Surrey Archaeological Collections/Volume 1/On the Anglo-Saxon Charters of Frizwald, Ælfred, and Edward the Confessor, to Chertsey Abbey
ON THE ANGLO-SAXON CHARTERS OF FRIDWALD, ÆLFRED, AND EDWARD THE CONFESSOR, TO CHERTSEY ABBEY.
By G. R. CORNER, Esq., F.S.A.
Much valuable and interesting local information maybe obtained from the Anglo-Saxon grants of lands, of which a large collection, called "Codex Diplomaticus Ævi Saxonici," edited by that erudite Anglo-Saxon scholar J. M. Kemble, Esq., was published by the English Historical Society between 1839 and 1848.
These grants generally contain very precise descriptions of the boundaries of the lands granted; and it is at least curious to trace those boundaries after the lapse of a thousand years, on a modern map, and to remark how many of the ancient landmarks are still remaining in the names of places, farms, hills, valleys, mounds, roads, rivers, streams, trees, stones, and other remarkable objects, which in all ages have been used to point out the extent of landed possessions and jurisdictions.
Mr. Kemble, in his preface to the third volume of the "Codex," says:—"In general, certain well-defined natural objects, as a hill, a stream, or a remarkable tree, furnished the points by which the boundary-line was directed; when these were wanting, a hedge, a ditch, a pit or well, or the mound of an ancient warrior, served the purpose; even posts of wood and stone appear to have been common; and upon many of these it is probable that inscriptions were found. It may safely be assumed that originally these boundaries were under the protection of Wóden; and various traces of his influence yet remain."
Nor was this feeling peculiar to the pagan Saxons. "Terminalis" was a surname of Jupiter, because he presided over the boundaries of lands, until the worship of the god "Terminus" was introduced by Numa, who persuaded his subjects that the limits of their lands and estates were under the immediate inspection of Heaven. The temple of Terminus was on the Tarpeian Rock, and he was represented at first, with a large square stone, but afterwards with a human head, without feet or arms, to intimate that he never moved, wherever he might be placed. In his honour annual feasts, called Terminalia, were held at Borne, in the month of February, when it was usual for the peasants to assemble near the principal landmarks which separated their fields, and after they had crowned them with garlands and flowers, to make libations of milk and wine, and to sacrifice a lamb or a young pig, and to sprinkle the landmark with the blood of the victim, or sometimes with pure oil.
The sacred character of landmarks is also recognised in Holy Writ—
"Thou shalt not remove thy neighbour's landmark, which they of old time have set in thine inheritance, which thou shalt inherit in the land that the Lord thy God giveth thee to possess it." (Deut. xix. 14.)
"Cursed be he that removeth his neighbour's landmark." (Deut. xxvii. 17. Commination.)
Some remarkable instances of minute descriptions of landmarks are afforded by the grants of Friðwald, King Ælfred (the Great, or, as he is called in one of the charters, the wise king), and Edward the Confessor, to Chertsey Abbey.
The charters of Friðwald and Ælfred are without dates, but Friðwald's charter is placed by Mr. Manning in A.D. 666, and by Mr. Kemble before 675. The grant by Kiug Ælfred is placed by Mr. Kemble between two grants, dated respectively 889 and 891, and that of King Edward the Confessor in 1062.
The charters are in Latin, but the descriptions of the land-limits are (as usual) in the Anglo-Saxon language.
The boundaries of Chertsey and Thorpe, as set forth in the Charter of King Ælfred, comprehend the manors of Crocford and Woodham, which the boundary as described in the Charter of Friðwald omits; but in the last-mentioned charter the boundaries of Egham aud Chobham are given, which are not contained in Ælfred's grant.
These charters were printed in the "Monasticon," and in the "Codex Diplomaticus," from a MS. in the Cottonian Library at the British Museum, written, as supposed, about the time of King Stephen; and the English or Anglo-Saxon is very corrupt; which increases the difficulty of rendering it into modern English, and will, I trust, afford an apology for the numerous imperfections of the following notes.
My scanty knowledge of the modern local names has been derived chiefly from three maps of the county of Surrey; viz. that by Rocque in 1762, Greenwood's map of Surrey, and the Ordnance Survey; but I have received valuable assistance from the Rev. J. C. Clark, of Chertsey, and other gentlemen, to whom I beg to express my thanks.
By the first of these charters, Frðwald, Subregulus or Viceroy of the province of Surrey under Wlfare, King of Mercia, gave, granted, and transferred for augmentation of the monastery, which was first established under King Egbert, and called "Cirotesege" (Chertsey), the land of two hundred inhabitants, for support of the same monastery, and five mansions or dwellings in the place called Ðorp (Thorpe). And he not only gave and confirmed the land, but he delivered himself and his only in obedience to Erkenwald the abbot; and the land comprised altogether three hundred inhabitants. And, moreover, near the river which is called Thames, extending from the bank of the river to the limit which is called "the Old Posse," that is, "Fullingadich," and in other part of the same, from the bank of the river to the other extremity of the said province which is called "Sunninges" (Sunning). There were also belonging to the same land, ten inhabitants near the port of London, where ships resort, on the south side, near the public way. There were, however, divers names of the same lands aforesaid; to wit,—"Cirotesegt " (Chertsey), "Ðorp" (Thorpe), "Egcham" (Egharn), "Chebeham "(Chobham), "Getinges" (Totinges or Tooting?), "Muleseg" (Moulsey), "Wodeham" (Woodham), "Hunnewaldesham" (Windlesham), as far as the limit aforesaid. All which he gave and confirmed to Erkenwald, and for erecting the monastery, that he (the abbot) and his successors might intercede for the soul of the donor; with all fields, woods, meadows, pastures, and rivers, and all other things of right belonging to the monastery of St. Peter, chief of the Apostles, at "Cerotesegt." And if any one should attempt anything against that his donation, let him be separated from all Christian society, and deprived of participation in the kingdom of heaven.
