Researches on Irritability of Plants

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WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR.



RESPONSE IN THE LIVING AND NON-LIVING.

With 117 Illustrations, 8vo., 10s. 6d.
1902.
 

PLANT RESPONSE: AS A MEANS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION.

With 278 Illustrations, 8vo., 21s.
1906.
 

COMPARATIVE ELECTRO-PHYSIOLOGY: A PHYSICO-PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY.

With 406 Illustrations, 8vo., 15s.
1907.
 


LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.
London, New York, Bombay, and Calcutta

 

RESEARCHES ON
IRRITABILITY OF PLANTS



BY
JAGADIS CHUNDER BOSE, M.A. D.Sc. C.S.I.
PROFESSOR, PRESIDENCY COLLEGE, CALCUTTA



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS




LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.
39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON
NEW YORK, BOMBAY, AND CALCUTTA
1913

 

dedicated to
s. m.

 

PREFACE


I have in this work dealing with my researches on the irritability of plants introduced new methods by which the scope of investigation has been enlarged, and a very high degree of accuracy secured. In my previous treatise on Plant Response, the response recorder employed was a modification of the optical lever, automatic records being secured by the very inconvenient and tedious process of photography. The delay thus imposed retarded seriously the progress of the research. Those practically engaged in investigations on plants can realise the difficulties that arise from the too quick passage of the seasons. It thus frequently happened that by the time new instrumental appliances were rendered practicable the favourable season for the plant was over, involving the postponement of the experiment for another year. In spite of these difficulties, the long series of investigations that I then carried out gave many interesting results, which not only threw light on many obscure problems, but also led to the discovery of several important phenomena in plant physiology.

Some of these results, moreover, tended to cast doubt on certain conclusions that had found universal acceptance. It has, for example, been held that there was no transmission of true excitation in Mimosa, the propagated impulse being regarded as merely hydro-mechanical. The question whether the transmitted impulse was physical or physiological could only be satisfactorily decided if the plant could itself be made to record the velocity of its impulse and the changes induced in that velocity under physiological variations. This is but one out of several ideal methods of attacking problems in the life of plants, the realisation of which would make a great advance in physiological investigation.

It would also be desirable to discard, if possible, the troublesome method of obtaining record by photography, which necessitates work in a dark room; in this connection it should be remembered that subjection of the plant to darkness introduces complications by modifying its normal excitability. For these reasons, another requirement which it is necessary to fulfil is the devising of some simple and direct method of obtaining the record. And in order that the results obtained should not be influenced by any personal factor, it would be further desirable that the plant attached to the recording apparatus should be automatically excited by stimulus absolutely constant, should make its own responsive record, going through its own period of recovery, and embarking on the same cycle over again without assistance at any point on the part of the observer.

The difficulties encountered in realising these ideal requirements appeared at first to be insurmountable. In the records of response serious errors occurred as regards amplitude and time-relations, owing to the friction of the writing lever against the recording surface. As an extreme instance of this, in recording the rhythmic movement of the leaflets of Desmodium the very slight friction which the smoked-glass surface offered was enough to stop the pulse-record.

After many attempts, I was at last successful in overcoming all obstacles by the device of the Resonant and Oscillating Recorders. Taking the very difficult test of direct record of the rhythmic movements of Desmodium leaflets, it will be found that the pulsations recorded in this book not only gave accurate measure of the amplitude and period, but also the absolute rate of movement during any phase of their autonomous response. Again, in the matter of accurate measurement of short intervals of time required for the determination of the latent period and velocity of transmission of excitation, I have shown the possibility of recording time-intervals as short as a thousandth part of a second. A brief account of this is given in my paper "On an Automatic Method for the Investigation of the Velocity of Transmission of Excitation in Mimosa," read before the Royal Society. It will be recognised immediately in how many directions our power of inquiry has become extended by the elaboration of these new methods and the invention of several types of instrumental appliances described in this work.

In presenting the results of these investigations, it will be noted that the plant has been made to tell its own story, by means of its self-made records. Each experiment has been repeated at least a dozen times, in many cases as often as a hundred times. The results may therefore be accepted as fully attested. The establishment of the unity of responsive reactions in the plant and animal, which is the subject of this work, will be found highly significant, since it is only by the study of the simpler phenomena of irritability in the vegetal organisms that we can ever expect to elucidate the more complex physiological reactions in the animal tissues.

