Sanskrit Grammar/General Index

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GENERAL INDEX.


a-aorist (simple aorist, 2), 824, 846–54: in the later language, 846; roots forming it in the older language, 847; inflection, 848; modes, 849–51; participles, 852; irregularities, 853, 854.

a-class (first, bhū-class) of verbs, 606, 734–50; formation of stem, 734; inflection, 735–43; roots of the class, 744; irregularities, 745–50.

á-class or accented a-class (sixth, tud-class) of verbs, 606, 751–8: formation of stem, 751; inflection, 752; roots of the class, 753, 754; irregularities, 755–8.

a-conjugation — see conjugations.

a- or ā-declension, transference of cons.-stems to, 399, 415 a, 429 a, 437, 441 b; 1148 i, 1149 a, 1166 c, 1209; 1315.

a-stems (tense-stems), uniform inflection of, 733 a.

abbreviation of consonant-groups, 231–3.

ablative case, uses of, 289–93; ablative of comparison, 292 b; with prepositions, 293, 1128; used adverbially, 1114; abl. infinitive, 983; abl. by attraction with infln., 983 b; abl. use of adverbs in tas, 1098 d; abl. as prior member of compound, 1250. f.

absolute use of instrumental, 281 g; of genitive, 300 b; of locative, 303 b–d; of gerund, 994 e.

absolutive — see gerund.

abstract nouns, secondary derivation of, 1206, 1236–40.

accent, general, 80–97: its varieties, 80–6; accentuated texts, 87; modes of designating, 87, 88; illustration of RV. method, pp. 518–9; over-refinements of Hindu theory, 90; modern delivery of ancient accented texts, 91; no sentence accent, 92; accentless words, 93; words doubly accented, 94, 1255, 1267 d; accent of protracted syllable, 78 a; freedom of place of accent, 95; — changes of accent in vowel combination, 128, 130, 135 a; — accent in declension, 314–20; of vocative, 92 a, 314; change of accent in monosyllabic etc. declension, 316–9; in numeral, 482 g, 483 a–c; of fractionals, 488 a; of case-forms used as adverbs, 1111 g, 1112 e, 1114 d; different accent of action-nouns and agent-nouns, 1144 a; of determinative and possessive compounds, 1296; — accent of personal endings, 552–4; in relation to strong and weak forms, 556; of personal verb-forms in the sentence, 92 b, 591–8; of periphrastic formations, 945, 1073 e; of compounded verb-forms, 1082–5; — accent in primary derivation, 1144; in secondary, 1205; in composition, 1251; — ordinary accentuation of Skt. words by Western scholars, 96.

accusative case, uses of, 269–77: with verbs, 270, 274; with nouns and adjectives, 271, 272; with prepositions, 273, 1129; with verbs of motion and address etc., 274; cognate, 275; adverbial, 276, 1111; double, 277; accus. infinitive, 981, 986–8; gerund, 995; accus. as prior member of compound, 1250 a.

action-nouns and agent-nouns, chief classes of primary derivatives, 1145, 1146.

active voice, in verbs, 528, 529.

acute (udātta) accent, 81.

ad-class of verbs — see root-class.

adjective, its distinction from noun, 322; from pple, 967; formation of compound adj., 323–5, 1292 ff.; inflection of adj., 321–465; comparison, 466–74; adj. pronominally inflected, 522–6.

adjective compounds, secondary, 1247 g, 1292–1313; of other than possessive value, 1294, 1309, 1310; adj. copulative compounds, 1257.

adverbs, 1097–1122: adv. by derivation, 1097–1109; case-forms used as adv., 1110–17; adverbial compounds, 1111 d, 1313; verbal prefixes etc. as adv., 1118–20; inseparable prefixes, 1121; other miscellaneous adv., 1122; adv. used prepositionally, 1123 ff.; adv. copulative compounds, 1259; forms of comparison, 473 b.

agent-nouns — see action-nouns.

aggregative compounds — see copulative compounds.

alphabets used for writing Sanskrit, 1; older Indian, 2; the Devanāgarī alph., 1–17; varieties of writing and of type for, 3, pp. 516–7; characters and transliteration, 5; arrangement, 7; theory of use, 8, 9; native moda of writing, 9 a, b; modifications of this in Western practice, 9 c–e; vowel-writing, 10; consonant combinations, 12–15; other signs, 11, 16; numeral figures, 17; names of characters, 18; signs and transliteration of anusvāra, 73.

alphabet, spoken — see system of sounds.

alterant vowels, changing following s to , 180.

analysis of language in to its elements, 98, 99; anal. of compound words, 1248.

antithetical construction, its influence on accent of verb, 596, 597.

anusvāra, its pronunciation etc., 70–2; signs and transliteration, 73, 16 b: see also , .

aorist tense, 632; its uses, 926–30; in prohibitive expression, 579; — aor. system, 535, 824–930: classification of forms of aor., 824; character and occurrence, 825–7; variety from same root, 827 b, c; simple aor., 824, 828: 1. root-aor., 829–41; passive aor. 3d. sing., 842–5; 2. a-aor., 846–54; 3. reduplicated or causative aor., 856–73; sibilant-aor., 874–920; 4. s-aor., 878–897; 5. iṣ-aor., 898–910; 6. siṣ-aor., 911–15; 7. sa-aor., 916–20; aor. optative or precative of later language, 921–5; aor. in secondary conjugation, 1019, 1035, 1046–8, 1068; periphrastic aor., 1073 b; — s-aor. stem in derivation, 1140 c.

appositional compounds, 1280 d; appos. possessive compounds, 1302.

ar or in root and stem forms, 104 e, 237.