The charter is attested as follows:—"And I Friðwald, who am the donor (together with Erkenwald the abbot), for ignorance of letters have made the sign of the cross ✠."
The following witnesses also attested the grant by the sign of the cross; viz. Friðwric ✠, Ebbe ✠, Egwald ✠, Badwald ✠, Ceadde ✠. Likewise Humfrey ✠, the bishop, at the request of Abbot Erkenwald, subscribed with his own hand ✠. And these are the Subreguli, who all subscribed their marks beneath; viz. Friðewold ✠, Osric ✠ Wigherd ✠, Æthelwold ✠.
And that this donation might be firmly and strongly established, this charter was confirmed by Wlfare, King of the Mercians, and even he placed his hand upon the altar, in the town which is called Thame, and with his hand subscribed the sign of the cross ✠.
These things were done near the town of Friðuuald, near the aforesaid fosse of "Fullingadich," about the kalends of March.
Then follows the description of the boundary of the lands granted by the charter.
This is the five-hide book to "Cerotesege" and to "Ðorpe," which King Friðewald gave to Christ, and St. Peter, and Abbot Erkenwald, in full freedom in all things within the prescribed landmarks which be written in this book.
This is the landmark to "Cerotesege," and to "Ðorpe;" that is, first from "Waiemuðe" up endlong "Weie" to "Waigebrugge;" from "Waigebrugge" within the old mill-stream, midward of the stream to the old "Herestræte;" and along the "Stræt" to "Woburnbrugge," and along the stream to the great "Withig;" from the great Withy, along the stream to the pool above "Crocford;" from the head of the pool straight on to an alder; from the alder straight on by "Wertwallen" to the "Herestrate," and along the road to "Curtenstapele;" from Curtenstapele along the road to the "Hore Thorn."
In the Charter of King Alfred, the boundary is described as going from "Weybridge southward, up midstream, to "Boggesley," from "Boggesley" to "Wudham" suðrihte (southward) into "Halewick," and so forth, between the land of Halewick and the land of "Wintredesliulle," westerly, to "Fullbrook," it goeth between "Fecingelye" and the "uergðe; and so forthright to the "hore-stone;" and from the hore-stone into the "Derneford;" and so forth, westrigte (westward), endlong streme into the more at "Estwode's end;" and so up between Estwode and "Otershaghe," to the "Hore Thorn." From the Hore Thorn the boundary is similar in both the charters, and it goes from the Hore Thorn to "eccan triewe;" and from the eccan triewe to the "Threm Burgh en;" from the Threm Burghen unto the "Sihtran" ("Siðren," or "Shightren"); from the Sðren into "Merchebrook;" from Merchebrook to "Exleafes burn" (or, as in Alfred's grant, Exleapes burn); from Exleafes burn to the "Hare (or Hore) Mapledure; from the Hore Mapledure to the "thrum treowen;" from the thrum treowen along "Depenbrokes" on right to "Wealagate" (or Wealegate); from Wealagate to "Shirenpol;" from Shirenpol to "Fulbrook;" from Fulbrook to the "Blake Wig;" and from the Blaken Wiðig on right to "Wealeshythe," and along the Thames on the other side "Mixtenham," in the stream between "Burghege" and Mixtenham; and along the water to "Neteleyge;" from the eyot along the Thames abutting on "Oxlake Ford;" and along the Thames to "Boresborough;" and so forth along the Thames to "Hamenege;" and so forth along the stream by "Northenhamenyge;" and so forth along the Thames, by mid-stream again to "Waiemouth." The boundaries, as described in the charters of Friðwald and Ælfred, correspond with each other from the Hore thorn to Weymouth. But Friðwald's charter goes on to say:—
Thus there are many of the islets which belong to Chertsey and to Thorpe; that is to say, there are eight, more or less, and seven pastures, which are all between "Weales Hyth and "Weymouth.
[Another landmark we shall find hereafterward, that was in Ælfred the wise king's day, to Cherte.]
These be the land marks of the fifteen-hide land in Egeham. This beeth the land mark at Egeham; that is, first at the Shigtren above Halsham, and so forthright to the threm burghen; from the Burghs to Eccantriwe; forthright extending to the south end of Sire Giffrens heath de la Croix; from the heath forthright almost to the further end of Herdies, and so forth through the "Thorny hill" to Hertleys, nether end of the "Menechene Rûde;" from the Rûde down right a way on the west side "Poddenhall" almost to "Winebrigð" from Winebrigð westerly to a way that goeth to Winchester, that is called "Shrubbestede;" between the Shrubbes and Winebright; going adown northward under the Park Gate (or road), and so forth from the gate going along by the Park's hedge to the new hedge; from the hedge along the "Frithesbrook" to the "hore sepeldure;" from the hore sepeldure to the "Knepp;" by the "Quelmes;" from the Quelmes under the "Stonie held," and so going down by "Tigelbeddeburn;" clown to that eyte that stands in the Thames at "Lodders lake;" and so forth along Thames by midstream to "Glenthuðe;" from Glenthuðe by midstream along Thames to the Huðe (Hythe) before "Negen Stone;" from the Hythe along Thames by midstream down to "Nippenhale;" from Nippenhale to "Wheleshuðe;" from Wheleshuðe over right to the "Black Wiðege;" from the Wiðege into "Fulbrook;" from Eulbrook into "Sirepol;" from Sirepol into "Whelegate; " from Whelegate over right into "Depenbrok; " from Depenbrok to the threm treowen; from the threm treowen to the hore maplednre; from the hore mapledure to "Exlepesbnrn;" from the burn into Merchebroke; from the Merchebroke to the Shigtren above Halsham.
