Popular Science Monthly/Volume 43/May 1893/Literary Notices

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A Handbook of Pathological Anatomy and Histology. With an Introductory Section on Post-mortem Examinations and the Methods of Preserving and Examining Diseased Tissues. By Francis Delafield, M. D., LL. D., and T. Mitchell Prudden, M. D. Fourth edition. New York: William Wood & Co. 1892. Pp. xvii+3 to 715.

The fourth edition of this standard work has an increase of more than one hundred pages of text, with the addition of seventy-six engravings, while many portions of the book have been rewritten, so that it may include the principal discoveries that have been made in pathology since the publication of the third edition in 1889.

In the section on the methods of preparing pathological specimens for study there has been added a description of the phloroglucin method of decalcifying bone, which is one of the best that can be used, and there is also a description of the satisfactory method of hardening tissues by Lang's corrosive-sublimate solution.

The chapter on the composition and structure of the blood has received important additions in the description of oligocythæmia and of the determination of the presence of the micro, macro, and poikiloeytes, as well as a description of the polynuclear neutrophile and eosinophile leucocytes and lymphocytes; and there is a section on the methods of examination necessary to study these various forms.

One of the most important additions to the volume is the section on hypertrophy, hyperplasia, regeneration, and metaplasia; the authors calling attention to the pathological importance of a knowledge of caryocinesis, because a recognition of mitotic figures may permit a decision regarding the particular cells involved in the formation of new tissue.

The chapter on inflammation has been practically rewritten and rearranged, the subjects of tubercular and syphilitic inflammations being now considered under the sections relating to the diseases producing them. 126


��The chapter on animal parasites contains a reference to the Amoeba coli and its relation to dysentery, and also brief reference to the presence of coccidia in certain epithelial growths. The chapter on vegetable para- sites contains reference to ptomaines, toxins, and toxalbumins, as well as an excellent sum- mary of the important question of immunity, though the authors do not commit themselves to any doctrine regarding that subject.

The subject of infectious diseases induced by the pyogenic bacteria has been rearranged and placed as one of the earlier chapters in the work, which seems to us to be an excel- lent plan. An illustration of the caution dis- played by the authors is sho\vn in the section on lupus, in which reference is made to the fact that, while that disease is a form of tu- bercular inflammation, it is not imlikely that in the chnical group of diseases called lupus there may be lesions that are not caused by the tubercle bacillus, a point that must be decided by more exact bacterial studies. This same caution is shown in accepting the bacillus described by Lustgarten as the cause of syphilitic inflammation.

The skepticism expressed in the former edition regarding the causative relationship of Lofiier's Bacillus diphtherice to diphtheria, has been supplanted by a frank acceptance of that organism, the first sentence in the section on diphtheria defining that as an acute infectious disease caused by the Bacil- lus diphtherice.

New sections on rhinoscleroma, tetanus, influenza, smallpox, scarlatina, measles, and actinomycosis, and descriptions of the Bacil- lus cedematis maligni, Bacillus pneumonia;, and BaciUus coli communis have been added.

The chapter on tumors contains a refer- ence to the structures that have been found in and between the cells of tumors, " inclu- sions^^ that the authors consider to be invagi- nated epithelial or other cells, or cell nuclei that have undergone various degenerative metamorphoses, fragmentation, etc. They state that some of the cell inclusions in car- cinoma may be coccidia or allied organisms ; but while not asserting that tumors can not be caused by parasites, they do not believe that adequate ground exists for believing that they are so caused, because the trans- plantation of tumors from one species of ani- mal to another has almost uniformly failed,

��while it has been impossible to cultivate either directly or by inoculation any constant organisms from these morbid growths. This matter is one that is attracting the attention of pathologists in several countries, and the more thorough study of the subject of the etiology of cancer will probably determine the status of the coccidia in relation thereto.

The section on chronic arteritis has been rewritten, the authors believing that the mor- bid changes in the arteries are the results of a combination of chronic productive inflam- mation and of degeneration occurring in con- nective tissue — a point of view that regards the arteries as definite parts of the body, and as likely to become the seat of chronic in- flammation as the liver or kidneys.

The subject of colitis is another valuable addition, and the text is enriched by some excellent engravings of the several varieties of pathological conditions that occur in in- flammation of the large intestine.