article, indefinite, represented later by eka, 482 c.

aspirate mutes, phonetic character etc. of, 37, 38; their deaspiration, 114, 163–5; restoration of lost aspiration to, 141 a, 147, 155; not before impv. ending dhi, 155 f; derivation of h from, 66; sonant aspirate with following t, th, 160; non-aspirate for aspirate in reduplication, 590 a: — and see the different letters.

aspiration (h), its pronunciation etc., 59, 65, 66: — and see h.

asseverative particles, 1122 a, b.

assimilation in euphonic combination, 115–20; with or without change of articulate position, 116; surd and sonant, 117, 156–64; nasal, 117 g, 198 b, 199 c; l, 117 g, 206; dental to lingual and palatal, 118; other cases, 118–20.

augment, 585–7; a as augment, 585 a; omission, 587; irreg. combination with initial vowel of root, 136 a; irregularly placed, 1087 c, f; uses of augmentless preterit persons, 563, 587; with prohibitive, 579.

avyayībhāva compounds, 1313.


bahuvrīhi compounds — see possessive compounds.

benedictive — see precative.

bhū-class of verbs — see a-class.

cardinal numerals, 475; their combinations, 476–81; inflection, 482–5; construction, 486; derivatives, 487–9.

case-endings — see endings of declension.

case-forms, prolongation of final vowel of. 248 b; used as adverbs, 1110–17; change of accent in such, 1111 g, 1112 e, 1114 d; their prepositional uses, 1125 d; derivatives from case-forms, 1202 b; case-forms in composition, 1250.

cases, 266; their order of arrangement, 266 a; uses, 267–305: — and see the different cases.

causative conjugation, 540, 607, 775, 856 ff., 1041–52; relation to so-called tenth or cur-class, 607, 1041 b; to denominative, 1041 c, 1056; formation of stem, 1041, 1042; inflection, present-system, 775, 1043; other older forms, 1044; perfect, 1045; attached reduplicated aorist, 1046, 1047, 856 ff.; other aorist forms, 1048, 1049; future etc., 1050; verbal nouns and adjectives, 1051; derivative or tertiary conjugations from caus. stem, 1052; caus. from intens., 1025; from desid., 1039; declinable stems from caus. stem, 1140 b; double object with causatives, 277 a, 282 b.

cerebral mutes, 33, 45.

changeable or variable of roots — see variable.

circumflex, (svarita) accent, 81–6, 90 b; independent, 81–4; its varieties, 84; enclitic, 85; their difference, 86; designation, 87–9; occurrence from vowel combinations, 128, 130, 135.

classes or series of mutes, 32 ff.

classes of verbs — see conjugation-classes.

clauses, simplicity of combination of, 1131 a; dependent clauses, mode in, 581, 950; accent of verb in, 595.

collective singular form of copulative compounds, 1253 c; in Veda, 1255 e, 1256 b.

combination of elements, 100, 101; euphonic rules for, 109–260; distinction of internal and external, 109–12; general arrangement of rules, 124; order of comb. of three successive vowels, 127 b.

comparison of adjectives etc., 466–74; primary, in īyas and īṣṭha, 467–70, 1184; secondary, in tara and tama, 471–3, 1242 a, b; in ra and ma, 474, 1242 c; inflection of comparatives in yas, 463–5; comp. of nouns, pronouns, prepositions, 473, 474, 520, 1119; of verbs, 473 c; double comparison, 473 d; particles of comp., 1101 b, 1102 e, 1107, 1122 g, h.

comparison or likeness, descriptive compounds of, 1291 a.

compensatory vowel-lengthening, 246.

composition of stems — see compound stems.

compound conjugation, 540 a, 1076–95: roots with verbal prefixes and like elements, 1076–89; accent of comp. forms, 1082–6; irreglarities, 1087; roots with inseparable prefixes, 1089, 1121 b, g, i; with noun and adjective stems, 1090–5.

compound stems, formation of, 101, 1246–1316: difference of earlier and later language as to composition, 1246 a; classification of compounds, 1247; their analysis, 1248; rules of phonetic combination, 1249; case-forms as prior member, 1250; accent, 1251; copulative comp. , 1252–61 ; determinative: dependent, 1262–78; descriptive, 1279–91; secondary adjective: possessive, 1292–1308; participial, 1309; prepositional, 1310; adjective comp. as nouns and as adverbs, 1311–3; anomalous comp., 1314; stem-finals altered in comp., 1315; loose construction with comp., 1316.

conditional tense, 532, 940, 941; its uses, 950; conditional uses of optative and subjunctive, 581 b, e, f.

conjugation, verbal inflection, 527–1095; general, 527–98; voice, 528–31; tenses and their uses, 592, 776–9, 821–3, 926–30, 948–50; modes and their uses, 533, 557–82, 921–5; tense-systems, 535; present-system, 535, 599–779; perfect-system, 780–823; aorist-systems, 824–930; future-systems, 931–50; number and person, 536; personal endings, 541–56; verbal adjectives and nouns, 537–9, 951–95; secondary conjugations, 540, 996–1068; periphrastic and compound conjugation, 540 a, 1069–95; examples of conjugation in synopsis, p. 520.

conjugation-classes, on what founded, 601; their characters, 602–10.

conjugations, first or non-a and second or a-conjugation, 601–8, 733; transfers from the former to the latter, 625 a, 631 a, 665 a, 670–4, 694 a, 716, 731, 896.

conjunctions, 1131–3.

consonants, pronunciation etc., 31–75: mutes, 32–50; semivowels, 51–8; spirants, 59–66; visarga and anusvāra etc., 67–73; quantity, 76; cons. allowed as finals, 122, 139–52; occurring at end of stems and endings, 139 a: — and see the different classes and letters.