These be the landmarks to "Chabbeham" (Chobham); that is, first, on the Oak Tree; from the Oak Tree along the road to the Hore Thorn; from the Hore Thorn to "Wihsan leage;" from Wihsan leage to "Woburnen;" along the burn to "Wapshete;" from Wapshete to "Mimbrugge;" from Mimbrugge to "Wiðiless hete;" from Wiðeless hete to the hedge at "Mimfeldd;" thence from Mimfelde to the great Withy; from the Withy to "Wuhurst ride;" from the Ride to "Siðwode hagan," and along the hedge to "Fyðeke mere;" from Fytheke mere to "Hasulhurst;" from Hasulhurst right over the field to "Cusceteshagen; " so by the hedge to "Cumore;" from Cumore to the "Standing stone;" from the Standing stone up right to "Ruggestrate," then into "Wyðeke mere;" from Wyðeke mere to "Burchslede;" from Burchslede to "Eggelfusbrugge;" from the bridge to "Cytereneford;" from Cytereneford to "Wipesdone;" from the Done (hill) and along the road to "Hertley;" from Hertley again to the Oak Tree.
The bounds contain four mansas.
I have already acknowledged my obligations to the Rev. J. O. Clark, of Chertsey, for kind and valuable information and assistance. I have also to express my thanks to the Rev. S. J. Jerram, of Chobham, for useful information respecting the boundaries of that parish, and to Mr. Thomas R. Bartrop, of Chertsey, and to John Yonge Akerman, Esq., Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries, who accompanied me on a pedestrian excursion to identify some of the boundary-marks, and who has given me his able assistance in rendering the more difficult parts of the Anglo-Saxon charter into modern English.
FRIÐUUALD OF SURREY, before 675.
✠ In nomine Domini Saluatoris Ihesu Christi! Hanc donationem ego Friðeuualdus iuris mei ad libertatem uniuscniusque rei concedo. Quotienscunque aliqua pro opere pietatis membris Christi impendimus, nostræ animæ prodesse credimus, quia sua illi reddimus et nostra non largimur. Qua de re ego Friðuualdus, prouinciæ Surrianorum subregulus regis Wlfarii Mercianorum, propria uoluntate, sana mente integroque consilio, a præsente die dono, concedo, transfero, et de meo iure in tuum transcribo terram ad augendum monasterium quod primo sub rege Egberto constructum est, manentium ducentos ad roborandum idem monasterium quod Cirotesege nuncupatur, et quinque mansas in loco qui dicitur Ðorp: non solum terram do, sed confirmo et meipsum et unicum filium meum in obedientiam Erkenuualdi abbatis trado, et est terra inter totum coniuncta manentivim ti-escentorum; et insuper iuxta flumen quod uocatur Ðamis tota coniuncta simul ripariæ fluminis usque ad terminum qui dicitur antiqua fossa, id est Fullingadich; in alia parte iterum eiusdem fluminis ripæ usque ad terminum alterius prouinciæ quæ appellatur Sunninges. Est tamen de eadem terra pars semota manentium decem iuxta portum Londoniæ ubi naues applicant super idem flumen in meridiana parte iuxta uiam publicam. Sunt tamen diuersa nomina de ipsa eadem terra supradicta, scilicet Cirotesegt, Ðorp, Egcham, Chebeliam, Getinges, Muleseg, Wodeham, Huneuualdesbam, usque ad terminum supradictum, dono tibi Erkenuualdo et ad monasterium construendum, et confirmo, ut tarn tu quam posteri tui, pro animæ meæ remedio intercedere debeatis, cum campis, siluis, pratis, pascuis, et fluminibus, et omnibus aliis rebus ad monasterium sancti Petri, apostolorum principis, de Cerotesegt rite pertinentibus. Omnia igitur in circuita ad prædictum monasterium pertinentia quemadmodum a me donata sunt et concessa et confirmata teneatis et possideatis, et quodcunque uolueritis de eisdem terris facere, tam tu quam posteri tui, liberam licentiam habeatis, nunquam me, ullo tempore, hæredeque meo contra hanc donationis meæ cartulam esse uenturis. Quod si quis contra hanc donationem meam et confirmationeni uenire temptauerit, sit hic separatus ab omni societate Christiana et a cœlestis regni participatione priuetur. Et ut hæc cartula donationis mese et confirmationis sit firma, stabilis, et inconcussa, testes ut subscriberent rogaui quorum nomina infra sunt annexa.