In the section on the organs of generation reference is made to the adenomata that lie on the border between the distinctly benign and the definitely malignant new epithelial tissue growths, attention being called to the fact that the more benign forms are extremely prone to develop, both in structure and ma- lignancy, into carcinomata.

While the substitution of the terms " Ivmph nodes" and "lymph nodules" for "lymph glands " and " lymph follicles " respectively was recommended in the last edition, the change has been made throughout the text in this volume.

The work is fully abreast of the scientific knowledge of the day, and it will undoubtedly be accorded a popularity similar to what it has received in the past.

The Storv of Columbcs. By Elizabeth Eggleston Seel ye. New York : D. Ap- pleton & Co. Pp. 303. Price, $1.

This volume is the first of a series enti- tled Delights of History, and a delightful book has been made of it. Beginning with the wonderful journeys of the Polos, and the expeditions sent out by Prince Henry of Portugal, events which may well have fired the imagination of the youthful Co- lumbus, we are brought at length to the gates of Genoa. Here we learn something of the condition of the weavers among whom



��the Colombos were numbered. Even the house in which the family lived is pointed out. Then follows the story of Columbus's journey to Portugal, his weary waiting in Spain, his voyages, discoveries, misfortunes, and last days spent in pleading with the un- appreciative Ferdinand. The tale is related in very simple but graphic fashion, with many touches of humor, while the varied illustrations constantly keep fresh the flavor of the time. Only those anecdotes are given that come from authentic sources, and the recent labors of Mr. Henry Harrisse and Signor Stalieno have added so largely to the fund that there are enough to make the narrative sufficiently life like. Xo attempt is made to screen the failings of Columbus — his pursuit of wealth, his curious theories, and the evil which is chargeable to him as an exponent of his time, the establishment of slavery in the New World. On the other hand, these are not enlarged imtil they ob- scure his courageous project and imflagging zeal. He still remains " the most conspicu- ous figure in the history of his age." He crossed the sea of darkness, and we rightly honor him for his great achievement.

The Visible Universe. By J. Ellard Gore, F. R. A. S. London : Crosby Lockwood & Son. New York : Macmillan & Co. Pp. 346. Price, $3.76.

Although astronomers have not yet solved the problem of celestial construction, the author of this volume refrains from add- ing any new conjecture to the list. He ex- amines critically all the explanations worth serious mention, and this task may well have '. served to keep him within the dry land of | fact. Besides the theoretical discussions, the book contains the latest observations of the position of stars and nebula; and, so far as known, their motions and chemical compo- sition.

Five principal objections have been brought against the nebular theory ; most of these have been well answered by M. Roche. According to M. Wolf, two points are yet un- determined — how large planets were formed from the nebulous mass, and how the equa- torial and orbital inclinations were produced. M. Faye, however, finds the fifth objection — the retrograde motion of the satellites of Uranus and Neptune — destructive of La-

��place's theory and advances another hy- pothesis in his work, Sur I'Origine du Monde, with which Mr. Gore agrees. In this he as- sumes that the earth was formed before the sun, and that its internal heat sufficed for the evaporation of water and for the uni- form vegetation that existed for aeons of time. Laplace did not explain the origin of the primitive nebula, therefore Dr. Croll con- sidered the hypothesis incomplete and fur- nished a cause in his impact theory. Two dark bodies endowed with enormous veloci- ty collided in space and produced a perfect nebula!

A contention which promises no settle- ment is the duration of the sun's heat in past time. Noted physicists allow only twelve millions of years as the maximum period on the gravitation theory. This is insufficient for the geologists, who demand a himdred millions for the denudation of rocks. Dr. Croll's careful estimate is mnety millions ; while biologists ask for a still longer period for the evolution of species. Most astrono- mers concur in the theory of Helmholtz that the heat of the sun is caused by the shrink- age of its mass through gravitation. To this philosopher also is due the vortex-ring idea — that matter consists of whirling portions of the luminiferous ether. This wondrous fluid, supposed to fill interstellar space and act as a medium for the transmission of light, is enormously elastic and wholly un- like matter, since planetary motion is not retarded by it as it would be by the most attenuated gas.