I take this opportunity to thank my research assistants, Messrs. Guruprasanna Das, L.M.S., and Surendra Chandra Das, M.A., for the very efficient help rendered by them in these researches.

J. C. BOSE.

Presidency College, Calcutta,
October 1912.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER I

PLANT SCRIPTS

page

Action of environment on plant—Revelation of internal condition by character of response—Problems to be solved—Electrical response—Mechanical response—Motile organ in Mimosa pudica—Response in plant and animal—Different phases of the responsive movement—Graphic record—Determination of absolute movement of leaf and its time-relations—Characteristic effects of different agencies on the response-curve—Specific difficulties in recording plant-response
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
1

CHAPTER II

THE RESONANT RECORDER

Advantages of intermittent contact in record—Two types of apparatus: the Oscillating Recorder, and the Resonant Recorder—Coercer and Vibrator—Perfect tuning—Recorders with standardised frequencies—Slide and clockwork—The record its own chronogram—Smoked surface and its fixation—Adjustments of the writer—Records with continuous and intermittent contacts
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
11

CHAPTER III

METHODS OF STIMULATION

Different methods of stimulating the plant: mechanical, chemical, thermal and electrical—Difficulties of securing quantitative stimuli—Direct and indirect stimulation—Ideal modes of stimulation—Electro-thermic stimulation—Stimulation by constant current—Stimulation by condenser-discharge—Non-polarisable electrodes—Direct, extra-electrodal, and intra-electrodal stimulation—Stimulation by induction-shock—Effects of make- and break-shock—Excitation by tetanising shock
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
23

CHAPTER IV

TIME-RELATIONS OF THE RESPONSIVE MOVEMENT AND STANDARDISATION OF STIMULUS

Latent period of Mimosa—Apex time—Rate of responsive movement of leaf—Effect of intensity of stimulus, fatigue, and temperature—Periodic dot marker—Time relations of response and recovery—Effect of season—Response of Biophytum—Response of Neptunia—Arbitrary distinction between sensitive and ordinary plants—Differential response in Mimosa—Response of ordinary plants—Universal sensitiveness of plants—Standardisation of stimulus—Maximal and Minimal Stimuli—Extreme sensitiveness of Mimosa
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
35

CHAPTER V

THE ADDITIVE EFFECT; INFLUENCE OF LOAD, TEMPERATURE, AND INTENSITY OF STIMULUS

Greater excitatory efficiency of the break-shock—Additive effect of stimulus—Quantitative relation of additive effect—Effect of load—Thermal chamber—Effect of temperature—Effect of increasing intensity of stimulus on response
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
52

CHAPTER VI

VARIOUS TYPES OF RESPONSE

Necessity of uniform stimulation—The Periodic Starter—The Automatic Exciter—Electrolytic contact-maker—The complete Response-recorder—The factor of tonicity—Uniform responses—Fatigue under shortened period of rest—Growing fatigue—Alternating fatigue—Staircase response—Explanation of erection of leaf under continuous stimulation—Fatigue-relaxation in plant and animal—Response under single stimulus and under tetanisation
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
64

CHAPTER VII

EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT GASES ON EXCITABILITY OF MIMOSA

Induced change of excitability under sudden variation of light—Abolition of excitability by absorption of water—Restoration of excitability by application of glycerine—Stimulating, depressing, and toxic agents—Phenomenon of accommodation—Stimulating action of ozone—Effects of carbonic-acid gas, vapour of alcohol, ether, carbon disulphide, coal gas, chloroform, ammonia, sulphuretted hydrogen, laughing-gas, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
85

CHAPTER VIII

DEATH-SPASM IN PLANTS

Criterion of the death of plant—Abolition of electric response at death—Mechanical spasm of death—Water-bath for uniform rise of temperature—Excitatory effect of sudden cooling or heating—Erection of leaf with rising, and depression of leaf with falling, temperature—Thermo-mechanical inversion at the death-point—Necessity for specification of rate of rise of temperature—Death-record of Mimosa—Abolition of response after death-spasm—Constancy of death-point exhibited by different specimens—Death-records of Desmodium gyrans and Vicia Fava—Death-spasm in ordinary plants—The electric-spasm of death—Lowering of death-point by fatigue and by poisonous solution
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
98

