Popular Science Monthly/Volume 33/June 1888/Literary Notices

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The Religious Sentiments of the Human Mind. By Daniel Greenleaf Thompson, author of "A System of Psychology," "The Problem of Evil," etc. London and New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1888.

In the volume before us, Mr. Thompson has entered upon a fruitful field of thought and discussion—one, moreover, which requires great tact and delicacy in its cultivation if the author would secure the sympathetic and respectful attention of his readers. In this respect Mr. Thompson has been notably successful. His treatment of his topic is calm, temperate, philosophical, free from bias, appealing to reason rather than to theological or anti-theological prejudices. While his discussion of the religious problem is entirely frank, manly, and unconventional, it is also duly considerate of those conceptions which he is compelled to discredit and oppose. Some of his conclusions will, nevertheless, probably surprise not only those who are conservative adherents of the Christian faith, but also those who have accepted agnostic or radical views.

Our author defines religion as "the aggregate of those sentiments in the human mind arising in connection with the relations assumed to subsist between the order of Nature (inclusive of the observer) and a postulated supernatural." His use of the term "supernatural" appears somewhat misleading, on account of the character of the antithesis popularly assumed to subsist between "Nature" and the "supernatural." By the "supernatural" is commonly understood a region beyond the visible universe of law, peopled by arbitrary intelligences which may descend into the natural order, and interrupt its sequence, either for good or for ill. Mr. Thompson's "supernatural," on the contrary, is clearly neither more nor less than the philosophical "unknowable"—the ultimate mystery lying behind phenomena, the only possible knowledge of which is a negative apprehension.

We might question also whether this definition is sufficiently inclusive. How, for example, can Mr. Thompson consistently assign a religious character to positivism, which finds its object of worship wholly within the natural order of the world; or to Dr. Abbot's "scientific theism," which rejects not only the popular notion of the supernatural, but also the Spencerian "unknowable," basing its worship upon the knowledge of an infinitely relational and absolutely knowable universe? Mr. Thompson, indeed, apparently recognizes positivism as "the religion of social immortality," asserting that "the doctrine of deity characteristically belonging to this system of belief is essentially pantheistic." Comteism, however, expressly repudiates all cosmic implications in the object of its worship—its Grand Être being simply organic humanity. Even pantheism, as limited to the Cosmos, does not imply supernaturalism. Rather, as in the words of Goethe, it repudiates it:

"What were the God who sat outside to scan
The spheres that 'neath his finger circling ran?
God dwells within, and moves the world and molds,
Himself and Nature in one form infolds."

Mr. Thompson argues, indeed, with great acuteness and force, that "a postulated supernatural is conditional for all knowledge whatsoever." Those who accept his psychology will doubtless assent to this statement. A primary definition of religion, however, it would appear to us, should be broad enough to cover all philosophical theories.

Parts I and II ("Religion and Religious Sentiments," and "Religious Sentiments in Relation to Knowledge") are devoted chiefly to definition, preliminary explanation, and the development of the psychological basis of the argument. As this has been treated in extenso in the author's "System of Psychology," it does not call for special elucidation here. Throughout life, he argues, the ego perceives that its activity is necessarily limited. Beyond the limit the consciousness posits a somewhat which is real, yet incomprehensible. Thus arises the idea of the supernatural (unknowable). To the questions why? whence? and whither? which it suggests, we can find no adequate solution. Attempting to make the supernatural the object of thought, we find that we can only do so by ascribing to it the attributes of Nature. Thus, we form symbolical notions of it which vary with changing conditions of mental development. So arise anthropomorphic conceptions of supernatural beings, ideas of heaven and hell, the assumed connection of supernatural intelligences with natural phenomena, etc. This belief in supernatural interference induces fear, impels worship, and influences conduct.

Our author ranks polytheism above monotheism as an incentive to intellectual and social progress. The latter is autocratic and subverts the individual judgment. The former, aristocratic in its nature, stimulates thought and encourages literature and art. Christianity, with its Trinity and angelic hierarchy, he regards as a polytheistic rather than a monotheistic faith. Pantheism is democratic, and favors the free development of the individual reason. Between these different conceptions of the supernatural, truth furnishes no criterion of judgment. We can affirm of neither of them anything more than its probability.