The spectroscope, which has revealed so much of the constitution of the stars, shows also another defect in the nebular theory, unless chemists may come to the rescue. The spectra of various nebulae give only hy- drogen and one other unknown element. If the solar system was evolved from a nebu- lous mass by condensation, whence the dozen elements of the sun and the sixty-five of our own planet ? It has been suggested that all our elements may be further resolved into one original element. In anticipation of its discovery this has been nasned proii/le.

Lockyer's hypothesis was that the upper reaches of the atmosphere contained parti- cles of magnesium, manganese, iron, and car- bon, and that nebuhe were swarms of mete- oritic dust. His observations in regard to

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��the magnesium flutings are not accepted by other a^itronomers, and experiments do not confirm his explanation of the aurora. Most puzzling of all astronomical problems per- haps is the arrangement of stars. If we could observe from some other point in the heavens the system might be disclosed to us, or even if we could compute the distance of every star, the design might appear. In all cases, however, the parallaxes are so small that the measurements are exceeding- ly difficult. The number of visible stars is estimated by the author as seventy millions. Outside of this finite universe there may ex- ist vast systems in space whose light has not yet reached us, or which may be forever hidden, because light itself is extinguished in a separating void.

Some fine photographs of stars and nebu- lae accompany the text; an index and notes are also added.

He MAN Embryology. By Charles Sedg- wick MiNOT. Illustrated. New York: William Wood & Co. 1892. Pp. xxiii -f 815.

The appearance of another v/ork on em- bryology justifies the assertion that was re- cently made in these columns that there was a growing appreciation of the importance of this subject. The present volume has been expected for some time past, as the announce- ment was made some years ago that Prof. Minot was engaged in the preparation of a work upon this topic. The ten years' labor that has been directed to making original in- vestigations and to collecting and reviewing the literature of the subject, is presented in this splendid volume that is a worthy repre- sentation of American scholarship and re- search.

On account of the intimate relations be- tween the uterus and the embryo, the author devotes his first chapter to a careful presen- tation of the anatomy and the histology of the uterus, together with a description of the changes that occur during pregnancy. In the second chapter there is a general outline of human development, in which there are re- trogressive and progressive histories of the foetus and its envelopes.

The author calls attention to the limita- tion of the term genoblaist to the sexual ele- ments proper, to the spermatozoon or the

��egg-cell after maturation, and not to the sper- matophore or the egg-cell before maturation. The subjects of spermatozoa, ova, ovulation, and impregnation are described with refer- ence to the latest investigations. The author believes that the ovum draws the spermato- zoa toward itself by chemical influence, act- ing as an attracting stimulus, in a similar manner to the attraction Pfeffer has shown certain chemical substances may have for moving spores ; the attractive power of the ovum being annulled or weakened by the formation of the male pronucleus. As a so- lution of the origin of sexuality the attractive hypothesis is offered that sexuality is coexten- sive with life ; that in protozoa the male and female are united in each of the conjugating cellt, and impregnation is double ; and, finally, that in the metazoa the male and female of the cells separate to form, gcnoblasts or true sexual elements, and impregnation is single.

The author presents a great deal of evi- dence to support the theory that concrescence is the typical means of forming the primitive streak in the vertebrate, the primitive axis of which is formed by the growing together in the axial line of the future embryo of the two halves of the ectental line.

The origin of the mesoderm, the forma- tion of the coelom and mesothelium, and the origin of the mesenchyma, are carefully de- scribed in connection with a review of the principal theories in regard to the morpho- logical significance of the mesoderm, the au- thor believing that Hatschek's germ-band theory offers the best-founded explanation of the vertebrate mesoderm.

Emphasis is laid on the fact that the splanchnocoele (pleuroperitoneal cavity) is al- most, if not quite, from the start divided into a precociously enlarged cervical portion (am- nio-cardial vesicles), and a rump portion (ab- dominal cavity), the boundary between the two portions being marked by the omphalo- mesaraic veins, that run from the area vas- culosa into the embryo proper at nearly right angles to the embryonic axis.

