Statesman's Year-Book 1871/Denmark
Reigning Sovereign and Family.
Christian IX., King of Denmark, born April 8, 1818, the fourth son of the late Duke Wilhelm of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, and of Princess Louise of Hesse-Cassel. Appointed to the succession of the Crown of Denmark by the treaty of London, of May 8, 1852, and by the Danish law of succession of July 31, 1853. Succeeded to the throne on the death of King Frederik VII., November 15, 1863. Married, May 26, 1842, to
Louise, Queen of Denmark, born Sept. 7, 1817, the daughter of Landgrave Wilhelm of Hesse-Cassel. Issue of the union are:—1. Prince Frederik, heir-apparent, born June 3, 1843; married July 28, 1869, to Princess Lowisa, only daughter of the King of Sweden and Norway. 2. Princess Alexandra, born Dec. 1, 1844; married, March 10, 1863, to Albert Edward, Prince of Wales. 3. Prince Wilhelm, born Dec. 24, 1845; admiral in the Danish navy; elected King of the Hellenes, under the title of Georgios I., by the Greek National Assembly, March 31, 1863; married Oct. 27, 1867, to Olga Constantinowna, Grand-Duchess of Russia. 4. Princess Maria Dagmar, born Nov. 26, 1847; married, Nov. 9, 1866, to Grand-duke Alexander, heir-apparent of Russia. 5. Princess Thyra, born Sept. 29, 1853. 6. Prince Waldemar, born Oct. 27, 1858.
Brothers and Sisters of the King.—1. Duke Karl, born Sept. 30, 1813; married, May 19, 1838, to Princess Wilhelmina, born Jan. 18, 1808, daughter of the late King Frederik VI. of Denmark. 2. Princess Frederica, born Oct. 9, 1811 ; married, Oct. 30, 1834, to Duke Alexander of Anhalt Bernburg; widow Aug. 19, 1863. 3. Prince Friedrich, born Oct. 23, 1814; married, Oct. 16, 1841, to Princess Adelaide of Schaumburg-Lippe, of which union there are issue two sons and three daughters, namely, Augusta, born Feb. 27, 1844; Friedrich, born Oct. 12, 1855; Louise, born Jan. 6, 1858; Marie, born Aug. 31, 1859; and Albert, born March 15, 1863. 4. Prince Wilhelm, born April 10, 1816; field-marshal-lieutenant in the service of Austria. 5. Princess Louise, born Nov. 18, 1820; nominated abbess of the convent of Itzehoe, Holstein, Aug. 3, 1860. 6. Prince Julius, born Oct. 14, 1824; general in the Danish army. 7. Prince Hans, born Dec. 5, 1825, general in the Danish army.
The Crown of Denmark was elective from the earliest times. In 1448, after the death of the last male scion of the princely House of Svend Estridsen, the Danish Diet elected to the throne Christian I., Count of Oldenburg, in whose family the royal dignity remained for more than four centuries, although the crown was not rendered hereditary by right till the year 1660. The direct male line of the House of Oldenburg became extinct with the sixteenth king, Frederik VII., on November 15, 1863. In view of the death of the king without direct heirs, the great powers of Europe, 'taking into consideration that the maintenance of the integrity of the Danish monarchy, as connected with the general interests of the balance of power in Europe, is of high importance to the preservation of peace,' signed a treaty at London on May 8, 1852, by the terms of which the succession to the Crown of Denmark was made over to Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, and to the direct male descendants of his union with the Princess Louise of Hesse-Cassel, niece of King Christian VIII. of Denmark. In accordance with this treaty, a law concerning the succession to the Danish crown was adopted by the Diet, and obtained the royal sanction July 31, 1853.
King Christian IX. has a civil list of 500,000 rigsdalers, or 55,555 £., settled upon him by vote of the Rigsraad, approved Dec. 17, 1863. The heir-apparent of the Crown has, in addition, an allowance of 60,000 rigsdalers, or 6,666 £., settled by law of March 20, 1868.
Subjoined is a list of the kings of Denmark, with the dates of their accession, from the time of election of Christian I. of Oldenburg:—
|House of Oldenburg.|
|House of Schlesivig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg.|
The sixteen members of the House of Oldenburg, who filled the throne of Denmark for 415 years, had an average reign of 26years.