Et ego Friðeuualdus, qui donator sum, una cum Erkenuualdo abbate, signum sanctæ crucis ＋ pro ignorantia literarum expressi. Signum manus Friðurici testis ＋. Signum manus Ebbi testis ＋. Signum manus Eguualdi testis ＋. Signum manus Baduualdi testis ＋. Signum manus Ceaddi testis ＋. Similiter Humfridus episcopus rogatus ab abbate Erkenuualdo manu propria subscripsit ＋. Et isti sunt subreguli qui omnes sub signo suo subscripserunt. Signum manus Friðeuuoldi testis ＋. Signum manus Osrici testis ＋. Signum manus Wigherdi testis ＋. Signum manus Æðeluuoldi testis ＋.
Et ut firma sit hæc donatio et confirmatio stabilis, a Wlfario rege Mercianorum confirmata est hæc cartula; nam et super altare posuit manum suam, in uilla quæ uocatur Ðamu, et manu sua signo sanctæ crucis subscripsit +. Acta sunt hæc iuxta uillam Friðeuuoldi iuxta supradictam fossatam Fullingadich circa kalendas Marcias.
Ðis is ðáre uīuen hida bóc tó Cerotesege and tó Ðorpe, ðe Friðeuuold king ybehte Criste and seinte Petre and Erkenuuolde abbude, tó fullen friedóme þurg alle þing suá ðe Se londgimére hit bicluppeð ðe on ðisser bók iwrite biez. Ðys is ðe londegemére tó Cerotesege and to Ðorpe; ðat is, ćrest on Waiemúðe; úp endlonge Waie tó Waigebrugge; of Waigebrugge innan ðe selde múledich; mideuuerde of ðere dich on ðere ealde berestræt; andlange stræt on Woburnebrugge; andlang burne on ðene grete wiðig; of ðane gréte wiðig endlonge burne in ðane pốl buve Crocford; of ðes póles héuede on gerigte tó ðane ellene; of ðane ellene on gerigte á be wertuualen on ðe herestráte; andlange stráte tó curten stapele; of curten stapele eandlonge stráte to ðene hóre þorne; of ðan þorne tó Eccan tréuue; of Eccan tréouue to ðen &thirn;rem burghen; of ðan þrum beorghen intó ðe sihtran; of ðan siðren intó merchebróke; of merchebróke on Exlæpes burnen; of Exlæpes burne tó ðene háre mapeldure; of ðene hóre mapeldure tó ðen þrum treóuuen; of ðám þrem treóuuen andlange dépenbrókes on gerihte to Wealagate; of Wealagate on shiren pól; of shiren póle on fúlan bróc; of fúlen bróke tó ðán bláke wiðig; of ðan bláken wiðig on gerihte tó Weales hùðe; andlange Temese on óðere halve Mixtenhammes in ðere eá betweone Burghege and Mixtenhara; andlange ðes weteres tó Netelyge; of ðan ege andlange Temese ábúten Oxelake; forð andlange Temese tó Boresburghe; and suá forð endlange Temese tó Hamenege; and suá forð andlange strémes be norðen Hámenyge; and suá forð andlange Temese be hseluen strémes, eft on Waiemúðe. Ðás feale synden ðére ygetta ðe liggeð into Cherteseye and tó Ðorpe; ðat synden. viii. leassen and máren, and vii. werbære ða synden ealle betweonen Weales húðe and Waiemúðe. An óðer landimére me shal uinde hereftervvard ðat wæs igón albúten bi Ælfredes ðe wise kinges daie tó Cberte. Ðis bet ðe landimére of ðe uiftene hide lond in Egehám. Ðis bet ðe landimére æt Egehám; ðat is, ærest at én shigtren bouen Halsam; and swá forðrigte tó ðe þrem burghen; fram ðes burges tó Eccan triwe; forðrigte strechclrinde tó ðe súðenðe of sire Giffreus héðe de la croix; fram ðe héðe forðrigte tó herdeies ourende almest; and swá forð þurg ðére þorni hulle tó Hertleys nuðer ende of ðe menecbene rude; fram ðe rude dúnrigte bi óne weie an westhalf Boddenhale tó Winebrigð almest; fram Winebrigð westrigte tó óne weie ðet géð tó Winchestre, ðat is ihóten Sbrubbeshédde; bitwiene ðe shrubbes and Winebrigt goinde ádún norðrigte binuðe ða parkes gate; and suá forð fram ðe gate goinde bi ðe parkes heige tó Herpesford tó ðere mulle; fram ðére mulle goinde forð bi ðe parkes heige tó ðæt niwe hechche; fram ðe hechche endlonge ðes friðesbróke tó ðere hóre æpeldure; fram ðere hóre sepeldure tó ðe kneppe bi ðe quelmes; fram ðe quelmes binuðe ðére stonie helde; and suá goinde ádún bi tigelbeddeburne ádún úpe ðat eigt ðe stant in ðére Temes æt Lodderelake; and suá forðe endlange Temese bi mid stréme tó Glenthúðe; fram Glenthúðe bi mid stréme endlonge Temese tó ðare húðe afornegene stone; fram ðáre húthe endlonge Temese bi midstréme dún tó Nippenhale; fram Nippenhale tó Wheles húðSe; fram Wheles húðe ofer rigte in ðene bláke wiðige; of ðe wiðige intó fúle brók; of fúle brók intó sirepól; of sirepól into Whelegate; of Whelegate ofer rigte intó dépenbrók; of dépenbrók tó ðe þrem triwen; of ðe þrem triuuen tó ðe hóre mapuldure; of ðáre hóre mapuldure tó Exlépes burne; of ðere burne intó merebebróke; of ðene merchebróke to ðan shigtren bouen Halsam. Ðis bet ðe londimére intó Chabbeham. Ðat is, árest on Eccan triuue; of Eccan triwe andlange stréte tó ðe hóre þorne; of ðe hóre þorne tó wihsan léáge; of wihsan léghe to Wóburnen; andlange burnen tó Wopshete; of Wopshete tó Mimbrugge; of Mimbrugge tó Widelesshete; of Wiðelesshete tó ðe hagan æt Mimfelda; suá of Mimfelde tó ðáre gréten wich; of ðére wich to Wuhurste riðe; of ðére riðe tó Siðuuóde hagan; andlange hagan tó fhyðeke mére; of fhyðeke mére tó Hasulhurst; of Hasulhurst forð rigte ofer ðane feld tó Cuscetes hagen; suá bi ðan hagan tó Cúmóre; of Cámóre to ðe stondind stone; of ðe stone úprigte tó ruggestráte dún intó whiðeke mére; fram wyðeke mére tó burchsblede; fram burchshlede to Eggelfus brugge; of ðére brugge tó cyterene forde; of cyteren forde tó wipsedóne; of ðere ðóne andlange stráte to Hertlye; of Hertlye eft on Eccan triuue.