The author agrees with Ziegler that the red blood-cells of all vertebrates arise by pro- liferation of the endothelial lining of the ves- sels, basing this conclusion upon the facts that in various vertebrates certain parts of the vascular system are at first solid cords of cells, the central portion becoming blood-cells



��and the peripheral portion the vascular wall, and in birds the red cells arise from the walls of the venous capillaries of the bony marrow. In other words, the blood-cell is a liberated, specialized endothelial cell.

One of the most interesting and valuable chapters in the volume is that on the germi- nal area and the embryo and its appendages, in which there is a synopsis of the published descriptions of embryos not over three weeks old ; from these it is learned that no human ovum has been observed to have a primitive streak, which is the first stage of the series formulated by the author. In this stage (twelfth or thirteenth day) the human ovum is a rounded, somewhat flattened sac of three or four millimetres in diameter, bearing an equatorial zone of short, unbranched villi that are probably formed by the ectoderm only ; the wall of the sac is ectoderm, whether im- derlaid by somatic mesoderm or not is uncer- tain ; a mass of cells is attached to the inner wall of the sac, over one of the bare poles of the ovum, constituting the rudiment of the embryo. The second stage is characterized by the appearance of the medullary plate, the third by the appearance of the medullary groove, the fourth by the formation of the heart and medullary canal, the fifth by the development of the first external gill-cleft, the sixth by the appearance of two external gill-clefts, the seventh by the appearance of three gill-clefts, and the eighth by the ap- pearance of four external gill-clefts.

The fourth part of the work includes de- scriptions of the chorion, the amnion and proamnion, the yolk-sac, allantois, and um- bilical cord, and the placenta.

The final portion of the volume is de- voted to chapters on the growth and devel- opment of the various organic systems of the foetus.

Each section and chapter aims to present a comprehensive review of the literature re- garding the subject therein considered, the author stating the reasons for accepting cer- tain theories in preference to others. One blemish in the volume is the free use of Ger- man embryological terms. The author's de- votion to German has often led him to use, also, forms of expression that, while correct in German, are faulty English. This is, how- ever, a minor and remediable fault in what is a most excellent book.

VOL. XLIII. — 10

��Pioneers of Science. By Oliver Lodge, F. R. S. London : Macmillan & Co., 1893 Pp. 404. Price, $2.50.

This work consists of a course of eight- een lectures on the history and progress of astronomical research, with biographical sketches of each pioneer and an examina- tion of their influence on the progress of thought. It is divided into two parts. The first, which is entitled From Dusk to Day- light, contains ten lectures giving a brief outline of the physical science of the an- cients, with an interesting account of the progress of astronomy from Thales, 640 b. c, to the death of Newton, 1727 a. d. The second part is called A Couple of Centu- ries' Progress, and embraces the period of astronomical discovery from the publication of Newton's Principia to the present time.

The author shows considerable power of lucid condensation in his description of the labors of the early astronomical scientists, and while giving a brief history of their discoveries — notably those of Archimedes, Ptolemy, and Roger Bacon — he brings us at a bound over the void of the middle ages to the beginning of the sixteenth century (1543) when Copernicus (Nicolas Copemik) published his famous work, De Revolutioni- bus Orbium Coelestium, in which he proved that the earth is a planet like the others, and that it revolves round the sun — thus shatter- ing the accepted Ptolemaic system and revo- lutionizing all other (speculative and theo- logical) doctrines concerning the form of the earth and the motion of the heavenly bodies.

This period is called by Mr. Lodge " the real dawn of modern science." His sketch of Tycho Brah6 is most interestingly written; and in the summaries of facts which preface each lecture will be found some curious coin- cidences of the dates of the birth and death of the famous philosophers from Copernicus to Newton. While admitting the great labors and immense value to astronomical research of Galileo's discoveries, the author does not class him with Copernicus, Kepler, or New- ton ; in fact, he says that " Archimedes and Galileo can only be considered in the light of experimental philosophers." Lord Bacon, who flourished about the same time as Des- cartes, is very summarily dismissed ; he does not admit him into his list of philosophers, and says : " His (Bacon's) methods are not

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those which the experience of niaiikiiid has found serviceable ; nor are they such as a scientific man wouhl have thoutjht of devis- ing."