Constitution and Government.
The present Constitution of Denmark is embodied in the charter of June 5, 1849, which was modified in some important respects in 1855 and 1863, but again restored, with various alterations, by a statute which obtained the royal sanction on July 28, 1866. According to this charter, the executive power is in the king and his responsible ministers, and the right of making and amending laws in the Rigsdag, or Diet, acting in conjunction with the sovereign. The king must be a member of the evangelical Lutheran Church, which is declared to be the religion of the State. The Rigsdag comprises the Landsthing and the Folkething, the former being a Senate or Upper House, and the latter a House of Commons. The Landsthing consists of 66 members. Of these, 12 are nominated for life by the Crown, from among actual or former members of the Folkething, and the rest are elected indirectly by the people, for the term of eight years. The choice of the latter 54 members of the Upper House is given to electoral bodies composed partly of the largest taxpayers in the country districts, partly of deputies of the largest taxpayers in the cities, and partly of deputies from the totality of citizens possessing the franchise. Eligible to the Landsthing is every citizen who has passed his thirtieth year, and is of unspotted reputation. The Folkething, or Lower House of Parliament, consists of 101 members, returned in direct election, by universal suffrage, for the term of three years. The franchise belongs to every male citizen who has reached his twenty-fifth year, who is not in the actual receipt of public charity, or who, if he has at any former time been in receipt of it, has repaid the sums so received, who is not in private service without having his own household, and who has resided at least one year in the electoral circle on the lists of which his name is inscribed. Eligible for the Folkething are all men of good reputation, past the age of thirty. Both the members of the Landsthing and of the Folkething receive payment for their services, at the same rate.
The Rigsdag must meet every year on the first Monday of October. To the Folkething all money bills must in the first instance be submitted by the Government. The Landsthing, besides its legislative functions, has the duty of electing from its midst every four years the assistant judges, four in number, of the Höiesteret, or Supreme Court, who, together with the four judges, form the highest tribunal of the kingdom, and can alone try parliamentary impeachments. The ministers have free access to both of the legislative assemblies, but can only vote in that Chamber of which they are members. The executive, acting under the king as president, and called the Royal Privy Council, consists of the following seven departments:—
1. The Presidency of the Council.—Count Holstein-Holsteinborg, appointed President of the Council of Ministers, May 28, 1870.
2. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs.—Baron Otto Rosenörn-Lehn, appointed May 28, 1870.
3. The Ministry of the Interior.—Christen Andreas Fonnesbech, appointed May 28, 1870.
4. The Ministry of Public Education and Ecclesiastical Affairs.—Carl Christian Hall, appointed May 28, 1870.
5. The Ministry of Justice.—Andreas Fredrik Krieger, appointed May 28, 1870.
6. The Ministry of Finance.—Carl Emil Fenger, appointed May 28, 1870.
7. The Ministry of War and Marine.—Colonel Wolfgang Haffner, appointed April 20, 1870.
The ministers are individually and collectively responsible for their acts, and in case of impeachment, and being found guilty, cannot be pardoned by the king without the consent of the Folkething.
The chief of the dependencies of the Crown of Denmark, Iceland. is divided, for administrative purposes, into four Amts or districts; these are again divided into syssels or sheriffdoms—a sysselman being a magistrate and receiver of the king's taxes in each of them. The governor-general is called stiftamtmand, and resides at Reikjavik. Besides him there are three amtmands for the western, the northern, and eastern districts. The affairs of the island are regulated by the althing, a council composed of 26 members, of which five are nominated by the crown, and the rest elected by the people—one for the town of Reikjavik, and one for each of the 20 syssels.
Church and Education.