In the chapter on "The Continuity of Personality," Mr. Thompson argues from scientific and psychological analogies in favor of a future life. Admitting that the subject is beset with difficulties, he inclines to the opinion that "the ground for the assertion of post-mortem personal self-consciousness in identity with ante-mortem self-consciousness is firmer than the contrary belief." A future life implies social relations, and the hypothesis of the separation of the good from the evil, with the final reclamation of the latter, seems reasonable. Our author furnishes no theories of his own concerning the nature or location of the supernatural world. In Part III ("Religious Sentiments in Relation to Feeling and Conduct") he recognizes the belief in a future life as favoring high ideal ends, while disbelief depresses the mental energies, and fosters selfish enjoyments at the expense of social activities. He condemns theological organizations which condition their fellowship on the acceptance of creeds, and commends the constitution of the Free Religious Association as the best platform for a religious organization. "An æsthetic worship guided by truth" is, he thinks, a benefit to the human race.

The final chapters on "The Education of the Religious Sentiment" have already appeared, in substance, in "The Popular Science Monthly." They present strong arguments for unpartisan scientific instruction in the history of religions, and the complete secularization of our public schools as the fairest and most practicable means of preserving their integrity and usefulness. The book, as a whole, stimulates thought and holds the attention of the reader. In connection with "A System of Psychology" and "The Problem of Evil," it justifies us in ranking its author among our ablest philosophical thinkers.

The Counting-out Rhymes of Children: Their Antiquity, Origin, and Wipe Distribution. A Study in Folk-Lore. By Henry Carrington Bolton. London and New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1888. Square Svo. Pp. xii-123. Price, $2.50.

In this handsomely-printed volume the author has collected a large number of the curious doggerels used by children in counting-out for the purpose of determining who shall be it in certain games. He details the customs as practiced in Great Britain and America, and gives many examples, such as—

"One-erzoll two-erzoll zick-erzoll zan,
Bobtail vinegar, tickle 'em tan;
Harum squarum, virgin marum,
Zinctum, zanctum, buck!"

The author then shows that children of all civilized and semi-civilized races have similar practices, and repeat doggerels with common characteristics; examples are given in twenty languages, including Japanese, Hawaii, Marâthî, Arabic, Turkish, Bulgarian, Basque, and all the modern languages of Europe. The collection of rhymes numbers nearly nine hundred, of which about four hundred and seventy-five are in English. This wide distribution of the process of counting-out, and the fact that in all languages certain features of the doggerels are common, point to great antiquity for the custom, which, the author claims, originated in the superstitious practice of divination by lot—sortilege. This view is borne out by many analogies between ancient methods of divination and the existing children's games. One chapter treats of conjurations, exorcisms, and charms current in early times; another discusses the question whether these rhymes are derived from Latin prayers, and points out the extraordinary literary fraud perpetrated in 1840 by John Bellender Ker. In another chapter the author shows that, to a certain extent, the changes in English rhymes are influenced by geographical environment. In a few instances the exact date at which a given doggerel was composed can be ascertained by its local coloring. The marked influence of German immigration in America is manifest in even these children's rhymes, many of which are of German origin; for example—

"Ana, mana, bona, mike,
Barcelona, bona, strike,
Care, ware, frow, frack,
Hallico, ballico, wee, wo, wack!"

This undergoes a great many variations. A brief chapter relates to the Anglo-Cymric Score, and the second part of the work contains eight hundred and seventy-seven rhymes grouped under the various languages. The material for this volume was gathered by correspondence, and orally; the sources of the rhymes are indicated in nearly every instance by the initials of the contributors. A bibliography of the works consulted is one feature of the work, which is the first to appear on the subject of folk-lore since the establishment of the Society of American Folk-Lore. The volume appeals to all who recall the happy hours of their childhood. Several English literary papers have announced this work as written by Mrs. Carrington Bolton—an absurd blunder. The author is known by his publications on chemistry and bibliography, and was professor in Trinity College, Hartford, for many years.

Diseases of Man: Data of their Nomenclature, Classification, and Genesis. By John W. S. Gouley, M. D. New York: J. H. Vail & Co. Pp. 412.