Expliciunt limitationes quatuor maneriorum.—Codex Diplomat. Ævi Saxonici, opa. J. M. Kemble, No. DCCCCLXXXII. torn. v. p. 15.
CHARTER OF ALFRED OF WESSEX, cir. 890.
✠ Regnante seternaliter Rege omnium sæculorum Domino et Saluatore nostro Ihesu Christo! Orbita labentis sæculi cotidiano deficit occasu. Hoc quoque indicio fideles quique oppido commonentur, quo bonorum operum exempla perfecte sectantes in patrum beniuolentiæ proficiendo successu, temporalium uicissitudine bonorum perpetua et incommutabilia regni cœlorum mereantur adipisci gaudia. Quapropter ego Ælfredus, fauente Omnipotentis Dei elementia, Rex Anglorum, cæterarumque prouinciarum in circuitu persistentium rector ac gubernator gentium, quandam partem telluris in qua monasterium quod sub nomine Sanctæ Trinitatis et Beati Petri Apostolorum Principis constat honore dedicatum esse, atque fundatum, et constructum, scilicet locum qui famoso onomate apud Anglos nuncupatur Ceroteseg, id est Cirotis insula, et v. mansas apud Thorp, cum omnibus appendiciis illuc rite pertinentibus; scilicet Getinges, Huneuualdesham, et Wudeham, ad sustentationem illius monasterii et omnium illuc unanimiter Deo seruientium, libenti animo concedo et confirmo; ut illi ibi degentes pro meis non desistant interuenire peccaminibus atque offensionibus meis innumens. Sit autera supradicta tellus ut taxauiinus cum uniuersis quæ ritei ad se pertinent, uidelicet campis, siluis, pratis, pascuis, stagnis et riuuli, libera et inconcussa, et ab omni seruitutis iugo stabilis, firma, et exinanita. Si quis autem diabolica illectus cupiditate huius mei decreti diffinitionem et confirmationem irritam fecerit, sciat se in tremendo iudicio rationem redditurum, et ultricibus auerni flammis cum antichristo et eius fautoribus semper arsurum, ibique æternaliter mansurum, nisi in hac uita satis digne pœnituerit.
Hiis igitur limitibus tellus præfata giratur, etc.
Ðis is ðe landimére tó Certeseye and tó Ðorpe. Ðat is ærest on Waie múðe; úp endlonge Waie tó Waibrugge tó midstréme; of Waibrugge súðuuard to Boggeslye; of Boggeslye by midstréme to Wudehám; of Wudehám suðrihte into Haleuuik; bi midstréme; and so forð bituuene ðe londe of Haleuuik and ðe londe of Wyntredesbulle westrigte; and so forð westrigte in fúle brok ðe geð bitwene Fecingelye and ðe uergðe; and so forðrigte tó ðe hóre stone; and fram ðe hóre stone into ðe derne forde; and so forð westrigte endlonge stréme into ðe móre æt Estuuodes ende; and so úp betuuene Estuuode and Otersbaglie on ðe hóre þorne; of ðe hóre þorne tó eccan treiuue; of eccan treóuue tó ðe þrem burghen; of ðe þrem burghen intó ðe shigtren; of ðe shigtren intó merche bróke; of merche bróke on exlæfes burne; of exleafes burne tó ðene hóre mapeldure; of ðe hóre mapeldure tó ðe þrem treóuuen; of ðe þrem treóuuen endlange dépe bróke rigt tó wealegate; of wealegate on shýre pól; of shýre pól rigt tó fúle brók; of fúle brók tó ðe blake witghe; of ðe wiðeghe forðrigte tó weales húðe andlange Temese an oðere halve mixtenham. in ðére ác betuuene burgheyge and mixtenham; enlonge ðe wætere rigt tó neatel eyghe; of ðen eyge endlonge Temese ábúte oxelake; and so forð endlange Temese tó boresburghe; and so forð endlange Temese rigt tó hámen eyge; and suá forð endlange stréme rigt be norðen hámen eyghe; and súa forð endlange Temese be healve stréme; eft on Wayenmðe.—Codex Diplom. Ævi Saxonici, opa. - J. M. Kemble, No. CCCXVIII. torn. ii. and iii. App. p. 401.