CHAPTER IX

DETERMINATION OF THE LATENT PERIOD

Difficulties of accurate determination of Latent Period—Advantages of Resonant Recorder—Simultaneous tracings of tuning-fork exciter and Resonant Recorder—Automatic stimulation at a definite moment—Identical value of latent period in successive determinations—Accurate measurement of time-interval shorter than .005 second—Latent period little affected by inertia of recorder—Tabular statement of value of different specimens of Mimosa—Effect of season on latent period
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
108

CHAPTER X

INFLUENCE OF INTENSITY OF STIMULUS, FATIGUE, AND TEMPERATURE ON THE LATENT PERIOD

Diffuse stimulation under alternating-shock—Effect of intensity of stimulus on Latent Period—Influence of optimum condition—Effect of fatigue—Effect of temperature
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
122

CHAPTER XI

VELOCITY OF TRANSMITTED IMPULSE IN PLANTS

Detection of transmitted excitation by means of electromotive variation—Specific tissue for conduction of excitation—Hydro-mechanical theory of transmission of stimulus—Propagation of excitatory protoplasmic change—Physiological test—Automatic record of transmission-period—Conditions for obtaining constant velocity—Determination of velocity of transmission in Mimosa—Differential method of determining velocity—Constancy of results—Tabular statement of different determinations of velocity—Effect of intensity of stimulus on velocity of transmission—Effects on sub-tonic tissue and on tissue in optimum condition—After-effect of stimulus in enhancing conductivity—Effect of optimum condition—Disturbing action of leakage of exciting current—Effect of fatigue—Effect of temperature—Velocity of transmission in Biophytum and Averrhoa—Direction of preferential conduction
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
132

CHAPTER XII

EXCITATORY CHARACTER OF TRANSMITTED IMPULSE IN PLANTS

The hydro-mechanical theory—Inconclusive character of the anæsthetic experiment of Pfeffer and scalding experiment of HaberlandtKühne's experiment showing transmission of excitation under intense stimulation in a rigored nerve—Error introduced by employment of excessive intensities of stimulus—Discriminative polar effect of current in excitation—Block of transmission of excitation by local application of cold—Restoration of normal conductivity by tetanising shock in tissue paralysed by cold—Electro tonic arrest of excitatory impulse—Action of various poisons in inducing block of conduction
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
154

CHAPTER XIII

THE POSITIVE RESPONSE

Two opposite kinds of responses, negative and positive—Excitatory contraction, negative turgidity variation, fall of leaf, and concomitant negative electric variation—Positive electric response—Positive or erectile mechanical response—Dual impulses under different forms of stimuli—Exhibition of positive and negative impulses by different plants—Conditions for obtaining positive response—Characteristics of positive impulse—Masking and unmasking of positive effect—Laws of Direct and Indirect effects of stimulus
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
176

CHAPTER XIV

POLAR EFFECTS OF ELECTRICAL CURRENT IN EXCITATION OF PLANTS

Polar excitation in animal tissues—Anomalous reactions in Protozoa—Mono-polar method—Current Reverser—Excitatory polar action in plant—Method of record—Effects of ascending and descending currents in animal and plant—Records giving time-relations—Potential slide—Measurement of e.m.f. and current—Potential keyboard
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
198

CHAPTER XV

POLAR EFFECTS OF FEEBLE AND MODERATE CURRENTS ON VARIOUS SENSITIVE PLANTS

Polar effects of feeble and moderate currents on (1) leaflets of Mimosa, (2) leaflets of Biophytum, (3) leaflets of Neptunia, (4) leaflets of Averrhoa carambola, (5) leaflets of Averrhoa bilimbi, and (6) primary leaf of Mimosa—Excitation with feeble current only at kathode-make—Excitation at kathode-make and anode—break, under moderate current—Tabular statement of results
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
212