The author's purpose in preparing this book has been to urge the official adoption of a stable basis for the nomenclature and classification of disease; to advance some propositions that may contribute to that end; and to call attention to the improprieties evident in the present unsystematic nomenclature, with a view to enforcing the need of reform. The book is, in short, offered as "a plea for the more systematic study of diseases, and as an individual protest against their existing nomenclature and classification, with the hope that this protest will become general among teachers and others, who realize the necessity of bettering the condition of medicine, without undertaking to destroy its fabric in order to reconstruct it; but rather to modify, simplify, and improve it by gradually substituting exact terms for those which have never conveyed correct ideas." While it is easy to attach an exaggerated importance to mere names, it is evident that a philosophical nomenclature, based upon the real and ascertained principles of the science to which it is to be applied, is a great aid to the understanding of that science and to forwarding its advance. But the practical difficulty arises in every science, and every nomenclature, that names have to be found and used before it is possible correctly to determine the principles. In this fact, which is unavoidable, unless we would carry on our science without words, we find the origin of the anomalies in names—the wrong names and the unmeaning names—of which Dr. Gouley complains, and which he makes this effort to correct. He recognizes the nature of the evil, and, while anxious to find a remedy and apply it, does not overlook the importance of acting prudently upon the matter. Therefore he says: "Conservatism is praiseworthy when applied to words that have stood the test of years, and are still adjudged good and proper. Those time-honored terms which convey ideas with precision should be jealously preserved; but that multitude of misleading expressions, to be found in the literature of medicine, should be speedily blotted out of coming medical treatises and dictionaries, and their places filled with well-chosen and philologically correct words." True to the spirit thus exhibited, he does not so much suggest a new set of names, although that point is not overlooked, as he discusses the principles on which the classification of diseases and their nomenclature should be based. With the discussion are embodied reviews of the various systems of classification that have been introduced to the profession by its most eminent representatives of all ages, from Hippocrates down to Broca. The final conclusion is reached that any system of nosography, to be of utility to those whom it concerns, should be the result of the conjoint labors of the medical profession of all the civilized nations.

Report of the Commissioner of Education for the Year 1885-'86. N. H. R. Dawson, Commissioner. Washington; Bureau of Education. Pp. 21 + 792.

This report has been prepared by N. H. R. Dawson, who was appointed commissioner soon after the close of the year which it covers. The new commissioner determined, after the completion of the report for 1884'85, which was still in hand, to concentrate the work of his force upon the preparation of the present volume, so that this and future reports might appear more promptly than previous issues have. The result has been that, while the preceding volume was distributed twenty-two months after the end of the year which it covers, the report for 1885-'86 has not been so long delayed by three months. This is a commendable change, for many of our Government reports lose much of their value by delay in preparing and publishing them. Mr. Dawson has also revised the plan of the reports, with a view of further facilitating prompt preparation and early printing of the document. The nature of the change is "to avoid repetitions, to omit unimportant items, to consolidate related but hitherto separated facts, and to unite the discussion of statistical conditions with the tabular statements wherein they appear." The appendices contain the usual statistics thus modified in form. Appendix I deals with State school systems. Its statistical tables are followed by a résumé of the general condition of public schools in the several States and Territories, drawn chiefly from the printed reports of the superintendents thereof, and it concludes with an abstract of the publicschool laws of each State and Territory. A later appendix contains the report of the General Agent of Education in Alaska for the year 1886-'87. Among the subjects to which the commissioner directs attention are the purpose and condition of secondary instruction, the need to professional students of a previous liberal course of study, and the value of manual training in its influence on the mind.

The American Geologist. Vol. I, No. 1. January, 1888. Minneapolis. Monthly. Price, $3 a year.