consonant-groups, how written in devanāgarī, 9, 12–5; their extension and abbreviation, 121, 227–33.

consonantal stems, declension of, 377–465; their classification, 382.

contemptuous prefix, 506, 1121 e; do. suffix, 521, 1222 d.

copulative compounds, 1247 a–c, 1252–61; of nouns, 1253–6; adjectives, 1257; adverbs, 1259; numerals, 1261; copulatives in later language, 1253, 1254; in Rig-Veda, 1255; in Atharva-Veda, 1256; accent, 1258; possessives from copulatives, 1293 b.

cur-class of verbs, 607, 775, 1041 b, 1056; — and see causative conjugation.


dative case, uses of, 285–8; dat. infinitive, 982, 986; dat. used adverbially, 1113; dat. by attraction with infin., 982 a; dat. as prior member of compound, 1250 c.

deaspiration of aspirate mutes, 114, 153–5; consequent re-aspiration of initial, 141 a, 147, 155.

declension, in general, 261–320; gender, 263; number, 264, 265; case, 266; uses of the cases, 267–305; endings of decl., 306–10; variation of stem and insertions, 311–3; accent, 814–20; decl. of nouns and adjectives, 321–465; classification, 321 b, c; I. a-stems, 326–34; II. i-and u-stems, 335–46; III. ā-, ī-, and ū (and diphthongal) stems. 347–68; IV. -stems, 369–76; V. consonant-stems, 377–465: A. root-stems etc., 383–410; B. derivative stems in as, is, us, 411–9; C. in an, 420–37; D. in in, 438–41; E. in ant, 442–57; F. in vāṅs, 458–62; G. in yas, 463–5; — decl. of numerals, 482–5; of pronouns, 491–521; of adjectives inflected pronominally, 522–6.

declinable stems, composition of, with verbs, 1090–5; derivation of — see derivation.

decompound compounds and their analysis, 1248.

decrement and increment of elements, 123, 234 ff.

demonstrative pronouns, 495–603.

denominative conjugation, 540 a, 1053–68; formation without sign, 1054; with sign ya, from stems of various final, 1055–64; their occurrence, 1057; meaning, 1058; relation of aya- and āya-stems, 1059 c; relation to causative. 1041 c, 1056, 1067; with signs sya, kāmya, āpaya, 1064, 1065; with āya, beside -class verbs etc., 732, 1066; from other stems, 1066 a, c; inflection, 1068; declinable stems from denom. stem, 1068 b, 1149 d, 1178 h, i, 1180 d.

dental series of mutes (t, th, d, dh, n), pronunciation etc., 33, 47, 48; peculiar quality of Skt. dentals, 47 a; dent. character of , 25; of l, 51, 53; of s, 60; assimilation of dent. to palatals and linguals, 118, 196–203, 205; dent, sibilant and nasal converted to lingual, 180–95; anomalous conversions to guttural and lingual, 151 a, b; of guttural, palatal, and labial to dental, 151 c, e; — and see the different letters.

dependent clause, accent of verb in, 595.

dependent compounds, 1247 d–f, 1263, 1264–78; noun, 1264; adjective, 1265; their varieties, 1266–78; with ordinary noun or adjective as final member, 1267, 1268; with root-stem, 1269; derivative in a, 1270; ana, 1271; ya, 1272; participle in ta or na, 1273; ti, 1274; in, 1275; i, 1276; van, man, etc., 1277, 1278; dep. comp. in possessive use, 1296.

derivation of adverbs, 1097–1109; of declinable stems, 1136–1245: in general, 1136–42; primary, 1143–1201; secondary, 1202–45.

derivative or secondary conjugation — see secondary.

descent, adjectives and nouns indicating, 1206 a.

descriptive compounds, 1247 d–f, 1263, 1279–91; of ordinary adjective with noun, 1280; of appositional noun with noun, 1280 d; with participle as final member, 1283, 1284; with gerundive, 1285; with root-stem, 1286; with other verbal derivatives, 1287; with inseparable prefix as prior member, 1288; with verbal prefix etc., 1289; with other adverbial words, 1290; special cases, 1291; descr. comp. in possessive use, 1297 ff.

desiderative conjugation, 540, 1026–40; meaning, 1026, 1040; used in future sense, 1040 a; formation of stem, 1027–9; abbreviated stems, 1030; use of union-vowel i, 1031; inflection, present-system, 1032; other forms, 1033–6; derivative or tertiary conjugations from desid. stem, 1039; desid. from causative stem, 1052 c; declinable stems from desid. stem, 1035, 1036, 1140 b, 1149 d, 1159 b, 1161 d, 1178 g; desid. root-stems, 392 d; future in desid. sense, 949; desid. in future sense, 1040 a.

determinative compounds, 1247 d–f, 1202–91; dependent, 1264–78; descriptive, 1279–91; in possessive adjective use, 1293 ff.

devatā-dvandva compounds, 1251 a, 1255.

diminutives, secondary derivation of, 1206 b, 1222 d, 1243.

diphthongs (e, āi, o, āu), mode of writing with consonants, 10 g, h; pronunciation etc., 27 30; protraction of, 78 c; euphonic combination as finals, 131–5: — and see the different letters.

diphthongal stems, declension of, 360, 361.

div- or dīv-class of verbs — see ya-class.

double stems, present, 815: aorist 894 d, 897 b.

doubling of aspirate mutes, 154; of a final nasal, 210; of ch, 227; of first consonant of a group, 229; of a consonant after r (and h, l, v), 228.