- Kemble's Codex Diplom. Æv. Sax., vol. iii. pref. p. viii.
- The custom still existing, of a periodical perambulation of the boundaries of parishes, is a relic of a similar ancient practice in this country, although the libations are now reserved for the parish dinner after the fatigues of the day; and instead of sacrificing a lamb or a young pig, some luckless boy is bumped to make him remember the boundary-mark.
- Manning and Bray, Hist. Surrey, vol. iii. p. 208.
- Monasticon Anglicanum, by Caley, Ellis, and Bandinell, vol. i. p. 426. Regm. Abb. de Chertsey, MS. Cotton, Vitell. A. 13, fo. 19 b.
- Wlfare, or Wulfhere, was king of Mercia from A.D. 659 to 675.
- Erkenwald was a son of Offa, king of the East Saxons, and was abbot of Chertsey from 666 to 675, when he was elected bishop of London, and retained that see till his death in 685. He was buried at St. Paul's, and was afterwards canonized as St. Erkenwald.—See Weever's Funeral Monuments, p. 358.
- Probably in Southwark, in which place a harbour where ships resorted is mentioned in Domesday Book.
It does not apbear from any other document that the abbey had lands in Windlesham. In Manning and Bray's "Surrey," it is suggested that Hunewaldsham is Hersham, in Walton-on-Thames. I do not know what Bishop this was.
- The Book of the Five Hides of Land.
- From the mouth of the Wey, where it flows into the Thames.
- Up along the Wey: the charter of Ælfred says up midstream.
- The old military way or high road.
- Withy, or Willow.
- Wertwallen, the foot of a hill covered with trees or shrubs.—Kemble's Glossary, in preface to vol. iii. of Codex, p. xliii.
- Curtenstapele (the Gaol post?); Cwerten, A.S. a prison, and stapele, a prop or support, an upright post.—Kemble.
- I should take this to be Bowsley; but we are now going up the Wey, and Bowsley is too far off.
- This should be Woodham, but the situation does not agree, if the next is right.
- Halewick, is Holywick or Hollick farm.
- "Wintredesliulle is "Wintred's-hill (whoever he might have been). There is a house in Byfleet called "Wintersell," which was part of the Oatlands estate sold in 1846, and a farm in the parish of Byfleet called "Wintersells." There was a William de Wintreshulle, who was steward of the King's house, regn. Henry III.—(Pat. Rolls, 55 Henry III.)
- Fullbrook I take to be the "Fullingadich" mentioned in the Charter of Friðuwald, near to which was his town, or tun, that is, his inclosed dwelling, or homestead. Mr. Clark informs me that there is now a bridge called "Fullbridge" at a spot where the Shere water-pond became contracted; and it would seem that what was anciently called Fullbrook, was afterwards called Shere water. This pond was drained and planted about 40 years ago.
- Fecingelye, Mr. Clark thinks, may be Aningsley; but he has since informed me that there is a name of a place something like Fecingelye not far from the Hermitage in Horsell.
- The tilled land.
- A Hoar-stone is generally an ancient erect stone pillar, rude, unsculptured, and rough as from the quarry, and called a hoar-stone from its age and whiteness; the adjective being the same that we apply to a gray or hoary head,—a hoar-frost, &c. They were usually set up as memorials of some remarkable event (as Jacob set up a stone in Bethel as a memorial of his dream), or to mark the burial-place of some famous chieftain. In the 25th vol. of "Archæologia" there is a long and interesting paper on hoar-stones by Mr. Hamper, who has employed a great deal of research on the subject, and gives a long list of hoar-stones in various parts of this kingdom; among which he notices that which is referred to in the charter before its. He considers them nothing more than landmarks, deriving their name from Harz (Armoric), a bound or limit; as, Men hars, a bound-stone. There was formerly at Pentecost, in Chobham, a white cross; but that is at some distance from our boundary, if it be, as I suppose, the same that I find in the maps as Pancras or Paucrets farm; and I should rather suppose the hoar-stone to have been at the angle formed by the boundary of the parish of Chertsey, at the Canal on Woking Common.
- Durnford, where there is now a bridge over the Bourn, on the road between Ottershaw Park and Onnensley or Anningsley farm.
- The more or marsh at Eastwood's End must have been at the west side of Ottershaw.
- The Otter's house, which is plain enough, and proves the great antiquity of the name of that seat.
- The old white thorn. There is nothing more beautiful in nature than a fine old white-thorn tree in full blossom; and those who are aware of the great age to which the thorn-tree attains, will not be surprised that such trees should have been selected as landmarks. The age of the hawthorn extends to 100 or 200 years. At Cawder Castle there is one which is said to be be coeval with the building, the date of which is 1450 to 1500. There is a thorn-tree at Studley, near Ripon, Yorkshire, 43 feet high; its trunk is 4 feet in diameter, the diameter of its head being 43 feet.—(Loudon's Arboretum, vol. ii. p. 840.) Old thorn-trees were particularly cherished by our Saxon forefathers, and even in these days, when land is cleared of underwood, immunity is given to thorns and hollies.—(Akerman's Spring Tide.) In the South of Ireland, Mr. Crofton Croker tells us, "Old and solitary thorns are regarded with reverence by the peasantry, and considered as sacred to the revels of the fairy sprites, whose vengeance follows their removal." Piers Plowman tells us in his olden English,—
"And thanne met ich whith a Man on Midlents Soneday as hor as an hawethorne."—(Piers Plowman, p. 314.) Chaucer, in his "Court of Love," makes all his Court to go forth on May-day to fetch the flowers fresh, and branche and bloome, and
"Marke the faire blooming of the hawthorne tree,
"Who finely clothed in a robe of white,
"Fills full the wanton eye with May's delight."