The geologists of America are to be congratulated that their branch of science now; has its special journal in this country. This magazine, it is announced, will be devoted to geology in its widest sense, "It will include, therefore, within the scope of its discussions and contributions all the sciences that are kindred, and that contribute by their more special investigations, to the general science of geology. It will hence serve as a medium of intelligence to the stratigrapher, the petrographer, the paleontologist, the mineralogist, the fossil botanist, the climatologist, the chemist, the physicist, the seismologist, the glacialist, the anthropologist, and the astronomer, in all those directions where their special investigations bear directly upon the constitution and history of the globe." "The "Geologist" will also make a special effort to aid the teacher of geology, both by suggesting methods of instruction, and by furnishing new facts and illustrations. It will urge co-operation and organization among geologists, and will aim to preserve and increase that general interest in geological science which supports both private and national investigations. The editors and proprietors are Prof. Samuel Calvin, Prof. Edward W. Claypole, Dr. Persifor Frazer, Prof. L. E. Hicks, E. O. Ulrich, Dr. A. Winchell, and Prof. N. H. Winchell. The first number contains six short articles, an editorial on "Geology in the Educational Struggle for Existence," and another reviewing "Irving and Chamberlin on the Lake Superior Sandstones." There are also departments for book-notices, and for personal and scientific news. It must be confessed that the "Geologist" starts out with a somewhat sectional aspect—only one of its seven editors residing east of Ohio, and only one of the six body articles in this number, that on the International Congress, dealing with anything but Western formations. The latter feature, at least, should be corrected in future numbers.

The Movements of the Earth. By J. Norman Lockyer, F. R. S. London and New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 130. Price, paper, 60 cents.

In this little volume the author has presented a general view of that part of astronomy relating to the planet on which we live. The first chapter deals with methods and instruments for measuring angular space, and is followed by a chapter on the measurement of time. The rotation of the earth, the earth's revolution, and the conditions of its revolution, are successively described, and the closing chapter is devoted to such results of rotation and revolution as the succession of day and night and of the seasons, precession and nutation, etc. The style of the book is clear and popular, though without special effort to be entertaining. The author intends to follow this volume with others, dealing with other celestial bodies.

Food Adulteration and its Detection. By Jesse P. Battershall, Ph. D., F. C. S. New York and London: E. and F. N. Spon. Pp. 328. Price, $3.50.

The public has at least partly awakened to the dangers which the avarice of dishonest dealers in food-products is spreading around it more thickly than ever before, and it is calling upon health-officers, chemists, physicians, and the reputable dealers in these articles for protection. The special scientific knowledge needed by those who stand in this relation to the public is furnished by the present work, which is designed to be a trustworthy guide to the latest and most approved methods of detecting foreign substances in foods and beverages. The articles treated comprise the common infused drinks, dairy products, bread and bread materials, sugar, alcoholic beverages, water, spices, etc., and the tests described are both chemical and microscopical. The volume is illustrated with photomicrographic plates showing the appearance. under the microscope, of milk, butter, and other fats, starches, spices, and organisms found in water; also with plates representing tea and other leaves and the construction of the polariscope. This work will have a value to American analysts over all previous books on food-adulteration in the respect of being written in this country, and hence giving most attention to the adulterations most practiced here. The latest results attained by our National and State Boards of Health in regard to sophistications of food are also inserted. The appendix comprises a bibliography of the subject, with the full text of the most important laws, and a summary of others, recently enacted in this country for the prevention of food-adulteration. The thoroughness and care with which the subject is presented, together with the valuable character of the illustrations, and the helpful features included in the appendix, make the book well suited for the main dependence of the American food-analyst.

A treatise on The Art of Investing, by a New York Broker (Appleton, 75 cents), is what many people will be glad to have. This little book gives the chances for profit and the risks connected with Government and municipal obligations, railroad and other stocks, mortgages, water-works loans and securities, with hints as to when to buy, and—what many investors never think of—when to sell. There is a chapter on speculating, which furnishes many and strong reasons why the inexperienced should let that form of gambling alone. An appendix contains lists of securities, transcribed from the books of our principal exchanges, showing when each security is payable and the amount issued.

A description of The Vosburg Tunnel has been published by Leo von Rosenberg (the author. New York, $1), in the form of a handsome, abundantly illustrated pamphlet, of quarto size. This tunnel is located near Tunkhannock, Pa., on one of the lines associated with the Lehigh Valley Railroad. It was completed in June, 1886, and is a trifle less than three fourths of a mile long. The pamphlet describes the surveying work for the tunnel, the method of tunneling and the machinery used, the construction of the arching, and various minor matters. There are also tables of progress in excavation and construction, of brick and cement tests, and of contract prices and wages. The many plans, maps, and views make up a record of experience which will doubtless be of value to all in charge of similar works.