The established religion in Denmark is the Lutheran, which was introduced as early as 1536, the Church revenue being at that time seized and retained by the Crown. The affairs of the national Church are under the superintendence of the seven bishops of Själland, Lolland, Fyen, Ribe, Aarhuus, Viborg, and Aalborg. At present the nomination of the bishops is vested in the king. The bishops have no political character; they inspect the conduct of the subordinate clergy, confer holy orders, and enjoy nearly all the privileges of episcopal dignitaries in Great Britain, except that of voting in the legislature. Complete religious toleration is extended to every sect. It is enacted, by Art. 76 of the Constitution, that 'all citizens may worship God according to their own fashion, provided they do not offend morality or public order.' By Art. 77, no man is bound to contribute to the support of a form of worship of which he is not a member; and by Art. 79 no man can be deprived of his civil and political rights on the score of religion, nor be exempted on this account from the performance of his duties as a citizen.
According to the census of 1860, there were only 12,907 persons, or less than one per cent, of the population, not belonging to the Lutheran church. Of this number nearly one-third, or 4,214, were Jews; the remainder comprised 1,240 Roman Catholics; 1,761 members of the Reformed church, or Calvinists; 2,657 Mormons; 2,270 Anabaptists; 114 members of the Anglican church; and 202 individuals forming part of the sect called 'Frimenighed,' or the free community.
Elementary education is widely diffused in Denmark, the attendance at school being obligatory from the age of seven to fourteen. In conformity with Art. 85 of the Constitution, education is afforded gratuitously in the public schools to children whose parents cannot afford to pay for their teaching. The system of mutual instruction, introduced in 1820, was generally adopted in 1840. Besides the university of Copenhagen, there are 13 public gymnasia, or colleges, in the principal towns of the kingdom, which afford a 'classical' education, and under them are a large number of Middle Schools, for the children of the trading, and higher working classes. Instruction at the public expense is given in the Parochial Schools, spread all over the country, to the number, in August 1869, of 2,940, namely 28 in Copenhagen; 132 in the towns of Denmark, and 2,780 in the rural districts.—(Report of the Royal government to the Statesman's Year-book.)
Revenue and Expenditure.
The Danish financial year runs from the 1st of April to the 31st of March. The budget is presented to the Folkething towards the end of the calendar year. In the course of the winter it is discussed, and its details are settled by the middle or end of March.
The actual revenue and expenditure of the State were as follows in the five financial years 1864 to 1868:—
ending March 31
The revenue and expenditure for the years ending March 31, 1864 and 1865 included, the first wholly, and the second partly, the financial accounts of Schleswig-Holstein, separated from the crown of Denmark by the treaty of Vienna, signed Oct. 30, 1864.
The sources of revenue and branches of expenditure in the financial year ending March 31, 1868, were as follows:—
|Sources of Revenue||Rigsdaler||Skilling|
|Customs and Excise||7,739,940||25|
|Crown lands and Regalian dues||710,018||44|
|Post Office and Telegraphs||29,631||71|
|Interest on Reserve Fund||2,123,346||42|
|Contributions from ditto||1,135,288||0|
|Revenue of Iceland, West Indies, &c.||1,253,826||80|
|Loans for railroads||3,749,011||0|
|Total||24,358,176||66||or £ 2,706,464|
|Branches of Expenditure||Rigsdaler||Skilling|
|Civil List of the King and Royal family||672,924||0|
|Interest of National Debt||7,582,246||24|
|Total||24,388,629||22||or £ 2,709,847|
The total revenue for the year ending March 31, 1869, amomited to 26,333,349 rigsdaler 83 skilling, or 2,925,928 £., and the expenditure to 26,692,932 rigsdaler 77 skilling, or 2,965,881 £. The estimates for the financial year ending March 31, 1870, were as follows:—
|Sources of Revenue||Rigsdaler||Skilling|
|Customs and Excise||7,852,614||46|
|Post Office and Telegraphs||158,849||28|
|Interest on Reserve Fund||2,312,819||35|
|Contribution from capital of ditto||4,746,169||11|
|Total||22,987,136||43||or £ 2,554,126|
|Branches of Expenditure||Rigsdaler||Skilling|
|Civil List of the King and Royal family||707,924||0|
|Interest of National Debt .||7,355,707||45|
|Total||22,802,668||13||or £ 2,533,630|
According to these estimates, there will be a surplus, in the financial year 1869–70, of 184,468 rixdollars, or 20,496 £.