dual number, its use, 265; its forms in declension, 308; in personal pronoun, 492 b.

dual finals e, ī, ū uncombinable, 138 a, g.

dvandva compounds — see copulative.

dvigu compounds, 1312.


eighth class of verbs — see u-class.

elision of initial a, 135; how marked, 16; its infrequency in Veda, 135 c; elision of initial ā, 136 d; of final a or ā, 137 b.

emphasis, accent of verb for, 598.

emphatic pronoun, 513.

enclitic or dependent circumflex, 85, 86.

endings, of inflection and derivation, 98–100; of declension, 306–10; of singular, 307; dual, 308; plural, 309; normal scheme, 310; end. of a-stems, 327–9 ; of i-and u-stems, 336–8; of radical ā-, ī-, ū-stems, 349; of derivative do., 363; of -stems, 371; of personal pronouns, 492, 493; of general pronominal declension, 496; — end. of conjugation, 523, 541–69; of 1st sing., 543; 2d, 544; 3d, 545; of 1st du., 546; 2d and 3d, 547; of 1st pl., 548; 2d, 549; 3d, 550; normal schemes, 553; accent, 552–4; end. of 2d and 3d sing taking the place of root-final, 555 a; union-vowels, 555 b, c; end. of subjunctive combined with mode-sign, 560–2; of optative, 566; of precative, 568; tāt of imperative, 570; — end. of derivation — see suffixes.

euphonic combination of elements, 100, 101; rules respecting it, 109–226.

exclamatory pronoun, 507; exclam. prefix from interrogative pronoun, 506, 1121 e.

extension of cons.-groups, 227–30.

external and internal combination, distinction of, 109–12; cases of external comb. in declension, 111 a, b; in derivation, 111 c, d, 1203 e.


feminine stems: to ā-stems, 332, 334 b; to i- and u-stems, 344–6; to -stems, 376 a; to cons.-stems, 378 a, 401 c, 435, 436, 449, 452 b, 459, 463 d; fem. in ī from ya-stems, 1210 c; fem. stems in composition, 1250 h.

fifth class of verbs — see nu-class.

finals, permitted, 122, 139–52; most usual, 149; only one final consonant allowed, 150; exceptions, 150 b, c; anomalous changes of final mutes, 151; final consonants of stems and endings, 139 a.

final clauses, modes used in, 581 c, d.

first class of verbs — see a-class.

first or non-a-conjugation of verbs, its characteristics, 604.

forms, stronger and weaker, of roots and stems, 104 e, 105, 106; — and see variation of stem.

fourth class of verbs — see ya-class.

fractional use of ordinals, 488.

frequentative conjugation — see intensive.

future passive participles — see gerundives.

future tenses, 532; their uses, 948, 949; fut. systems, 535, 931–50; s-fature and conditional, 932–41; periphrastic future, 942–7; future use of pres., 777; of desid., 1040 a; desid. use of fut., 948 b; fut. participial phrases, 1075 d.


gender in declension, 262, 263.

general and special tenses, 599 a.

genitive case, uses of, 294–300; with adj., 296; with verb, 297, 298; with prepositions, 299 a, 1130; with adverbs, 299 b; gen. absolute, 300 b; loss of accent of gen. with vocative, 314 d, e; gen. infinitive, 984; gen. used adverbially, 300 a, 1115; as prior member of compound, 1250 e.

gerunds, 539, 989–95; their uses, 989, 994; ger. in tvā, 990, 991, 993; in ya or tya, 990, 992, 993; in tvāya and tvī, 993 b; in tvānam and tvīnam, 993 c; adverbial gerund in am, 995.

gerundives, or future passive participles, 961–6, 1212 i, 1213, 1216–8; ger. in ya, 962–3, 1213, in tavya, 962, 964, 1212 i; in anīya, 962, 965, 1215 b; in tva, 966 a, 1209 h; in enya, 966 b, 1217; in āyya, 966 c, 1218; in elima, 966 d, 1201 a; ger. in composition, 1285.

grave (anudātta) accent, 81.

guṇa-strengthening, character and occurrence of, 27, 235–43, and passim; in primary derivation, 1143 a; in secondary, 1203 a, 1204 g.

guttural series of mutes (k, kh, g, gh, n̄), pronunciation etc., 33, 39–41, 180 a; asserted gutt. character of a, 20 a; of h, 65 a; palatals from original gutt., 41–3; ç and h do., 64, 66; reversion of palatals etc. to gutt. form, 43, 64, 142, 145, 147, 214–26: — and see the different letters.


heavy and light syllables, 79.

hiatus, avoidance of, 113, 125–38; not avoided in Veda, 113 b, 125 c, 129 e; its occurrence as result of euphonic processes, 132–4, 175 b, d, 177.

hu-class of verbs — see reduplicating class.


imperative mode, 533, 569, 572, 575, 578; scheme of its endings, 553 d; its 1st persons old subjunctive, 533, 574, 578; impv. form in tāt and its uses, 570, 571; with prohibitive, 579 c; Vedic 2d sing. in si, 624; impv. use of infinitives, 982 d.

imperfect, tense, 532, 599; its use, 779.

imperfect time, no real designation of, 532 a.

increment and decrement of elements 123, 234 ff.

indeclinables, 98 a, 1096–1135; adverbs, 1097–1122; prepositions, 1123–30; conjunctions, 1131–3; interjections, 1134, 1135; derivative stems from indeclinables, 1202 b, 1245; compounds with indecl. as final member, 1314 a, f.

indefinite pronouns, 513 c; indef. use of interrogative and relative pronouns, 507, 511.