Mr. Lodge pays reverent tribute to the genius of Sir Isaac Newton, and claims for him the palm-wreath among all other phi- losophere — ancient or modern. His treat- ment of the biographical sketch of Newton and of his discoveries and the preparation of his laws of gravitation, motion, etc., as contained in the Principia, are most interest- ing as well as valuable.

The second part of the work (eight lec- tures) is rather condensed. Laplace's mathe- matical genius is briefly described, while the birth of stellar astronomy and the works of Sir William and Caroline Ilerschel are excellently portrayed. The volume closes with chapters upon Comets and Meteors, and Tides and Planetary Evolution. It is pro- fusely illustrated.

llYGiENir: Measuuks in Relation to Infec- tious Diseases. By Geokge H. F. Nut- tali,, JI. D., Ph. D. (Gottingen). New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1893. Pp. 112. Price, 75 cents.

This is a very useful little work and should have a place in eveiy home library. There seems to be an almost general ignorance of both the causes of infections diseases and how to prevent their spread ; and Dr. Nut- tall has produced this little handbook in a form that is so simple and instructive that even the least scientific reader can, without any diHiculty, prepare and use ample means for the disinfection of persons, houses, fur- niture, etc. — no matter from what cause the infectious material may exist.

The author warns people against using " made and patent disinfectants " ; for, as he says, " the term disinfection means the ahsoluic destruction of infectious material," and "many preparations sold as disinfect- ants are nothing of the kind," but belong to the antiseptic and deodorant classes. He gives, as the Vjest and most certain methods, those by fire, dry heat, steam, and (;hemicals, and in a foot-note to the paragraph " Disin- fection by Boiling," he quotes Fliigge most instructively: "The ordinary treatment to which soiled linen and clothes are subjected in the laundry (one half-hour'.s boiling) would

be quite sutlicient for their disinfectioii were it not foi- the fact that the process of boiling is preceded by the processes of sorting, soak- ing, and rhuihiff in cold wat(yr.'^

The volume contains practical directions for the treatment of infectious diseases in private houses and other places ; and the second part is devoted to excellent " infor- mation as to the causes and mode of spread- ing of certain infectious diseases and the pre- ventive measures that should be resorted to."

Rest and Pain. By the late John Hilton, F. R. S. London and New York : George Bell & Sons. Pp. 514. Price, $2.

Tins work, which its editor speaks of as " acknowledged to be one of our few surgical classics," has reached its fifth edition in Eng- land, and is now offered to medical students and practitioners in America. Its special claim to attention is that it presents certain facts in a diflereut groujjing from that of the usual treati.ses, thus throwing a new light upon the bearing of much that may seem use- less or abstruse to the student. It has the two objects of preaching to physicians a let- alone gospel, designed to secure greater reli- ance upon the work of Nature, and of point- ing out how much can be learned in regard to various disorders from the pains that ac- company them. The volume consists of a course of lectures delivered by the author as consulting surgeon to Guy's Hospital, under the title. The Therapeutic Influence of Rest and the Diagnostic Value of Pain in Acci- dents and Surgical Diseases. It deals with injuries and diseases of the brain, spinal col- umn, the joints, the sacro-iliac region, with abscesses, and miscellaneous other disorders. A large number of cases are quoted in this treatise, and the text is illustrated with l(t5 cuts.

Domestk; Science. ]{y James E. Talmage. Salt Lake City: George Q. Cannon & Sons. Pp. :589.

The field of this l)ook embraces the ap- plications of science to the affairs of domes- tic life — a field concerning which there has always been a great amount of ignorance. The disi)eirmg of this ignorance was one of the tasks that enlisted the efforts of the founder of this magazine, who published his Ilaiidlxjok of Household Science over thirtv LITERARY NOTICES.


��years ago. Dr. Talmage's treatise is very like the Handbook as to scope and method, and the author quotes his predecessor frequently in foot-notes. It is divided into four parts, treating respectively of Air and Ventilation with chapters on Heating and Lighting, Wa- ter, Food and its Cookery, Cleansing Agents, to the last of which is added Poisons and their Antidotes. In each of these divisions the laws of Nature that especially concern the matters in hand are stated, and the evil effects of disregarding these laws in each case are pointed out. The text is much strengthened by illustrations. The book has been adopted as a text-book for the Territory of Utah, and the present is a second and re- vised edition prepared for such use. The in- troduction of this subject into the schools can not fail to do much good.