An important feature in the administration of the finances of the kingdom is the maintenance of a Reserve Fund of a very large amount. On the 31st of March, 1869, the Fund stood at 6,500,000 £., or considerably more than the national revenue for two years. It is contemplated gradually to reduce the Reserve Fund, in the years 1869–77, to 16,000,000 rigsdaler, or 1,780,000 £.
The public debt of Denmark, incurred in part by large annual deficits in former years, before the establishment of parliamentary government, and in part by railway undertakings, amounted to 119,141,086 rigsdaler, or 13,239,872 £., on March 31, 1869. It has been in course of reduction since 1866, as shown in the following table, which gives the national liabilities at five different periods:—
ending March 31
|Capital of Debt|
The annual charge of the national debt is gradually diminishing. It amounted to—
The debt is divided into an internal and a foreign. The former consists chiefly of 4 per cents, and on the 31st of March, 1869, the total amount of this internal funded debt was 77,077,600 rigsdaler.
The army of Denmark consists, according to a law of re-organisation, passed by the Rigsdag on July 6, 1867, of all the able-bodied young men of the kingdom who have reached the age of 21 years. They are liable to service for eight years in the regular army, and for eight years subsequent in the army of reserve. The drilling is divided into two periods: the first lasts six months for the infantry, five months for the field artillery, and the engineers; nine months and two weeks for the cavalry; and four months for the siege artillery and the technic corps. The second period of drill, which is for only a portion of the recruits of each branch of arms, notably those who have profited the least by the first course, lasts nine months for the infantry, eleven months tor the cavalry, and one year for the artillery and the engineers. Besides, every corps has to drill each year during from thirty to forty-five days. By the terms of the law of 1867, the kingdom is divided into five territorial brigades, and every brigade into four territorial battalions, in such a way that no district and no town, the capital excepted, will belong to more than one territorial battalion. Every territorial brigade furnishes the contingent of a brigade of infantry and one regiment of cavalry. The artillery contingent is furnished one-half by the two first territorial brigades, and the second half by the three other ones. The contingent of the engineers is furnished by the whole brigades.
The forces of the kingdom, under the new organisation, comprise 20 battalions of infantry of the line, with 10 depot battalions, and 10 of reserve; 5 regiments of cavalry, each with 2 squadrons active and 2 depot; and two regiments of artillery, in 12 batteries. The total strength of the army, exclusive of the reserve, is 36,782 rank and file, with 1,068 officers, on the peace-footing, and 47,925 rank and file, with 1,328 officers, on the war-footing.
The navy of Denmark comprised, at the commencement of September, 1869, the following vessels, all steamers:—
|1. Screw Steamers—Ironclads:—|
|Number 54 (Turret)||1869||360||2|
|6 first-class, iron hull||—||480||12|
|1 second-class, ditto||—||1|
|2. Paddle Steamers:—|
|Total: 31 steamers.||312|
The iron-clads of the Danish navy are converted ships, on the French model, with the exception of the Rolf Krake and the Lindormen. The Rolf Krake, built by Napier, of Glasgow, is plated with 41⁄2-inch iron, and has two turrets, which carry three 60-pounders; it is of 1,200 tons burthen, and draws 16 feet of water. The Lindormen is plated from stem to stern with 5-inch iron, over 10 inches wood-backing, and carries a Coles's cupola, with folding-down bulwarks. The Lindormen is armed with two 121⁄2 tons rifled Armstrong cannon; is 210 feet long, and 38 feet 3 inches broad, with a draught of 12 feet fore and aft, and has twin screws. The turret ship, marked as Number 54, similar to the Lindormen in construction, but with seven-inch armour, and carrying 18 tons rifled Armstrong cannon, was not quite finished in September, 1869. The Danish navy was manned, in September 1869, by 901 men, and officered by 15 commanders, 34 captains, and 67 lieutenants. (Report of the Royal government to the Statesman's Year-book.)
Area and Population.
The area and population of Denmark, according to the last census, taken February 1, 1870, are as follows:—
|Geogr. sq. m.||English sq. m.|
|Seeland and Moen||133.3||2,793||636,506|
|Fünen and Langeland||61.9||1,302||236,269|
Denmark is a purely agricultural country, the greater number of the people being occupied in the cultivation of the land, and in the simple employments necessary to meet the more immediate wants of the agricultural districts. There being no coal, and but little water-power in the country, the manufactories of any description are but few in number, and of small extent.