CHAPTER XVI

THE CONTRASTED EFFECTS OF ANODE AND KATHODE

Polar effects of currents on pulsation of Desmodium gyrans—Reduction of systolic contraction by anodic action—Diminution of diastolic expansion by kathodic action—Arrest at systole by make of kathode and diastolic expansion by break of kathode—Arrest at diastole by make of anode, and systolic contraction by break of anode—Effects of ascending and descending currents of feeble and strong intensity in nerve-and-muscle preparation—Parallel effects in petiole-and-pulvinus
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
234

CHAPTER XVII

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON POLAR EXCITATION, AND MULTIPLE EXCITATION UNDER CONSTANT CURRENT

Excitability of nerve to induction-shock diminished by cooling—Nerve excitation by constant current enhanced by cooling—Excitation of conducting-tissue of Mimosa by constant current enhanced by cooling and depressed by warming—Ineffective stimulus becoming effective under cooling and vice versa—Multiple response induced in Biophytum by the passage of constant current—Comparison of sensitiveness of plant and animal—Minimum current for excitation of human tongue—Relatively higher sensitiveness of Biophytum
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
244

CHAPTER XVIII

POLAR EFFECTS UNDER STRONG CURRENTS

Abnormal polar reactions in Protozoa—Transformation of polar reaction in leaf of Mimosa from Type II. to Type III. under strong current—Further transformation to Type IV. under stronger current—Exhibition of Type III. and Type IV. by leaflets of Mimosa, Biophytum, Averrhoa carambola—Law of polar action of strong currents
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
253

CHAPTER XIX

VARIATION OF POLAR REACTION UNDER TISSUE MODIFICATION

Modification of polar reaction under tissue-changes—Effect of age—After-effect of moderate stimulation—Modified polar effect; excitation at kathode-make and anode-make; excitation at kathode-make, kathode-break, and anode-make—General review of polar reactions
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
266

CHAPTER XX

MULTIPLE AND AUTOMATIC RESPONSE

The Oscillating Recorder—Latent period of Biophytum—Refractory period—Response on 'all-or-none' principle—Multiple electrical response to a single strong stimulus—Multiple mechanical response to strong stimulus in Biophytum and Averrhoa—Continuity of multiple and automatic response—Ordinarily responding Biophytum converted into automatically responding condition by excess of stored energy—Automatically responding Desmodium converted to ordinarily responding condition by depletion of stored energy
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
278

CHAPTER XXI

THE AUTOMATIC PULSATIONS OF DESMODIUM GYRANS

Activity of detached leaflet of Desmodium—Pulsation maintained uniform under constant internal hydrostatic pressure—The plant-chamber—Time-relations of pulsating movement derived from dotted record—Significance of down and up movements—Systole and diastole—Table showing rates of movement of Desmodium leaflet at different phases
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
290

CHAPTER XXII

EFFECT OF HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE, LOAD, AND LIGATURE ON THE PULSATION OF DESMODIUM

Effect of internal hydrostatic pressure on the pulsation of Desmodium—Expansive erection of leaflet under increased pressure; diminution of the extent of systolic contraction—Effect of load: diminution of period—Stannius' ligature on heart-beat—Parallel effect of ligature on pulsation of Desmodium—Arrest of pulsation by a cut and revival by electric shock
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
300

CHAPTER XXIII

EFFECT OF STIMULUS ON LEAFLET OF DESMODIUM AT STANDSTILL

Condition of standstill brought about by depletion of energy—Renewal of pulsation by the stimulus of light—Response to stimulus of induction-shock—Multiple response under tetanisation—Determination of the latent period and the apex time—Refractory period—Effect of stimulus on leaflets in sub-tonic condition—Effect of isolation on rhythmic activity—Gradual arrest of pulsation resulting from run-down of stored energy—Effect of fresh accession of energy
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
306

CHAPTER XXIV

EFFECT OF ELECTRIC STIMULATION ON THE PULSATION OF DESMODIUM GYRANS

Effect of electric shock on Desmodium leaflet—Incapability of tetanus—Extra pulsation induced by electric shock—Relative effectiveness of electric stimulus at diastolic phase—Effect of transmitted excitation on normal pulsation of heart and on pulsation of Desmodium leaflet—Effects of acceleration and inhibition
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
318