The History of the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan, by Andrew J. Blackbird (the author. Harbor Springs, Mich., $1), is a unique publication. It is written by an educated Indian, whose father was chief of the Ottawas, and comprises, besides a historical sketch of the tribes mentioned, a brief history of the author's life, and a grammar of the Ottawa and Chippewa language. Mr. Blackbird has been a United States interpreter under several Indian agents, and afterward was postmaster at Harbor Springs for eleven years, when, the position having become a desirable one, he was ousted. He is now nearly seventy years old, and in scanty circumstances.

Dr. A. P. Peabody has written a volume of Harvard Reminiscences (Ticknor, $1.25), which every one who has been in any way associated with the venerable preacher emeritus, or the university, will welcome. It consists of sketches of the college officers whose names appeared with that of the author in the several annual catalogues in which he was registered as undergraduate, theological student, and tutor. There is also a supplementary chapter describing Harvard College sixty years ago.

Mrs. L. M. Morehead has put together A Few Incidents in the Rife of Prof. Janus P. Espy (Clarke & Co.), in order to correct an impression that his early education was neglected, which is given by the statement in Ben: Perley Poore's reminiscences that at the age of seventeen Espy could not read. Had his wife survived him, or had he left any children, we should probably have had a fuller account of the life of the able author of "The Philosophy of Storms."

The Soul, or Rational Psychology of Emanuel Swedenborg, is published by the New Church Board of Publication, New York, in a translation by Mr. Frank Sewall from the Latin edition of Dr. J. F. Immanuel Tafel. It forms the seventh part of the author's great work on "The Animal Kingdom." The position from which Swedenborg viewed the world of mind and matter was a peculiar one, and does not correspond with that from which the scientific investigator or even the orthodox Christian of the present day regards it; but all concede, we believe, that he wrote learnedly and honestly, and with thoughts that appeal strongly to certain classes of men. According to the translator, the one desire and aim that animated the entire series of his writings was the "search for the soul." Concerning the scientific bearings of his works, Mr. Sewall declares that they speak "the glorious promise of a reward to be reached higher even than that sought for; of an end whose realization, only blindly striven for in the ascending ladders of knowledge, finally fills and illumines all the subordinate science with a light, a warmth, a beauty inconceivable before. . . . The scientists of the present day, with their careful elaboration of the facts of sensuous knowledge, are building wiser than they know; their own aims, the particular theories they seek to establish, are of minor account—they are the baubles placed before it to induce it to walk"—leading them on, of course, toward the realization of higher discoveries.

Another new language has been constructed, and is described by the inventor, Elias Molee, in his Plea for an Amerikan Language (the author, Bristol, D. T., $1.25). This language is based on English, rejecting all words not of Germanic origin, and with its spelling made phonetic by the aid of new letters, and its inflections made regular. Vowels have been preferred to consonants for inflectional endings, in order to give the new language more euphony than English has. The author claims that his Amerikan or Germanic-English language has the same excellences as Volapük, and is better adapted for use by the Germanic race.

The Report of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station for 1887, E. L. Sturtevant, Director, embodies the results of experiments in quite a wide range of subjects. Considerable work on the movements of soil-water and on the cultivation of the potato is reported. This volume contains also descriptions of varieties of twelve important vegetables, with classification, etc., nearly all of the varieties described having been grown at the station more than one season. Many minor topics have also received attention.

Dr. William H. Holcombe's pamphlet entitled Condensed Thoughts about Christian Science (Purdy Publishing Company) differs from the common run of expositions of this doctrine in being written in good English, and in showing for its author some ability to think. It presents a fairly clear view of the not very clear theory of "Christian science," or rather the author's interpretation of that theory, for hardly two writers on the subject agree with any closeness.

Fever-Nursing, by J. C. Wilson (J. B. Lippincott Company), is one of a series of "Practical Lessons in Nursing," by different authors, published by the same house. It is designed for the use of professional and other nurses, and especially as a textbook for nurses in training. The instructions were first given in courses of lectures given before the nurse class at the Philadelphia Hospital. In them the author has sought to treat the subject in plain words and from the standpoint of the physician, and to teach not only how fever-patients are to be cared for, but why they must be cared for in particular ways.