infinitives, 538, 968–88; later, 968, 987; earlier, 969–79; uses, 980–8; relation to ordinary verbal nouns, 969, 970 l.

inseparable prefixes, 1121; in descriptive composition, 1283 ff., 1288; in possessive, 1304.

insertions between stem and ending in declension, 313.

instrumental case, uses of, 278–84; of separation, 283 a; with prepositions, 284, 1127; gerundial, 989; used adverbially, 1112; as prior member of compound, 1250 b.

intensive (or frequentative) conjugation, 540, 1000–25; character and occurrence, 1000, 1001; reduplication, 1002, 1003; inflection, present-system, 1004–17; derivative middle inflection, 1016, 1017; forms outside present-system, 1018, 1019, 1026; doubtful intens. formations, 1020–4; derivative or tertiary conjugations from intens. stem, 1025.

interjections, 1134, 1135; their final vowel uncombinable. 138 f.

internal and external combination, distinction of, 109–12.

internal change, question of derivation by, 1208 i.

interrogative particles, 1122 f.

interrogative pronoun, 504–7; its indefinite use, 507; exclamatory prefix from it, 506, 1121 j.

inverted compounds, 1291 c, 1314 d.

iṣ-aorist, 824, 898–910: formation of stem, 898–900; inflection, 901, 902; roots making it, 903; irregularities, 904; modes, 905–8; from secondary conjugations, 1019, 1035, 1048, 1068 a.


jihvāmūlīya-spirant, 69, 170 d.


karmadhāraya compounds — see descriptive compounds.

krī-class of verbs — see -class.


labial series of mutes (p, ph, b, bh, m), pronunciation etc., 33, 49, 50; lab. character of u, ū, 20; of v, 51, 57, 68; anomalous conversion of labial to guttural, 151 d; to dental, 151 e: — and see the different letters.

lengthening of vowels in formation and inflection, 244–6; of final vowel in composition, 247, 1087 b; in the sentence in Veda, 248.

light and heavy syllables, 79.

lightening of a or ā to an i- or u-vowel, 249 ff.

lingual series of mutes (ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ), pronunciation etc., 33, 45, 46; non-originality and ordinary derivation, 46; ling. character of , 25; of r, 51, 52; ling. l, 5 a, 54; ling, character of , 61; assimilation of dentals to ling., 118, 196 ff.; lingualization of s and n, 180–95: — and see the different letters.

locative case, uses of, 301–5; loc. absolute, 303 b–d; of goal of motion or action, 301 e. 304; with prepositions, 305, 1126; used adverbially, 303 e, 1116; loc. infinitive, 985; loc. use of adverbs in tra, 1099; in ha, 1100 a; in , 1103 b; loc. as prior member of compound, 1250 d.

long and short quantity, 76–9.


manner, particles of, 1101, 1102, 1107, 1122 k.

manuscripts, native Sanskrit, mode of writing in, 9 a, b.

middle stem-form in declension, 311.

middle voice, 528–30; its use as passive, 531, 998 c, d.

mode in verbal inflection, 533; subjunctive, 557–63; optative, 564–8; imperative, 569–71; uses of the modes, 572–82.

multiplicative numeral adverbs, 489 a, 1104–6.

mutes, series of, their pronunciation etc., 32–50: classification, 32–8; guttural series, 39–41; palatal, 42–4; lingual, 45, 46; dental, 47, 48; labial, 49, 50; assimilation, 117 a, b; mutes permitted as finals, 141–3; anomalous conversions from one series to another, 151: — and see the different series.


-class (ninth, krī-class) of verbs, 603, 717–32: formation of stem, 717; inflection, 718–26: roots of the class, 727; irregularities, 728–32; accompanying denominative in āya, 732, 1066 b.

nasal assimilation, 117 c, f, g, 161, 198 b, 199 c.

nasal class (seventh, rudh-class) of verbs, 603, 683–96: formation of stem, 683; inflection, 684–92; roots of the class, 694; irregularities, 693–6.

nasal increment in strong forms, 255, 386.

nasal mutes (n̄, ñ, ṇ, n, m), 34. 36; their occurence as finals, 143; duplication, 210; assimilation of preceding mute, 161, 198 b, 199 b; abbreviation of consonant-group after, 231; — nasal spirant or anusvāra, 70–3; — nasal semivowels, 71 c, 206, 213 c; — nasal vowels, 71, 72: — and see the different letters.

nasality, Hindu definition of, 36 a.

negative particles, 1122 c–e; neg. prefix, 1121 a–c.

neutral pron. of a, 21.

ninth class of verbs — see -class.

nominative case, uses of, 267, 268; peculiar construction with verbs, 268 a; with iti, 268 b; with vocative, 268 c; used adverbially, 1117; nom. use of infinitive, 987; nom. form as particle, 1117; in composition, 1250 f.

noun and adjective, distinction of, 322; inflection of nouns — see declension.

nu-class (fifth, su-class) of verbs, 603, 697–716: formation of stem, 697; inflection, 698–707; roots of the class, 708; irregularities, 710v3, 716.

number in declension, 264, 265; in conjugation, 636; number-forms in composition, 1250 g.

numerals, 475–89; simple cardinals, 475; their combinations for odd numbers, 476–81; inflection, 482–5; construction, 486; ordinals, 487, 488; other num. derivatives, 489, 1104–6, 1246; num. figures, 17; possessive compounds with num., 1300; num. or dvigu compounds, 1312.


omission, sign indicating, 16.

onomatopoetic words, 1091, 1135 b.

optative mode, 533, 564–8; its formation, 564, 565; scheme of endings combined with mode-sign, 566; precative, 567, 921–6; scheme of prec. endings, 568; uses of opt. , 67382; with prohibitive, 579 b; optative use of auginentless preterit forms, 587.