CHAPTER XXV

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON RHYTHMIC PULSATION OF DESMODIUM GYRANS

Effect of lowering of temperature on rhythmic pulsation of cardiac tissue—Similar effect on the pulsation of Desmodium—Increase of systolic limit during cooling—Minimum temperature for arrest of pulsation—Arrest by cooling and subsequent revival by warming—Increase of diastolic limit during warming—Effect of rise of temperature on the pulsation of frog’s heart—Similar effect on the pulsation of Desmodium—Effect of rise above and return to normal temperature—Diminution of systolic contraction during rise of temperature—Increase of systolic contraction during fall of temperature—Permanent arrest due to heat-rigor
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
323

CHAPTER XXVI

EFFECT OF CHEMICAL AGENTS ON THE AUTOMATIC PULSATION OF DESMODIUM GYRANS

Application of gaseous or liquid reagents—Modifying influence of tonic condition of specimen, strength, and duration of application—Effect of sugar solution—Effect of alcohol—Action of carbonic-acid gas—Effects of anæsthetics, ether, and chloroform—Action of carbon disulphide—Effect of copper sulphate solution—Effect of potassium cyanide solution—Antagonistic actions of acids and alkalis on the pulsations of the heart and of Desmodium—Similarities of reaction in rhythmic tissues animal and vegetal
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
332
342
GENERAL SURVEY
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
361
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
369

ILLUSTRATIONS

figure.
page
 
1.
Diagrammatic representation of Response Recorder
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
6
2.
Response curve of leaf of Mimosa
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
7
3.
Resonant Recorder, upper part
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
17
4.
General View of the Resonant Recorder and accessories
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
20
5.
Record showing advantage of intermittent contact
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
21
6.
Electro-thermic stimulator
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
25
7.
Response of Mimosa to indirect thermal stimulation
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
26
8.
Response to stimulus of constant electric current
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
27
9.
Direct stimulation by condenser discharge
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
28
10.
Record of response to stimulation by condenser discharge
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
30
11.
Arrangement for applying single make- or break-shock
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
32
12.
Records giving apex time of response of Mimosa
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
38
13.
The dot marker
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
40
14.
Response of Mimosa giving time-relations
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
41
15.
Record of response of leaflet of Biophytum
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
43
16.
Response of leaf of Neptunia
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
43
17.
Erectile response of leaf of Mimosa, due to local stimulation of upper half of pulvinus
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
45
18.
Responses of leaf of Desmodium gyrans
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
46
19.
The electric signal
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
52
20, 21.
Records showing greater efficiency of break-shock
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
53
22, 23, 24, 25.
Additive effects of stimulus
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
54-56
26.
Effect of load on response of Mimosa
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
57
27, 28.
Effect of temperature on response of Mimosa
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
60, 61
29.
Increasing response under increasing stimulation
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
62
30.
Periodic starter, and automatic exciter
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
66
31.
Electrolytic contact-maker
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
68
32.
Photograph of duplex type of Resonant Recorder
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
69
33.
Uniform responses of Mimosa
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
72
34.
Fatigue under shortened period of rest
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
73
35.
Growing fatigue
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
74
36.
Periodic fatigue
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
74
37.
Staircase response in frog's muscle
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
77
38.
Staircase response in Mimosa
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
77
39.
Effect of stimulus in modifying the tonic condition
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
79
40.
Alternating response
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
81
41.
Fatigue-decline in frog's muscle
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
81
42.
Different phases in the fatigue reversal in plant
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
83
43.
Fatigue reversal in Mimosa
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
83
44.
Effect of sudden darkness on excitability of Mimosa
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
 