The proportionate increase in the population of Denmark for the last fifteen years has been larger in the towns than in the country districts. In Copenhagen it has been 8.05. per cent., in the other commercial towns together 10.29 per cent., whilst in the country districts it has only been 5.99 per cent. The following was the population of the four chief towns at the enumerations of 1855, 1860, and 1870:—
The soil of Denmark is greatly subdivided, owing partly to the state of the law, which interdicts the union of small farms into larger estates, but encourages, in various ways, the parcelling out of landed property. In consequence, the number of small proprietors is increasing from year to year, and the number of great landowners decreasing in proportion. Of the latter class, there were 7,959 in 1834, and only 5,790 in 1860, while of the former the numbers were—87,867 in 1834, and 135,933 in 1860.
The occupations of the people are stated as follows in the last census. Out of an average of 1,000 people, 395 live exclusively by agriculture; 228 by manufactures and trades; 187 are day labourers; 53 are commercial men; 29 mariners; 20 paupers; 16 ministers and schoolmasters, or connected with education; 15 pensioners, or people living on 'aftægt' (an allowance to those who cede their farms from old age, &c.); 13 servants; between 11 and 12 hold appointments in the civil offices; 9 are commissioned and non-commissioned officers in the army and navy; 9 capitalists; 7 follow scientific and literary pursuits (including students at the Universities); and about 5 are returned as having no fixed means of living.
Trade and Industry.
The commerce of Denmark is carried on mainly with Germany and Great Britain, the imports from the former amounting to about 2,000,000 £., and from the latter to 1,500,000 £., and the exports to the former to 3,500,000 £., and to the latter to rather more than 2,300,000 £., on the average of the five years 1864–68. After Germany and Great Britain, Denmark has the greatest trade with Sweden and Russia. The precise amount of the commercial transactions with these countries is not known, as the Danish official returns do not give the declared or real value of the imports or exports, but only the weight of the same.
The commercial intercourse between Denmark and the United Kingdom is shown in the subjoined tabular statement, exhibiting the value of the total exports from Denmark to Great Britain and Ireland, aside with the imports of British and Irish produce and manufactures into Denmark, in the ten years 1860 to 1869:—
|Years||Exports from Denmark to
|Imports of British Home Produce|
The exports of Denmark to the United Kingdom consist entirely of agricultural produce, mainly corn. The total exports of the latter article amounted to the value of 1,087,571 £. in the year 1869, including 479,475 £. for barley; 277,175 £. for wheat; and 187,840 £. for oats. The exports of horned cattle, formerly very considerable, decreased greatly in recent years, the value of the same not amounting to more than 91,936 £. in 1869. Of British imports into Denmark, the principal are coals and iron, the first of the value of 242,876 £., and the latter of the value of 251,644 £. in the year 1869.
On March 31, 1868, the commercial fleet of Denmark consisted of 3,132 ships, with a tonnage of 175,554 tons. The port of Copenhagen possessed, at the same date, 381 ships, of 49,087 tons. The shipping of the kingdom included 80 steamers, of 4,566 horse-power. From its insular position, the coasting trade of Denmark is very considerable, and there being no commercial and fixed restrictions, it is largely participated in by foreigners. In the year ending March 31, 1868, there took part in it 15,972 foreign vessels, of which number 40 per cent. belonged to Sweden, 24 per cent. to Norway, 23 per cent. to Germany, and 4 per cent. to Great Britain.—(Report of the Royal government to the Statesman's Year-book.)