The Outlines of Practiced Physiology of Mr. William Stirling (P. Blakiston, Son & Co., $2.25) was designed primarily for the use of students in that branch in Owens College, and is now published in the belief that it will be found useful to other students as it has been to them. The peculiar feature of the book, as among students' manuals, is the prominence which is given to actual experimental work. It is, in fact, almost wholly a list and description of experiments, which the reader is expected to perform, according to the directions, for himself. They have been performed by the author in illustration of his lectures, and also by every member of his class. None of them, however, involve the infliction of pain upon living animals.

L'Iodisme (Iodism), by Elizabeth N. Bradley, of Dobbs Ferry (G. Steinheil, Paris), embodies in a volume of 168 pages the results of careful studies of the action of iodine upon the system, and the effects it produces upon the different parts, and under different forms of administration. The author began her experiments for the investigation of the cutaneous eruptions produced by iodine and bromine, but soon found that to form an adequate conception of the etiology of these cases it would be necessary to regard the processes of iodism and bromism in their entity. Then she became convinced that the processes were only a strong accentuation of the symptoms, considered normal of medication, to which little regard had been attached. Thus her investigation gradually became so thorough and far-extending that she was brought to confine it for the present to iodine, leaving bromine to a subsequent research.

Stimulants: Uses, and how best conserved, by J. M. Emerson (Dick & Fitzgerald, 50 cents), considers the temperance question from a point of view not usually taken. The author regards alcohol as a natural product, having beneficent uses, and seeks to separate those uses from the abuses of strong liquors and intoxication. While condemning all strong liquors, he holds pure wines to be altogether good, and believes that, with the exception of special cases of uncontrollable inebreism, the use of them tends to limit itself and is entirely safe; and that in their use lies the most effectual method of breaking up the alcoholic habit.

The Invalid's Own Book, by the Honorable Lady Cust (Gottsberger, 60 cents), is a collection of brief recipes for preparing a wide variety of dishes and beverages. It includes various teas, waters, milks, gruels, jellies, puddings, soups, breads, sirups, and punches, together with a few kinds of fish and meat.



Abbott, Austin, New York. The Physiology of the Rogue. Pp. 15.

Ballard, H. H. Three Kingdoms. New York: Writers' Publishing Company. Pp. 167. 75 cents.

Brooks, Elbridge S. The Story of New York. Boston: D. Lothrop & Co. Pp. 311. $1.50.

Bruce, A. T. Embryology of Insects. Baltimore: Publication Agency of Johns Hopkins University. Pp. 31, with Six Plates.

California, Historical Society of Southern California, Los Angeles. 1887. Pp. 55.

Chisholm, Julian J., M. D., Baltimore. Anæsthetics. Pp. 150.

Clark, J. B., and Giddings, F. H. The Modern Distributive Process. Boston: Ginn & Co. Pp. 77. 75 cents.

Cook, G. H. Report of the State Geologist of New Jersey. 1887. Trenton. Pp. 45, with Maps.

Cossa, Dr. Luigi, and White, Horace. Taxation: G. P. Putnam's Sons. Pp. 213.

Doran, E. W. Report on the Economic Entomology of Tennessee. 1866. Pp. 96.

Dulles, C. W., M. D. Accidents and Emergencies. Philadelphia: Blakiston. Pp. 123. 75 cents.

Field, H. M., and Ingersoll, R. G. "Faith or Agnosticism?" North American Review. Pp. 83.

Forbes, S. A. Food of Fresh-Water Fishes. Peoria, 111.: W. Franks & Sons. Pp. 40.

Foster, M., and others. "Journal of Physiology" Vol. IX. No. 1. Cambridge, England: Scientific Instrument Company. Pp. 54, with Plates.

Fox, J. J., and Sweet, Dr. W. M. "Science of Photography," Monthly. Philadelphia: James W. Queen & Co. Pp. 24. 10 cents, $1 a year.

Frye, A. E. Geography-Teaching, with Hand Modeling. Hyde Park, Mass.: Bay State Publishing Company. Pp. 216.

Illinois, Report of the Proceedings of the State Board of Health, Chicago. April, 1888. Pp. 13.

Industrial Education Association. Circular of Information, etc. New York: W. A. Potter, Secretary. Pp. 32.

Ingram, J. K, and James, Prof. E. J. A History of Political Economy. New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 250. $1 50.

Irelan, W., Jr. Report of the State Mineralogist of California. 1887. Sacramento: Pp. 315.

