naval Observatory. Pp. 48.

Hemiup, Maria Remington, Geneva, N. Y. Law of Heat. Pp. 120.

Henry, M. Charles. Sur divers Points d'Histoire des Mathématiques (On Various Points of the History of Mathematics.) Rome. Pp. 17.

Hill. David J. The Social Influence of Christianity. Boston: Silver, Burdett & Co. Pp 231. $1.25.

Holden, Edward 8. Hand-Book of the Lick Observatory. San Francisco: The Bancroft Company. Pp. 135.

Hopkins, H. R., M. D., Buffalo. The Relations of Mind and Body. Pp. 7.

Hydrographic Office, Navy Department. Pilot-Chart of the North Atlantic Ocean for June. Sheet.

Industrial Educational Association, New York. Reports, 1888. Pp. 24.

Ingersoll, Col. R. G. The Stage and the Pulpit. New York: The Truth-Seeker Company. Pp. 12.

Judge Publishing Company. Napoleon Smith. Pp. 202. 50 cents.

Judge's Young Folks' Monthly. New York: Judge Publishing Company. Pp. 24. 15 cents. $1.50 a year.

Longshore, T. E. Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Truth-Seeker Company. Pp. 13.

Mariager, Peder. Pictures of Hellas. Translated by Mary J. Safford. New York: Wm. S. Gottsberger. Pp. 318.

Morris, Charles. The Aryan Race. Chicago: S. O. Griggs & Co. Pp. 347. $1.50.

Müller, Max. The Science of Thought. Chicago: Open-Court Publishing Co. Pp. 28. 75 cents.

Nebraska, University of. Catalogue and Register, 1887-'88 Pp. 112.

Oswald. Felix L. The Bible of Nature. New York: The Truth-Seeker Company. Pp. 240. $1.

Pennsylvania College of Dental Surgery, Philadelphia. Twenty-third Annual Announcement. Pp. 16.

Philosophical Society of Washington. Bulletin. Vols. IX, X. Smithsonian Edition. Vol. X. Society's Edition.

Pickering, Edward C. Second Annual Report on Photographic Study of Stellar Spectra. Pp. 8, with 2 Plates.

Quick, M. W., Titusville, Pa. Modem Speculation. Pp. 84.

Ripley, Chauncey, University of New York, Law Department. Address on Presentation of Memorial Portrait of John N. Pomeroy, etc. Pp. 25.

Starr, Dr. Elmer, Buffalo, N. Y. Photographing the Interior of the Living Human Eye. Pp. 5.

Stockham, G. H., M.D., Oakland, Cal. Temperance and Prohibition. Pp. 131. $1.

Todd, J. E. Directive Coloration in Animals. Pp. 7.

University of Illinois. Agricultural Experimental Station. Bulletin No. 1. May, 1888. Pp. 13.

Washburn, L. K. Religious Problems. New York: The Truth-Seeker Company. Pp. 23.

Wolff, Alfred R. Efficiency of Mechanical Engineering Schools. Pp. 7.

Wright. G. Frederick. The Age of the Ohio Gravel Beds. Pp. 9.

Wright, Rev. T. F. The Realities of Heaven. Philadelphia: William H. Alden. Pp. 120.

Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania. Thirty-ninth Annual Announcement. Pp. 24.

Woman's Medical College of the New York Infirmary. Twentieth Annual Catalogue and Announcement. Pp. 20.