45.
Abolition of motile excitability of pulvinus by absorption of water
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
86
46.
Stimulating action of ozone
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
90
47.
Effect of CO2 on excitability of Mimosa
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
90
48.
Effect of vapour of alcohol
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
91
49.
Effect of ether
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
92
50.
Effect of carbon disulphide
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
93
51.
Effect of coal gas
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
93
52.
Abolition of excitability under chloroform
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
94
53.
Effect of ammonia
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
95
54.
Effect of sulphuretted hydrogen
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
95
55.
Effect of nitrogen dioxide
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
96
56.
Effect of sulphur dioxide
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
96
57.
Excitatory effect on Mimosa by sudden cooling or warming
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
100
58.
Death-curve of Mimosa
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
102
59.
Abolition of response to warming or cooling after passing through the death-point
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
103
60.
Death-curve of Desmodium gyrans
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
104
61.
Thermo-mechanical inversion indicating death-point of leaf of bean
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
105
62.
Lowering of death-point under fatigue
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
106
63.
Effect of poison in lowering the death-point
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
106
64.
Latent period of hyoglossus muscle
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
109
65.
Simultaneous record of vibrating recorder and exciting tuning fork
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
110
66.
Apparatus for determination of latent period of Mimosa
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
112
67.
Two successive records exhibiting identity of latent period of Mimosa
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
115
68.
Record of latent period of highly excitable Mimosa
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
116
69.
Record of latent period with a 200 D.V. recorder
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
117
70.
The same record magnified
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
118
71, 72.
Two records obtained with two different recorders
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
119
73.
Record of latent period of Neptunia
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
120
74.
Simultaneous excitation in interposed tract under alternating-shock
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
124
75, 76.
Effect of intensity of stimulus on latent period
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
126
77.
Constancy of latent period under stimuli above the maximal
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
127
78, 79.
Effect of fatigue
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
128
80, 81.
Effect of temperature
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
130
82.
Determination of velocity of transmission of excitation in Mimosa
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
137
83, 84.
Determination of velocity by Differential Method
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
139, 140
85.
Effect of intensity of stimulus on velocity and after-effect
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
143
86.
Effect of optimum condition on velocity
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
145
87.
Effect of fatigue on velocity of transmission
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
147
88.
Effect of temperature on velocity
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
149
89.
Record giving transmission time in Biophytum
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
151
90.
Effect of cold in the retardation and arrest of transmission
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
162
91.
Arrangement for electrotonic block
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
165
92.
Record of effect of electrotonic block
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
166
93.
Records of transmitted excitation with the block off and on
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
167
94.
Effect of CuSO4 in abolishing conduction
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
172
95.
Abolition of conductivity by KCN
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
173
96.
Positive response followed by negative in Biophytum under indirect thermal stimulus
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
180
97.
Diphasic response in Biophytum under indirect chemical stimulation
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
182
98, 99.
Positive followed by negative in Averrhoa
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
184
100.
Diphasic response in Mimosa due to indirect electric stimulation of petiole
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
185
101.
Diphasic response in Mimosa due to indirect thermal stimulation of stem
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
186
102.
Effect of intensity of stimulus in modifying the diphasic response
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
187
103.
Effect of diminishing distance in transforming positive into diphasic response in Biophytum
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
189
104.
Effect of diminishing distance on the response in Mimosa
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
194
105.
Masking of the positive by the predominant negative
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
194
106.
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
200
107.
Record of polar excitation under feeble current
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
202
108.
Excitation by ascending and descending current
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
204
109.
Records of responses to ascending and descending current in Mimosa
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
205
110.
Records of responses to ascending and descending induction-shock
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
206
111.
The Potential Slide
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
208
112.
The Potential Keyboard
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
210
113.
The electrode holder
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
217
114.
Excitation induced in Biophytum by the make of kathode and break of anode
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
224
115.
Record of kathode-make and anode-break in Mimosa
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
230
116.
Effect of anode, opposing systolic contraction in Desmodium
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
236
117.
Effect of kathode, opposing diastolic expansion in Desmodium
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
236
118.
Alternate effect of anode and kathode
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
237
119.
Arrest at systole by make of kathode, and diastolic expansion at break of kathode
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
237
120.
Arrest at diastole by make of anode, and systolic contraction at break of anode
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
237
121.
Effects of descending and ascending currents at make and break on nerve-muscle and petiole-pulvinus
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
239
122.