Introduction to Physiological Psychology. By Dr. Theodor Ziehen. Translated by C. C. Van Liew and Dr. Otto Beyer. New York : Macmillan & Co. Pp. 284. Price, $1.50.

The recent introduction of the inductive and evolutionary mode of treatment into the field of mental science has brought forth abundant fruit where, for a long time, bar- ren speculation had held sway. Psychology, or a division of it at least, has become a natural science, and knowledge of mental processes has been rapidly extended in con- sequence. Especially has this work gone on actively in Germany, and the facts obtained have received two distinct interpretations — the one held by Wundt and his school, the other by Miinsterberg and Ziehen. Only one treatise on physiological psychology — the large work by Prof. Ladd, of Yale — has ap- peared in English, hence the translators have thought that such a small introductory com- pendium as the present volume would be de- sirable. The work originated in a series of lectures that Dr. Ziehen has delivered at the University of Jena for several years. It has been the aim of the author throughout to develop all explanations from physical or physiological data, and to account for the presence of certain functions by an applica- tion of the laws of evolution. The doctrines that he presents differ essentially from Wundt's theory and conform closely to the English psychology of association. By intro-

��ducing an especial auxiliary function, the so- called apperception, for the explanation of certain psychical processes, Wundt evades nu- merous difficulties in demonstration. This book is intended to show that such an " aux- iliary function" is superfluous, and that all psychological phenomena can be explained without it.

Chemical Lecture Experiments. By G. S. Newth, F. I. C. London and New" York: Longmans, Green & Co. 1892. Pp. 323. Price, $3.

This book is of some importance to chemical lecturers and teachers, as well as being a valuable assistance to the chemical student. It consists of six hundred and thirty-two illustrated experiments, which are given with remarkable lucidity, the author claiming that " no account of any experiment has been introduced upon the authority sole- ly of any verbal or printed description, but every experiment has been the subject of his own personal investigation, and illustrated by woodcuts from original drawings." It is arranged in such a manner that students may learn from it the methods of preparation and most of the important properties of the non- metallic elements and their more common compounds. As a companion to the lectures which he may attend, the chemical student will find fully described in this book most, if not all, of the experiments he is likely to see performed upon the lecture table, there- by relieving him from the necessity of labori- iously noting the apparatus, etc., used by the demonstrator. Many of the experiments are novel and interesting, and the tables which form the appendix will be found to contain important information for which books of reference are usually needed.

An overgrown volume of nearly fifteen hundred pages on Education in (he Industrial and Fine Arts in the United States comes to us from the Bureau of Education. This is only the second part of a special report by Isaac Edwards Clarke, and the editor states that most of the matter intended for this vol- ume has been relegated to a third part. There is first an Introduction of over a hundred pages, in which the editor devotes several of the early pages to telling how his first part has been praised. Soon after this come three

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��tributes to deceased educators, which would be better published elsewhere. A little far- ther on the editor has a tilt with Prof. C M. Woodward, and near the end several defenses of the public schools, having no bearing on the proper subject of the report, are brought in. The report proper consists of five hundred pages of well-digested material, being mostly accounts of the instruction in industrial art and the use of mechanical tools that has been introduced in various places. This is followed by eight hundred pages of appendixes made up of miscellaneous reports, essays, and ad- dresses, parts of which are valuable, other parts pleasant but vague, and much of the whole merely duplicating other matter in the volume. There is a great deal of matter in these appendixes that only makes the vol- ume clumsy and impedes the earnest student of pedagogy. Here and there we find poeti- cal quotations or wholly unnecessary lists of names, and in one place a lot of ""after-din- ner" speeches with the "applause" duly in- terjected. It is no wonder that the public printer can not get these bulky reports out until they are stale, and that so many copies go unread back to the paper-vat.

A little text-book devoted wholly to men- suration has been prepared by Alfred J. Pearce, and is published by Longmans, Green & Co., under the title Longmans' School Men- suration (80 cents). It comprises reduction of denominate numbers and the calculation of lengths, areas, and volumes. There are a large number of examples at the end of each section, and several sets of examination pa- pers have been introduced. A simple proof of nearly every rule is given. The diagrams illustrating the various figures and solids are very numerous, and have been carefully pre- pared.