The colonial possessions of Denmark consist of the islands of Faroë, Iceland,, and Greenland in Europe; the first-named—17 in number—having a population in 1860 of 8,922; Iceland of 66,987; and Greenland of 9,880 souls. The West India possessions, St. Croix, St. Thomas, and St. John, with a number of smaller islands, have a population of 37,137, according to the census of 1860. The establishments on the coast of Guinea, forts Christianborg, Fredensborg, and various other places, were ceded to Great Britain, by purchase, in 1850. The town of Tranquebar with the surrounding district, on the Coromandel coast, ceded to Denmark by the rajah of Tanjore, in 1620, and the small territory of Serampore—Danish Frederiksnagor—in Bengal, founded by the Danish East India Company in 1755, were transferred to Great Britain in 1846. The Nicobar Islands, in the Bay of Bengal, were taken possession of by the Danish Government in 1756, and for some time were in a flourishing state, the population amounting to above 6,000 in the year 1840. Eight years later, however, in 1848, they were abandoned as useless, nominally on account of their insalubrity.
Money, Weights, and Measures.
The money, weights, and measures of Denmark, and the British equivalents, are as follows:—
|The||Rigsdaler = 96 skillings||Average rate of exchange, 2 s. 3 d.|
|Weights and Measures.|
|The||Lod||= 227 grains troy, or about 91⁄2 dwts.|
|,,||Pound||= 1.102 avoirdupois, or about 100 lbs. to the cwt.|
|,,||Ship Last||= 2 tons.|
|,,||Tönde,||or Barrel of||Grain and Salt||= 3.8||Imperial||bushels.|
|,,||Foot||= 1.03 English feet.|
|,,||Viertel||= 1.7 Imperial gallon.|
Statistical and other Books of Reference concerning Denmark.
1. Official Publications.
Kongelig Dansk Hof og Statscalender. Kjöbenhavn, 1869.
Statistisk Tabelvaerk. Tredie Raekke. Niende Bind. Indeholdende Tabeller over Kongeriget Danmarks Vare-Indførsel og Udførsel samt Skibsfart m. m. i Finantsaaret 1866–67. Udgivet af det statistiske Bureau. 4. Gyldendal. 1868.
——— Tredie Raekke, tiende Bind, indeholdende Tabeller over Kreaturholdet i Kongeriget Danmark den 16de Juli 1866. Udgivet af det statistiske Bureau. 4. Ibid. 1868.
——— Tredie Raekke, ellevte Bind, indeholdende Tabeller over Størrelsen af det besaaede Areal og Udsaeden i Kongeriget Danmark den 16de Juli 1866. Udgivet af det statistiske Bureau. 4. Ibid. 1869.
Report by Mr. G. Strachey, British Chargé d'Affaires at Copenhagen, on the Finance, Commerce, and Navigation of Denmark, dated January 25, 1868; in 'Reports of H. M.'s Secretaries of Embassy and Legation.' No. II. 1868. London, 1868.
Report by Mr. G. Strachey, British Secretary of Legation, on the Finances, Trade, and Agriculture of Denmark, dated Copenhagen, Jan. 25, 1869; in 'Report's of H.M.'s Secretaries of Embassy and Legation.' No. III. 1869. 8. London, 1869.
Report by Mr. Petre, British Secretary of Legation, on Danish Exports to Great Britain, dated Feb. 20, 1866; in 'Reports of H.M.'s Secretaries of Embassy and Legation.' No. XIII. London, 1866.
Report by Mr. Consul Crowe, on the Trade, Navigation, and General Statistics of the Kingdom of Denmark, dated Copenhagen, July 23, 1869; in 'Commercial Reports' received at the Foreign Office. No. III. 1870, 8. London, 1870.
2. Non-Official Publications.
Baggesen (A.) Den Danske Stat i Aaret 1860. Fremstillet geographisk og statistisk, tillige fra et militairt Standpunkt. 2 vols. 8. Kjöbenhavn, 1860–63.
Bergsö (A. F.) Den Danske Stats Statistik. 3 vols. 8. Kjöbenhavn, 1853–58.
Erslev (E.) Den Danske Stat. 8. Kjöbenhavn, 1859–60.
Petersen (C. P. N.) Love og andre offentlige Kundgjorelser, &c, vedkommende Landvaesenet i Kongeriget Danmark. 8. Kjöbenhavn, 1865.
Tisserand (Eugène) Études économiques sur le Danemark. 4. Paris, 1865.
Trap (J. P.) Statistisk-topographisk Beskrivelse af Kongeriget Danmark. 4 vols. 8. Kjöbenhavn, 1857–63.