Effect of cold on excitability to induction-shock
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
240
123.
Record showing abolition of polar excitation at high temperature
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
247
124.
Multiple excitation in Biophytum under constant current
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
249
125.
Record of polar excitation of Type III.
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
255
126.
Polar excitation Type IV.
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
256
127.
Transformation of Type II. to Type III. as after-effect of previous stimulation
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
268
128.
Abrupt transition from Type I. to Type III.
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
271
129.
Polar reactions, Km, Km Am, and Km Am Ab under gradually increasing current
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
273
130.
Record exhibiting modified response Km Kb Am
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
275
131.
The Oscillating Recorder
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
279
132.
Record giving latent period of Biophytum
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
281
133.
Record of responses of Biophytum to stimuli ·1 and 1 unit
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
282
134.
Responses of Biophytum to stimuli ·1, ·5, 1, and 2 units
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
284
135.
Multiple response in Biophytum under strong electric shock
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
284
136.
Multiple response in Averrhoa under a single strong electric shock
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
285
137.
Multiple response under constant stimulus of light
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
285
138.
Multiple response under single strong thermal shock
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
286
139.
Multiple response induced by strong chemical stimulation
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
287
140.
Leaf of Desmodium gyrans
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
290
141.
U-tube support and plant-chamber
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
292
142.
Continuous record of pulsations of Desmodium leaflet for four hours
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
294
143.
Record of a single pulsation of Desmodium giving time-relations
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
296
144.
Record of two successive pulsations
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
297
145.
Series of automatic pulsations of Desmodium
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
298
146.
Effect of application of increased internal hydrostatic pressure on the pulsation of Desmodium
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
301
147.
Effect of increasing load on Desmodium pulsation
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
302
148.
Effect of ligature in inducing arrest of pulsation of Desmodium
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
303
149.
Arrest of pulsation by cut and revival by electric shock
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
304
150.
Action of light in renewing pulsation of Desmodium
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
307
151.
Response of Desmodium leaflet, originally in a state of stand-still
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
308
152.
Multiple response under tetanisation
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
308
153.
Response of Desmodium exhibiting apex time
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
309
154.
Record exhibiting refractory period in Desmodium
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
310
155.
After-effect of stimulation on pulsation of Desmodium in subtonic condition
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
312
156.
Effect of depletion of energy on pulsation of isolated Desmodium
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
313
157.
Gradual stoppage of pulsation in isolated leaflet of Desmodium
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
313
158.
Effect of stimulus in renewing pulsation of Desmodium, brought to standstill
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
315
159.
Response of Desmodium leaflet to stimulus of light
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
316
160.
Response of a depressed specimen of Desmodium
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
316
161.
Effects of strong tetanisation on Desmodium pulsation
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
318
162, 163.
Extra pulsation induced by induction-shock applied at diastolic phase
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
319
164.
Inhibitory effect of transmitted excitation on the pulsation of vigorous leaflet of Desmodium
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
320
165.
Augmentation of pulsation induced by transmitted excitation in less vigorous specimen of Desmodium
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
321
166.
Effect of lowering of temperature on the pulsation of heart
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
324
167.
Effect of lowering of temperature on pulsation of Desmodium
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
325
168, 169.
Effect of rapid cooling on Desmodium pulsation
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
326
170.
Effect of rise of temperature on amplitude and frequency of pulsation of the heart of frog
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
327
171, 172.
Effect of rise of temperature on the pulsation of Desmodium
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
328
173.
Effect of continuous rise of temperature from 30° C. to 38·5° C.
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
329
174.
Effect of continuous rise from 30° C. to 42° C. and return to 30° C.
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
330
175.
Effect of rise of temperature and return
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
330
176.
Effect of dilute sugar solution
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
333
177.
Effect of alcohol on the pulsation of Desmodium
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
333
178.
Effect of internal application of strong alcohol
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
334
179.
Effect of dilute carbonic-acid gas
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
334
180.
Effect of strong carbonic-acid gas
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
335
181.
Effect of internal application of carbonic acid
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
335
182.
Effect of vapour of ether
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
336
183.
Effect of vapour of chloroform
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
337
184.
Effect of carbon disulphide
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
337
185.
Effect of copper sulphate solution
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
338
186.
Effect of potassium cyanide
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
339
187.
Arrest of pulsation of the heart of frog at diastole by the action of dilute lactic acid
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
339
188.
Arrest of pulsation of Desmodium at diastole by application of dilute lactic acid
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
340
189.
Arrest of pulsation of heart at systole, by the action of dilute sodium hydrate
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
340
190.
Arrest of pulsation of Desmodium at systole by the application of dilute solution of sodium hydrate
•          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •          •
340
 

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