TTie Siq)-hy- Step Primer, prepared by Mrs. E. B. Burnz (Bumz & Co., 24 Clinton Place, New York, 25 cents), embodies a thoroughly scientific mode of teaching reading. The phonetic principle is the basis of its method, and the author does not allow any such host of exceptions and deviations from this prin- ciple as often makes what passes for " phonic teaching " into a mongrel practice. The au- thor insists that the letters shall be regarded as standing for spoken sounds, just as defi- nitely as the characters in a piece of music etand for musical sounds. No one can ques-

��tion that this was the intention of the an- cient inventors of the alphabet, but the fact is too often lost sight of, especially by teach- ers of reading. In this primer each letter is made to show what sound it stands for, and the learner has only to combine these several sounds to get the whole word. This is ef- fected by means of the Burnz's Pronouncing Print, the chief feature of which is that when a letter has an irregular sound this sound is indicated by a small subscript letter cast on the shoulder of the type. Webster's diacritics are also made use of, and silent letters are denoted by Leigh's hair-line type. Some Hints on Phonic Teaching are ap- pended to the book. The primer is attract- ively illustrated and neatly printed.

In a volume of 443 pages, John C. Bran- ner. Ph. D., State Geologist of Arkansas, has issued Vol. Ill of the Geological Survey of Arkansas. This volume concerns "whet- stones and the novaculites of Arkansas," and was prepared by X. S. Griswold, assistant geologist. The whetstone industry is very exhaustively treated, and the admirable illus- trations and maps will be found very useful. The last chapter is devoted to an interesting account of The Fossils of the Novaculite Area, and contains articles by R. R. Gurley, M. D., and Charles S. Prosser, on The Geo- logical Age of the Graptolite Shales of Ar- kansas and Notes on Lower Carboniferous Plants. (Little Rock, Ark., Press Printing Company, 1892.)

Under the title Coal Pits and Pitmen, R. Nelson Boyd, M. Inst. C. E., has recast his publication Coal Mines Inspection ; its History and Results. In this volume of 256 pages the author reviews the conditions of the mining operatives of Great Britain, and gives in somewhat of detail a history of the legislation for the prevention of the employ- ment of women and children in coal mines. Considerable space is devoted to an exami- nation of the causes of explosions in mines, and there are some excellent suggestions as to required legislation in the direction of in- creased inspection. In treating of the de- velopment of the coal industry in England the author gives some very interesting facts : for instance, toward the end of the eighteenth century the yearly output was estimated to be ten millions of tons — giving employment to fifty thousand work-people, whereas the



��output of coal in 1891 reached the enormous total of one hundred and eighty-five millions of tons — giving employment to about six hundred thousand persons. The book con- tains some excellent illustrations, and will be read with interest by those who desire to study the social and labor questions. (Lon- don: Whittaker & Ck). New York agents, Macmillan & Co. 1892.)

Few persons outside those connected with engineering business are aware of the im- portance of the pattern-maker. In a volume of 180 pages A Foreman Pattern-maker has embodied the most useful hints to appren- tices and students in technical schools under the title The Principles of Pattern-making. The book is fully illustrated with one hun- dred and one engravings, and includes a useful glossary of the common terms em- ployed both in pattern-making and molding. Considering the size of the volume it is real- ly surprising to find such a fund of useful information upon the fundamental principles of pattern-making condensed into so small a space. The illustrations were nearly all made by the author himself, and are almost self-explanatory. It is published by Whit- taker & Co., London. (Xew York agents, Macmillan & Co. Price, 90 cents.)

TTie Microscopical Examination of Pota- ble Water is a little volume of 160 pages which contains a good deal of useful infor- mation concerning the best methods and ap- paratus necessary for the microscopical and bact€riological examination of water. The author, George W. Rafter, devotes consider- able space to an explanation of the advan- tages of filtration by sand over the Parkins cloth method, and gives minute details of several examinations and analyses of the various public water supplies of the country, basing the arguments which follow upon the results of an examination of the Boston Sud- bury River Water Supply. The remarks upon the effect of light upon the formation of starch in the algae are interesting, and he claims that in certain lights the starch re- mains protoplasmic, and that a low tempera- ture and darkness are unfavorable to the growth of algffi in the water supplies. The book is No. 103 of the Van Nostrand Science Series.

