Rabbit: A Compiler for Scheme/Chapter 5
Z5 5. Language Design Considerations SCHEME is a lexically scoped ("full-funarg") dialect of LISP, and so is an applicative language which conforms to the spirit of the lambda-calculus.
[Church] we divide the definition of the SCHEME language into two parts: the environment and control constructs, and the data manipulation primitives.
Examples of the former are LAMBDA-expressions, combinations, and IF; examples of the latter are CONS, CAR, EQ, and PLUS. Note that we can conceive of a version of SCHEME which did not have CONS, for example, and more generally did not have S-expressions in its data domain. Such a version would still have the same environment and control constructs, and so would hold the same theoretical interest for our purposes here. (Such a version, however, would be less convenient for purposes of writing a meta-circular description of the language, however!) By the "spirit of lambda-calculus" we mean the essential properties of the axioms obeyed by lambda-calculus expressions. Among these are the rules of alpha-conversion and beta-conversion. The first intuitively implies that we can uniformly rename a function parameter and all references to it without altering the meaning of the function. An important corollary to this is that we can in fact effectively locate all the references. The second implies that in a situation where a known function is being called with known argument expressions, we may substitute an argument expression for a parameter reference within the body of the function (provided no naming conflicts result, and that certain restrictions involving side effects are met). Both of these operations are of importance to an optimizing compiler. Another property which follows indirectly is that of tail-recursion. This property is exploited in expressing iteration in terms of applicative constructs, and is discussed in some detail in
26 [Declarative]. we realize that other systems of environment and control constructs also are reasonably concise, clear, and elegant, and can be axiomatized in useful ways, for example the guarded commands of Dijkstra. [Dijkstra] However, that of lambda-calculus is extremely well-understood, lends itself well to certain kinds of optimizations in a natural manner, and has behind it a body of literature which can be used directly by RABBIT to express non-primitive constructs.
The desire for uniform lexical scoping arises from other motives as well, some pragmatic, some philosophical. Many of these are described in [SCHEME], [Imperative], [Declarative], and [Revised Report]. It is often difficult to explain some of these to those who are used to dynamically scoped LISP systems.
Any one advantage of lexical scoping may often be countered with "Yes, but you can do that in this other way in a dynamically scoped LISP." However, we are convinced that lexical scoping in its totality provides all of the advantages to be described in a natural, elegant, and integrated manner, largely as a consequence of its great simplicity.
There are those to whom lexical scoping is nothing new, for example the ALGOL community. For this audience, however, we should draw attention to another important feature of SCHEME, which is that functions are first-class data objects. They may be assigned or bound to variables, returned as values of other functions, placed in arrays, and in general treated as any other data object.
Just as numbers have certain operations defined on them, such as addition, so functions have an important operation defined on them, namely invocation.
The ability to treat functions as objects is not at all the same as the ability to treat representations of functions as objects. It is the latter ability that is traditionally associated with LISP; functions can be represented as S-expressions. In a version of SCHEME which had no S-expression primitives,
Z7 however, one could still deal with functions (i.e. closures) as such, for that ability is part of the fundamental environment and control facilities.
Conversely, in a SCHEME which does have CONS, CAR, and CDR, there is no defined way to use CONS by itself to construct a function (although a primitive ENCLOSE is now provided which converts an S-expression representation of a function into a function), and the CAR or CDR of a function is in general undefined. The only defined operation on a function is invocation. (Note Operations on Functions) we draw this sharp distinction between environment and control constructs on the one hand and data manipulation primitives on the other because only the former are treated in any depth by RABBIT, whereas much of the knowledge of a "real" compiler deals with the latter. A PL/I compiler must have much specific knowledge about numbers, arrays, strings, and so on. We have no new ideas to present here on such issues, and so have avoided this entire area. RABBIT itself knows almost nothing about data manipulation primitives beyond being able to recognize them and pass them along to the output code, which is a small subset of MacLISP. In this way RABBIT can concentrate on the interesting issues of environment and control, and exploit the expert knowledge of data manipulation primitives already built into the MacLISP compiler.