"Gives not the hawthorn bush a sweeter shade
"To shepherds looking on their silly sheep
"Than doth a rich embroidered canopy
"To kings that fear their subjects' treachery."
And in Goldsmith's Deserted Village,—
"The hawthorn bush, with seats beneath the shade
"For talking age and whispering lovers made."
The situation of the "Hore Thorn" may be looked for at the angle formed by the parish boundary, near Stanner's-hill farm.
- An oak-tree, probably at Long Cross.
- The Threm Burghen are undoubtedly the three very remarkable large barrows which are called three bury hills, and are close to the house of Mr. Pocock, a member of the Surrey Archaeological Society. I am not aware if these fine barrows have ever been explored, and if not, I trust the day is not far distant when, with the permission of the owner, they may be opened by the Society; from which, results equal to those from the late Mr. Gage Rokewood's examination of the Bartlow Hills, in Essex, may be expected.
- This may mean the Tree of Victory, or merely a hollow tree. "Sige tren" would give us the former signification, and the neighbouring barrows may cover the mighty dead; but "Sihtra," or "Siohtra," is a wooden pipe, made of the trunk of a tree, hollowed or bored for the purpose. In a note to the "Monasticon," it is supposed perhaps to be a tree so called; but I think it must mean the stream which runs by Lyne Grove, and where the boundaries of Chertsey, Thorp, and Egham meet.
- Mr. Clark informs me there is a Marshbrook near Lyne Grove.
- Exleafes burn was probably one of the streams forming the Oxley river. Mr. Clark says it was perhaps at Trumps Mill, where there is a stream with a rapid fall.
- The old maple-tree.
- The three trees, perhaps on Thorpe Green.
- A watercourse still called Deepenbrook, separating Thorpe from Egham.
- "Wealh" A.S. a stranger, foreigner; Welsh, Wealh also signifies a slave or servant, and was applied by the Saxons to such of the British inhabitants as remained on the soil. Wealagate may therefore mean the Strangers', or the British, or Welsh road.
- This cannot be the large piece of water formerly on Woodham Heath, called Shirewater, or Shirepond; for that is too far back upon the boundary-line to the eastward: the name would lead us to suppose it to have been a piece of water on the border of the county, perhaps the original of the lake now called Virginia Water; but that is on the opposite side of Egham parish. Mr. Clark suggests that a hollow basinshaped piece of land near Thorpe Leigh, which has some appearance of having formerly been a pool, and where the water is still very deep in flood-time, may mark the site of the Shirenpol.
- Mr. Clark says he could not hear of Fulbrook in this quarter, but there is a considerable depth of water here, separating Thorpe and Egham.
- The black willow-tree.
- See note 38. Mr. Clark says he cannot find that Wealeshithe, or Wallshithe, is known now by that name. It is evidently on the boundary of Thorpe and Egham, at the Thames, and there is at that spot a sort of haven or hithe, and a little island called "Truss's Island."
- Maxtenham in the old plan of Chertsey Abbey lands, in Manning and Bray's Surrey, and still called Mixenham or Mixnam.
- Laleham Burway, of which it would be superfluous to say more than to refer to any published account of Chertsey.
- Mr. Clark informs me that there is an eyot now called Nettle Eyot, in the Thames.
- Oxlake is found in the old map of the abbey domain in Manning and Bray's Surrey.
- Near Chertsey bridge is a piece of land called "Boseyte," which is part of Chertsey parish, and in Surrey, although on the Middlesex side of the river. Mr. Bray mentions it as an instance of the river having, in some places, altered its current. It is shown on the old plan of the abbey lands, in Manning and Bray's Surrey, and is there on the same side of the river as Mixtenhatn. Boseyte was probably the Boresborough of the charter.
- There are two islands in the Thames, opposite to Ham (in Chertsey), which are called the Ham eyots, and are doubtless the eyots indicated in the charter as Hameneye and Northenhameneye, one of which is in a bend of the river running north and south, and above stream from the other island, which is in a bend running from west to east.
- This appears to have been a subsequent interpolation in the copy of the charter.
- The Shigtren or Siohtren, the Threm Burghen, and the Eccantriwe, are all on the boundary of Chertsey.
- The heath of Sir Geoffrey de la Croix! Sir Geoffrey probably held a knight's fee in Egham of the abbot. The Norman name of this knight strengthens the opinion that this description of the boundary was made subsequently to the Norman conquest.
- Herdies or Hardies.
- The Thorny Hill must have been the south part of Shrubs Hill.
- Hertleys must have been where Broomhall Hut now is.
