San Tzu Ching/Appendix 5

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[Another version of the interpolated lines. Author unknown.]


The Liao, Chin, and Yüan dynasties
Liao2 chin1 yüan2
Liao chin yüan

Liao see line 254A.

Chin see line 66.

Yüan see lines 94, 254E.


fought for the empire of the Sungs;
Chêng1 sung1 ting3
Contend sung tripod

Chêng see line 214.

Sung see line 227.

Ting is a picture of a two-handled tripod, the first specimen of which was cast in gold by the Great Yü (line 187) and was used by him to keep off hobgoblins during his engineering labours in the wilds. The word came to be used as a symbol of Imperial power.


and so time went on
T'ien1 yün4 huan2
Heaven revolve ring

T'ien see line 50.

Yün see line 60.

Huan is composed of 玉 jade as radical with a common phonetic. It means a bracelet or any kind of ring; hence it comes to be used as a verb.


until the reign of the Emperor Ping.
Chih4 ti4 ping3
Reach ruler ping

Chin see line 94.

Ti see line 180.

Ping is composed of 日 jih sun as radical, with 丙 ping a cyclical character as phonetic. It means glorious, but is here the personal name of the child Emperor, the last of the Sungs, who was drowned, together with his faithful Minister 陸秀夫 Lu Hsiu-fu, in A.D. 1279, in order to escape falling into the hands of the conquering Mongols.


Shih Tsu of the Yüan dynasty
Yüan1 shih4 tsu3
Yüan generation ancestor

Yüan see lines 94, 254E.

Shih see line 177.

Tsu see line 89. [Shih Tsu is the temple name of Kublai Khan, who reigned over China A.D. 1260–1294.]


was the first to actually occupy the throne;
Shih3 chêng4 wei4
Begin proper seat

Shih see line 134.

Chêng see line 326.

Wei is composed of 人 jen man as radical, with 立 li (line 306) as phonetic. See line 254e.


the dynasty lasting eighty-eight years,
Pa1 shih2 pa1
Eight ten eight

Pa see line 88.

Shih see line 45.

Pa see line 88. See line 254g.


with nine Emperors in all.
Kung3 chiu3 ti4
Together nine rulers

Kung is composed of 廿 ju or nien two tens joined together, with 廾 kung3 the hands folded in salutation. It was a radical in the Shuo Wên, but is now classed under radical 八 pa eight.

Chiu see line 33.

Ti see line 180.


A crowd of combatants arose,
Ch'ün2 hsiung2 ch'i3
Flock martial rise

Ch'ün see line 117.

Hsiung see line 210.

Ch'i see line 240.


of whom T'ai Tsu remained the conqueror.
T'ai4 tsu3 chêng1
Extreme ancestor vanquish

T'ai see line 254K.

Tsu see line 89. See 254j.

Chêng is composed of radical 彳 ch'ih to step with the left foot, with 正 chêng (line 326) as phonetic.


The dynasty was called the Ming,
Kuo2 hao4 ming2
State style ming

Kuo see line 155.

Hao see line 137.

Ming see line 110. See line 254j.


and the Mongol Emperor Shun fled.
Yüan2 shun4 pên1
Yüan shun fled

Yüan see lines 94, 254E.

Shun is composed of 頁 yeh head as radical, with 川 ch'uan streams as phonetic. It originally meant eternal principles, right, and has now come to signify flowing with, in accordance with, obedient to, etc., but is here the name given by the conquering Mings to Tohan Timur, the last Emperor of the Yüan or Mongol dynasty.

Pên was originally composed of 夭 yao calamity as radical, with 贲 pên or fên as phonetic. It is now classed under radical 十 shih ten.


When Ch'êng Tsu succeeded,
Ch'êng2 tsu3 chi4
Complete ancestor connect

Ch'êng see line 26.

Tsu see line 89. See 254m.

Chi see line 227.


he made two capitals.
Li4 liang3 ching1
Establish two city

Li see line 306.

Liang see line 226.

Ching see line 254O. See line 254n.


There were seventeen Emperors,
Shih2 ch'i1 chu3
Ten seven lord

Shih see line 45.

Ch'i see line 84.

Chu was originally the picture of an oil lamp or candlestick, with 丶 chu a flame, radical and phonetic, appearing above. It then came to signify lord, master, etc.


the line ending with Ch'ung Chêng.
Chih2 ch'ung2 chêng1
Stop ch'ung chêng

Chih see line 120.

Ch'ung see line 254Q.

Chêng see line 254Q.


The rebel Ch'uang threw everything into confusion,
Ch'uang3 tsei2 luan4
Ch'uang rebel confusion

Ch'uang see line 254s.

Tsei is composed of 戈 ho spear, its old radical, with 則 tsê (line 99) as phonetic. It means rebel, bandit, robber, and is now classed under radical 貝 pei valuables (line 161).

Luan see line 257.


and the prosperity of the Mings was exhausted.
Ming2 yün4 chieh2
Ming fortune exhaust

Ming see line 110.

Yün see line 60.

Chieh is composed of 立 li to establish as radical with 曷 ho how? what? etc. as phonetic.


Then valiant soldiers came on the scene,
Ta4 ping1 chih4
Great soldier arrive

Ta see line 127.

Ping is composed of 斤 chin an axe grasped by 廾 kung folded hands. It originally meant a weapon, and is now classed under radical 八 pa eight.

Chih see line 94.


and the rebels were forthwith extinguished.
Tsei2 sui2 mieh4
Rebels follow extinguish

Tsei see line 254q.

Sui is said to be the original form of 隋 sui (see 235).

Mieh see line 245.


Shun Chih mounted the throne,
Shun4 chih4 li4
Shun chih establish

Shun see line 254l.

Chih see line 257. [ Shun Chih was the year-title of the first Manchu-Tartar who actually reigned over China, A.D. 1644–1661.]

Li see line 306.


and his dynasty was called the Ta Ch'ing.
Hao4 ta4 ch'ing1
Style great pure

Hao see line 137.

Ta see line 127.

Ch'ing see line 254u.


Officials and people acknowledged his sway,
Ch'ên2 min2 fu2
Minister people submit

Ch'ên see line 54.

Min see line 344.

Fu was originally composed of 舟 chou boat as radical, with an obsolete word pronounced fu, and meaning to govern, as phonetic. It then meant to use, and is now classed under radical 月 yüeh moon.


and the empire was at peace.
T'ien1 hsia4 p'ing2
Heaven below level

T'ien see line 50.

Hsia see line 192.

P'ing see line 130.