order of subjects in the grammar, 107; as best taken up by a student, 108, 112; of subjects in euph. combination, 124.

ordinal numeral adjectives, 487, 488.


pada-endings in declension, 111 a.

palatal series of mutes (c, ch, j, jh, ñ), pronunciation etc., 33, 42–4; derived from original gutturals, 42; reversion to guttural form, 43, 214 ff.; euphonic combinations, 118, 119, 214–20; treatment as finals, 142; assimilation of dentals to, 196–203; pal. character of i, ī, 20; of y, 51, 56; of ç, 63, 64; palatal for guttural in reduplication, 590 b: — and see the different letters.

participial compounds, 1247 g, 1309.

participles, 534, 537, 583, 584, 1172–7; of present-systems, 619 etc. etc.; of perfect, 802–7; of aorist, 840, 852, 872, 897, 909; of future, 939; passive part., 952–8, 1176, 1177; active, in tavant, navant, 959, 960; future passive, 961–6; of secondary conjugations, 1012, 1013, 1019, 1037, 1043 e, f, 1051, 1068; part. in possessive composition, 1299; — inflection of part. in ant, 443–9; in vāṅs, 458–62; part. phrases, periphrastic, 1074, 1076; — relation of part. and adjective, 967.

particles, 98 a; prolongation of final vowel of, 248 a; part, giving accent to verb, 595 c, e, 598 a.

passive conjugation, 531, 540, 998; present-system (-class), 606, 768–74; aorist 3d sing., 842–5, 1048; periphrastic perfect, 1072; participle in ta or na, 952–8, 1051 b, 1176, 1177; future participles, 961–6 (and see gerundives); pass. use of infinitive, 988; pass. from intransitives, 999 a; pass, of secondary conjugations, 1025, 1039, 1052 a; pass. constructions, 282 a, 999.

past use of present tense. 777, 778.

perfect tense, 532; scheme of its endings, 553 c; uses, 821–3; — perf.-system, 535, 780–823: for- mation of stem, 781–94; reduplication, 782–91; strong and weak stem-forms, 792–4; endings and their combination with stem, 795–9; union-vowel i, 796–8; inflection, 800; irregularities, 801; participle, 802–7; its inflection, 458–62; modes, 808–16; pluperfect, 817–20; — periphrastic perf., 1070–73.

perfect time, expressed by so-called aorist, 532 a, 825, 928; by perfect, 822, 823; by participial phrases, 1075 d.

periphrastic conjugation, 540 a, 1069–75; periph. future, 532, 931, 942–7; its uses, 949; perfect, 1070–3, 1018, 1034, 1045; aorist and precative, 1073 b; present, 1073 c; periph. participial phrases, 1074, 1075.

person in verbal inflection, 536.

personal endings — see endings of conjugation. personal pronouns, 491–4; nouns used as such, 514.

phrases, derivatives from, 1202 b; compounds from, 1314 b.

place, particles of, 1099, 1100, 1122 i.

pluperfect tense, 532, 817–20; plup. time, no designation of, 532 a; save by participial phrases, 1075 d.

position, length of syllable by, 79.

possessive adjectives, 1106 a, 1229 b, 1230–35; pronominal, 516.

possessive compounds, 324, 1247 g, 1293–1308; poss. dependents, 1296; poss. descriptives, 1297 ff.: with ordinary adjective as prior member, 1298; with participle, 1299; with numeral, 1300; with appositive noun, 1301–3; with adverb, 1304–6; added suffixes, 1212 c, 1307; pregnant use, 1308.

precative optative, 533 b; its formation, 567; scheme of endings, 568; prec. in later language, 921–5; use, 673 c.

propositions, 1123–30; words used as such, 1123–5; cases construed with them, 1126–30; gerunds used as, 994 g; — prep, in composition with roots — see verbal prefixes.

prepositional compounds, 1247 g, 1310; with added suffix, 1212 m.

present tense, 532; its uses, 777, 778; — pres.-system, 535, 599–779: prominence as part of verb-system, 600; varieties of form and their classification, 601–9; various from same root, 609; conjugations and conjugation-classes, 602–10; first or non-a-conjugation: I. root-class, 611–41; II. reduplicating class, 642–82; III. nasal class, 683–96; IV. nu- and u-class, 697–716; V. -class, 717–32; second or a-conjugation, 733: VI. a-class, 734–50; VII. accented á-class, 751–8; VIII. ya-class, 759–67; IX. -class, or passive conjugation, 768–74; so-called cur- or tenth class, 775; uses of tenses, 776–9; of modes, 572–81; pres. stems, derivatives from, 1140 c.

present use of perfect, 821 c, 823; of aorist, 930.

presumption or conjecture, future of, 948.

primary and secondary personal endings, 542 ff.; confusion of them in use, 636 d, 933 a, 938; normal schemes, 553.

primary derivation, 1138–1201: relation to secondary, 1139; from what made, 1140, 1141; union-vowels, 1142; form of root, 1143; accent, 1144; meaning, 1145, 1146; prim. suffixes and the derivatives made with them, 1148–1201.

prohibitive expression, 574, 579, 580.

pronominal roots, 490; their character, in inflection and derivation, 1137 b, 1138; adverbs from them, 1097 ff.

pronouns, 490–521: personal, 491–4; demonstrative, 495–503; interrogative, 504–7; relative, 508–12; emphatic, indefinite, 513; nouns used pronominally, 514; pron. derivative adjectives, 515–21; adjectives declined pronominally, 522–6.

pronunciation — see system of sounds.