Jones, C. C. Negro Myths. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & to. Pp 171. $1.

Lewis, A, H., D. D., and Potter, C. D. "The Outlook, and Sabbath Quarterly." April, 1888. Alfred Centre, N. Y.: American Sabbath Tract Society. Pp. 20. 25 cents a year.

Long Island Historical Society. Proceedings in Memory of Hon. J. C. Brevoort, Mrs. U. B. Humphrey, Hon. John Greenwood, and A. S. Barnes. Brooklyn, N. Y. Pp. 16.

Massachusetts, Report of the Agricultural College. 1887. Pp. 145. Report of the State Agricultural Experiment Station. Boston: Wright and Potter Printing Company. Pp. 267.

Matthews, Dr. Washington. The Prayer of a Navajo Shaman. Washington: Judd and Detweiler. Pp. 26.

Miles, Manly, Lansing, Mich. "Nutritive Ratios." Pp. 8.

Mays, Thomas J., M. D., Philadelphia. The Physiological Action of Kreatin, Kreatinin, and their Allies. Pp. 8. Chest-Movements of the Indian Female. Pp. 11. Method for determining the Local Sensory Action of Drugs. Pp. 5. The Clinical Value of the Cardiograph. Pp. 9. The Differential Action of Brucine and Strychnine. Pp. 12.

Michigan, University of. Philosophical Papers. 1. University Education. By G. S. Morris. Pp. 40 2. Goethe and the (Conduct of Life. By Calvin Thomas. Pp. 28. 3. Contribution to the Science of Education Values. By W. H. Payne. Pp. '29. 4. Herbert Spencer as a Biologist. By Henry Sewell; and Some Relations between Philosophy and Literature, by B. C. Burt. Pp. 18. Second series: 1. The Ethics of Democracy. By John Dewey. Pp. 28. 2. Speculative Consequence of Evolution. By Alexander Winchell. Pp. 24. Ann Arbor: Andrews & Co.

New York State Reformatory, Elmira. Report for 1887. Pp. 94.

Nichols, E. L., and Franklin. W. S. The Electro-motive Force of Magnetization. Pp. 8.

Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Columbus; C. E. Thorne, Director. Pp. 14.

Oldberg, Oscar, and Long, J. H. A Laboratory Manual of Chemistry. Medical and Pharmaceutical. Chicago: W. T. Keener. Pp. 435. $3.50.

Peck, Charles H. Contributions to the Botany of the State of New York. Albany. State Museum. Pp. 86, with Plates.

Michigan Mining-School, Houghton. Catalogue. 1886-'88. Pp. 52.

Preyer, W. The Mind of the Child. D. Appleton & Co. Pp. 346. $1.50.

Robinson, E. G. Principles and Practice of Morality. Boston: Silver, Rogers & Co. Pp. 264. $1.50.

Rochester, New York. Report of the Board of Education. Pp. 176.

Rolleston. George, and Jackson, W. H. Forms of Animal Life. New York: Macmillan & Co. Pp. 937. $9.

Rosenthal. R. S. The Meisterschaft System for learning Latin. Part I. Boston: Meisterschaft Publishing Company. Pp. 66.

Sawyer, H. C, M.D. Nerve Waste. San Francisco: The Bancroft Company. Pp. 98.

Shufeldt, R. W. Observations on the Pterylosis of Certain Picidæ. Pp. 10.

Spencer, Prof J. W. Glacial Erosion in Norway and High Latitudes. Pp. 12.

Tanner, T. H. Memoranda on Poisons. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston. Pp. 177. 75 cents.

Thomas, C. H. M.D. Philadelphia. Graduated Tenotomy in the Treatment of Insufficiencies of the Ocular Muscles. Pp. 12.

Tradesman's Publishing Company. New York. Marketing. Grocers' Goods. Furniture and the Art of Furnishing. Each, Pp. 64. and 20 cents.

Washington University, St. Louis. Catalogue, 1887-'68. Pp. 187.

Wood, R. C, M.D., Atlanta, Ga. Duality of the Brain. Pp. 8.

Wordsworth, William. The Prelude. With Notes by A. J. George. D. C. Heath & Co. Pp. 322.

Wright, J. M. N. Seaside and Wayside. (School Reader.) Boston: D. C. Heath & Co. Pp. 87.