In a volume of 322 pages entitled Figure Skating, Simple and Combined, Messrs. Mon-

��tagu S. Monier -Williams, Winter R. Pidgeon, and Arthur Dryden, the most eminent of British figure skaters, have given an elabo- rate treatise upon the development of figure skating in England. It is profusely illus- trated with cuts and diagrams, and is pub- lished by Macmillan & Co., New York ($2.26).

Leonard Bobbin, Ph. D., and James Walk- er, Ph. D., D. Sc, have issued a useful hand- book of 240 pages entitled Chemical Theory for Beginners. It is written with the object of assisting beginners in obtaining an ele- mentary knowledge of the principles upon which modem chemistry is based. The chapters on Elements and Compounds, Chemical Action, Vapor Density, and The Kinetic Molecular Theory are interesting from a standpoint far advanced from the be- ginner. The use of symbols has been disre- garded in this work, so that a very young student in chemistry will have no difficulty in imderstanding the most intricate exam- ples of chemical compounds, etc., which are given. The kinetic theory of gases, as dis- covered by Clerk Maxwell and Clausius, is vei7 simply demonstrated. The book is pub- lished by Macmillan & Co., of London and New York (70 cents).

In a volume of 978 pages the Interstate Commerce Commission has issued its Third Annual Report on the Statistics of Railways in the United States. It is a comprehensive tabulation of the classification, mileage, earn- ings, expenditures, and capital of the various railway systems of the country. In the read- ing matter which prefaces the voluminous and interesting statistics there is a com- plaint that the statistical data procurable from the monthly reports of the different railway corporations is of little value to pub- licists and economists ; and it is claimed that the present system of bookkeeping in vogue among the accountants of the differ- ent roads "leads inevitably to an erroneous balance-sheet." The remarks upon and the statistics of the enormous increase of mile- age will be read with interest by economists, and the fact that this increase is propor- tionately far greater in the Southern States will be a surprise to those who have not carefully observed the industrial progress of that section of the country.

D. C. Heath & Co., Boston, have issued a new publication entitled The Complete

�� � Musical Reader, which is designed for "high and normal schools, academies, and seminaries." It is compiled and edited by Charles E. Whiting, and is really a most useful addition to the repertoire of school music books. The first forty-eight pages are devoted to musical notation, embracing exercises and solfeggios of a very educational type. The collection of two, three, and four part songs is excellent; but in the two latter sections some of the selections are rather difficult for beginners. Among the three-part songs is a novel arrangement of a solo with voice (duet) accompaniment—a style of voice culture that will probably become more general. The hymn tunes are easy, and will be found useful by teachers in connection with the rudimentary exercises and solfeggios. It contains 224 pages, and is published at 85 cents.

Recognizing the great agricultural depression existing in England and the apparent impossibility of farmers being able to prosper from the cultivation of grain crops, J. Cheal, F. R. H. S., suggests that cultivators of the land should consider what other means might be adopted in the way of yielding crops that would give more satisfactory returns. In his book entitled Practical Fruit Culture, which is published by George Bell and Sons, London, 1892, he advocates that, taking into consideration the "enormous quantities of fruit" imported into England for consumption there, fruit culture would be one of the best if not the most important means toward a renewed agricultural prosperity. The volume contains some excellent information upon the fruits most adaptable to the climate of Great Britain, and instructive hints as to their planting, cultivation, etc. (194 pages; price, 75 cents).

In a volume of 241 pages, C. W. Bardeen, of Syracuse, N. Y., has published three series of songs "for schools," which contain over three hundred selections. The first series is entitled The Song Budget, and is devoted to nursery rhymes and songs for young children; the second is called The Song Century, embracing some of the most popular standard songs; and the third, The Song Patriot, gives examples of patriotic songs, war songs, and national hymns. It is a useful cheap edition of song music, but the compiler has made some rather unfortunate omissions in neglecting to give the composers' names, while in at least one important instance wrong authorship is claimed. This, however, does not affect the arrangement of the music, which is excellent (price, 50 cents).