protracted (pluta) quantity, 78; protr. final vowel uncombinable, 138 e.

punctuation, signs of, in devanāgarī, 16 d.

quantity of consonants and vowels, 768; of syllables, 79.


r-endings of 3d pl., 550 d.

radical stems — see root-stems.

reduplicated (or causative) aorist, 824, 856–73, 1046, 1047; formation of stem, 857–63; inflection, 864–7; use in primary conjugation, 868; in causative, 1046, 1047; modes, 869–71.

reduplicating class (third, hu-class) of verbs, 603, 642–82; reduplication and accent, 642–6; inflection, 647–57; roots of the class, 659; irregularities, 658, 660–82.

reduplication, occurrence of, 259; general rules for forming, 588–90; present red., 643, 660 ff.; perfect, 782–91; aorist, 857–63; intensive, 1002; desiderative, 1029; in derivation, 1143 e; anomalous, 1087 f.

relationship, nouns of, in , 369 ff., 1182 f.

relative clauses, peculiarities of, 512; modes used in, 581 a; accent of verb in, 595.

relative compounds, improper name for possessive, 1293 d.

relative pronoun, 508–12.

repeated words, 1260.

resolution, in Veda, of semivowels into vowels, and of vowels into two syllables, 55 a, 58 a, 84 c, 113 b, 125 c, 129 e, 309 f, 353 a, 470 b, 566 c, 761 g, 771 g.

reversion, so-called, of palatal mutes and sibilant, and of h, to guttural form, 43, 64, 66, 119, 142, 145, 147, 214 ff., 681, 787, 1028 f, 1176 a.

roots, 98–100; roots of the Skt. language, 102–5; roots and root-forms acc. to the native grammarians, 103, 104.

root-aorist, 824, 829–45: in later language, 829; in older, 830 ff.; modes, 836–9; participles, 840; passive aor. 3d sing., 842–6.

root-class (second, ad-class) of verbs, 603, 611–41; inflection, 612–23; roots of the class, 626; irregularities, 624, 626–41.

root-stems, their occurrence and use, 323, 383, 1137, 1147; as infinitives, 970 a, 971; in dependent composition, 1269; in descriptive, 1286; inflection of such stems in ā, ī, ū, 349–361; in consonants, 383–410; sometimes govern accus., 271 d; neut. pl. forms, 379 b.

rudh-class of verbs — see nasal class.


s-aorist, 824, 878–97: formation of stem, 878, 879; endings and combination with stem, 880, 881; question of loss of s in certain forms, 834, 881; inflection, 882; irregularities, 884–91; absence of ī in 2d and 3d sing. in older language, 888–90; modes, 892–6; participles, 897; — s-aor. stem in derivation, 1140 c.

s-future, 931–9: formation of stem, 932, 936; use of union-vowel i, 934, 935; occurrence, 937; modes, 938; participles, 939; its preterit, the conditional, 940, 941; uses, 948.

sa-aorist, 824, 916–20: roots allowed later to make it, 916; occurrence in older language, 919, 920; inflection, 917, 918.

second class of verbs — see root-class.

second or a-conjugation of verbs, its characteristics, 605, 733.

secondary adjective compounds, 1247 g, 1292–1310.

secondary conjugations, 640, 996–1068: passive, 998, 999; intensive, 1000–1025; desiderative 1026–40; causative, 1041–52; denominative, 1063–68; tertiary, or derivative from secondary, 1025, 1039, 1052.

secondary derivation, 1138, 1139, 1202–45; relation to primary, 1139; union-vowels, 1142; forms of stem, 1203, 1204; accent, 1205; meaning, 1206; sec. suffixes and the derivatives made with them, 1207–45; external combination in sec. derivation, 111 c, d, 1203 e.

secondary personal endings, 542 ff.; normal scheme, 553 b.

semivowels (y, r, l, v), pronunciation etc., 51–8; nasal semiv., 71 c, f, 206, 213 d; semiv. assimilation, 117 d–f: — and see the different letters.

sentence, rules of euphonic combination in, 101; their probable artificiality, 101 a.

series or classes of mutes, 32 ff.

seventh class of verbs — see nasal class.

sh-sounds ( and ç), 61, 63.

short and long quantity, 76–9.

sibilants (ç, ṣ, s), pronunciation etc., 60–4: — and see the different letters.

sibilant or sigmatic aorist, 824, 874–920: formation and classification, 874–7; 4. s-aorist, 878–97; 5. iṣ-aorist, 898–910; 6. siṣ-aorist, 911–5; 7. sa-aorist, 916–20; its stem in derivation, 1140 c.

simple aorist, 824, 828–55: 1. root-aorist, 829–41; passive aor. 3d sing., 842–5; 2. a-aorist, 846–55.

siṣ-aorist, 824, 911–5: formation of stem, and inflection, 911; forms in older language, 912, 913; modes, 914; middle forms, 915.

sixth class of verbs — see á-class.

sonant and surd sounds, 34, 35; Hindu definition of their difference, 34 b; mutes, 34, 35; aspirates, 37, 38; question as to character of h, 65 a; of final mute, 141 b; euphonic assimilation of the two classes, 117, 156–78.

special and general tenses, 599 a.

spirants, 59 ff.: sibilants, 59–64; aspiration, 65; other breathings, 67–9.

stems, inflectible, 98–100, 106; their derivation — see derivation.

strengthening and weakening processes, 234–60.