- The Minchin's Rood, or Nun's Rood, a cross which probably stood on the hill called "Mincing Ride," near Broomhall Hut, on Chobham Heath, between an old intrenchment and the high road to Winchester. The name is doubtless derived from its having belonged to the Benedictine Nunnery of Broomhall, in Sunning Hill, Berks, which escheated to the Crown in 13th Henry VIII., and was granted by that monarch, at the instance of Bishop Fisher, to St. John's College, Cambridge, in the following year. This nunnery is said by Speed and Burton to have been founded by Edward the Black Prince; but this charter shows it to have had a much earlier foundation, if, as it seems reasonable to suppose, the place was called "The Nun's Rood" as eaidy as the date of this charter, that is, previous to a.d. G75, or even as early as the description of the boundary is supposed to have been written; viz., about the reign of Stephen. Mincing Lane, in London, was so called from tenements there, some time pertaining to the Minchins or Nuns of St. Helen's, in Bishopsgate-street.—Stow's Survey of London, p. 50.
- Potnall Warren.
- The high road to Winchester.
- Shrubs Hill.
- The park-gate and the park's hedge must, I think, have been the gate and fence of the park of Old Windsor, where the Anglo-Saxon kings had a seat until the reign of King Edward the Confessor, who gave it to St. Peter's, Westminster.
- Frithesbrook I cannot identify. A note in the "Monasticon" says, "A stream where peace was made."
- The Knepp?
- The Quelmes signifies the place of execution: this was, I presume, a farm called in old maps Gallows Farm, although not now acknowledged by that name, as I found on inquiry. I also find on the maps Hangmore Hill close by.
- The Stonie Held was perhaps a sandstone quarry westward of Gallows Farm.
- Tigelbeddeburn, or Tilebed Burn, must have been a brook which runs down a ravine through the grounds of Cooper's Hill to the Thames, which it enters at the west side of Leatherlake House, being the boundary of the counties of Surrey and Berks.
- Lodderslake is now called Leatherlake, being an expanse of water in the Thames; and the eyte that stands in the Thames at Lodderslake is the far-famed Magna Charta Island, or another eyot a little above it and opposite to Leatherlake House.
- Glenthythe I have been able to identify most satisfactorily as a creek or inlet from the river to the entrance to Egham racecourse. The place is still called Glanthay.
- The hythe before Negen Stone must, I think, be Egham Hythe, opposite to Staines. Nigen means nine; and it is very probable that there was a circle of nine stones there before the town of Staines was built, or the corporation of London had any jurisdiction in this part of the river. The name of Staines, in the plural, rather favours this conjecture.
- Nippenhale—Nippingale in Mr. Kemble's Index to the Codex Diplomaticus. There are some meadows by Savery's Weir much frequented by sportsmen for wild ducks, &c, called by some such name. I have heard it is corrupted into "Nipnose." Abbot Adam (1206 to 1223) assigned the profits of the weir near Nipenhale (Savery's Weir) towards his Anniversary.—Monasticon, vol. v. p. 423, note; MS. Vitellius, A. xiii.
- Wheleshythe, which we may recollect was the northern boundary on the Thames, of Thorpe.
- The Black Withy, Fulbrook, Shirepool, Whelegate, Depenbrook, the Three Trees, the Hore Maple-tree, Exleafsburn, Merchebrook, and the Shigtren, are all on the boundary of Thorpe, as before described.
- Wisan Leage, a field of plants, or—the field of the wise men, leaders, or chiefs.
- Woburnen, in the Bourne Streeme.
- Mr. Kemble says Wapshot, Surrey. I know not if there be a place so called; but the name reminds us of the family of the same name, who are said to have been settled in this locality before the Norman conquest, and I understand are not yet extinct. Almner's Barn, which they occupied for so many centuries, is near St. Ann's Hill, at Chertsey; but they may have come from Chobham, and have taken their name from this place; but if the place were named from them, it proves the very great antiquity of the family in this neighbourhood. Wapshete seems to correspond with the now-called Bonsey's Farm.
- Mimbridge is still the name of a bridge on the road to Horsell, and near it is a stone which is one of the boundaries of the parish of Chobham.
- Witheless Heath I cannot identify.
- Nor Mimfeld; they must both have been on the south side of Chobham.
- Wuhurst Ride also requires explanation.
- John de Rutherwyk, abbot (1307 to 1346), planted and inclosed a wood called South Grove in Chobham.—Monasticon, vol. v. p. 424, note; MS. Vitell.
- Fytheke Mere seems to correspond in situation with a pond at the bottom of Bisley Green.
- There is a field called Hasulhurst, on the confines, I believe, of Windlesham and Chobham parishes, not far from the road between Guildford and Bagshot.
- The Dove's hedge.
- There is a place called Cowmoor in Pirbright parish.
- There is a spot called the Standing Stone, near where the boundaries of Chobham, Pirbright, and Frimley parishes join each other; the stone is now gone, and a bound-mark left in the place.
- Mr. Clark suggests that Ruggestrate may be Blackstone-lane.
- Wytheke Mere, Whitmore Pond, or Light Waterpond. Burcheslede may mean an opeu country with birch-trees.
- Abbot Adam assigned the profits of a purpesture (probably an inclosure from the common), which Ewlfus de Forda held in Chobham, towards his Anniversary. Probably Ewlfus, or Eggelfus of the Ford, built a bridge instead of the ford.—Monasticon, vol. v. p. 423, note; MS. Vitell. A. xiii. fo. 81 b.
- Cytereneford I cannot identify.
- Wipesdune is, perhaps, Ribsdown, which forms one of the boundaaries of the parish of Chobham, and called in a Perambulation in 1595, Rippsdown.
- Hertleys, at Broomhall Hut.