strong and weak, or strong, middle, and weakest, forms of stems in declension, 311; of roots and stems in general, 104–6; confusions of strong and weak forms in decl., 462 c; in conj., 556 a; strong forms in 2d sing., 723; in 2d du., 704, 831 a, 839, 1007 b; in 3d du., 793 h, 839; in 1st pl., 621 b, 658, 676 a, 793 h, 831 a, 832; in 2d pl., 618, 621 b, 654, 658, 669, 690, 704, 707, 723, 831 a, 839; in 3d pl., 793 h, 831 a.

su-class of verbs — see nu-class.

subjunctive mode, 533; formation and endings, 557–62; its first persons used later as imperative, 533, 574, 578; subj. use of augmeutless preterit forms, 563, 587; uses of subj. mode, 574–82.

suffixes, 98–100; forming adverbs, 1097–1109; do. declinable stems — see derivation.

superlative — see comparison.

surd and sonant sounds — see sonant.

syllables, quantity of, 79; distinguished as heavy and light, 79.

system of sounds, 19–75: vowels and diphthongs, 19–30; consonants, 31 ff.; mutes, 32–50; semivowels, 51–8; sibilants, 59–64; aspiration, 65, 66; visarga and other breathings, 68, 69; anusvāra, 703; unwritten sounds defined by Hindu grammarians, 74, 230; scheme of spoken alphabet, with notice of comparative frequency of the sounds, 75; quantity, 76–9; accent and its designation, 80–97.


tan-class of verbs — see u-class.

tatpuruṣa-compounds — see determinatives.

tense in verbal inflection, 532; tense-systems, 535; present-system, 599–779; perfect-system, 780–823; aorist-systems, 824–930; future- systems, 931–950.

tenth class of verbs — see causative conjugation, and cur-class.

tertiary, or derivative from secondary, conjugations, 1025, 1039, 1052, 1068 a.

third class of verbs — see reduplicating class.

time, particles of, 1103, 1122 j.

transliteration, general method of, 5; of sign of elision, 135 b; of combined final and initial vowels, 126 a; of anusvāra, 73 c; of accent, 83 a, 89.

tud-class of verbs — see á-class.


u-class (eighth, tan-class) of verbs, 603, 697–716; formation of stem, 697; inflection, 698–707; roots of the class, 709; irregular root kṛ or kar, 714, 715; other irregularities, 716.

uncombinable (pragṛhya) final vowels, 138.

uninflected words — see indeclinables.

union-vowels, 254, 555 b, c; i in present inflection, 630, 631, 640; in perfect, 796–8, 803; in aorist, 876 b, 877; in s-future, 934, 935; in periphrastic future, 943; in desiderative, 1031; in passive participle, 956; in infinitive and gerund, 968, 991; in derivation, 1142; — ī in present inflection, 631–4; in 2d and 3d sing., 555 b; in intensive, 1004 ff.; ī for i, 900 b; āi for ī, 555 c.

upadhmāniya-spirant, 69, 170 d.


variable or changeable of roots, 242; treatment of, 245 b; in passive, 770 c; in s-aor., 885; in iṣ-aor., 900 b; in prec., 922 a; in s-fut., 935 a; in pple, 955 d, 957 b; in infln., 968 d; in tvā-gerund, 991 b; in ya-gerund, 992 a; in desid., 1028 b.

variation of stem-form in declension, 311, 312; in -stems, 370 b; in consonantal stems, 379, 385–8, 421, 443, 444, 458, 463; — in conjugation, 556; in present-stem, 604; in perfect. 792–4; in aorist, 831 ff., 879, 899; in intensive, 1004; in primary derivation, 1143; in secondary, 1203, 1204; in composition, 1249 b, c.

verb — see conjugation.

verb-forms, accentuation of, in the sentence, 92 b, 591–8; prolongation of final a or i of, 248 c, d; comparison of, 473 c, 474; comb. with insep. prefixes, 1121 b, g, i.

verbal prefixes, 1076, 1077; kindred words, 1078, 1079, 1120; composition with roots, 1076–87, 137; euph. effect on root, 185, 192, 1086; accent, 1082–5; their more independent use, 1084, 1118; prepositional uses, 1125; forms of comparison, 473 b, 1119; declinable stems from roots compounded with them, 1141, 1282; use in descriptive composition, 1281, 1289; in possessive, 1305; in prepositional, 1310.

visarga (or visarjanīya), 67–9; quantitative value, 79; occurrence, 144, 145, 170–2; alphabetic order, 7 a, 172 a: — and see .

vocative case, form of, 266 a, 307 k; Vedic, in as, 425 g, 454 b, 462 a, 465 a; accent (along with qualifying word), 92 a, 314; verb accented after, 594 a.

voice in verbal inflection, 528–31.

vowels, how written in devanāgarī with consonants, 10; sign of absence of, 11; their pronunciation etc., 19–29: a-, i-, u-vowels, 19–22; -, -vowels, 23–6; diphthongs, 27–9; quantity, 77, 78; accent, 80 ff.; nasal vowels, 71; rules of vowel-combination, 125–38; resulting accent, 128, 130, 135 a; exceptional cases, 136–8.

vṛddhi-strengthening, character and occurrence of, 27, 235–43, and passim; in primary derivation, 1143 a; in secondary, 1204.


w-sound, belonging to v, 57.

weak, or weakest, form of stem in declension, 311.

weakening and strengthening processes, 234–60.

writing in India, 2 a; mode of, in Skt. manuscripts, 9 a, b; its modifications in western practice, 9 c–e.


ya-class (fourth, div-class) of verbs, 606, 759–67: formation of stem, 759; inflection, 760; roots of the class and their classification, 761, 762; irregularities, 763–7.

-class of verbs, or passive present-system, 606, 768–74; formation of stem, 768–70; inflection, 771; irregularities, 772–4; -formation from intensive stem, 1016, 1017.