Talk:Field Notes of Junius Henderson/Notebook 5

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Hey kids -- trying an experiment here -- Scans need to be matched up with transcriptions before we can begin annotations, but I don't have time to do that right now. So, I'm going to post the transcribed text here, in full, and hope that others want to help with this. There are some annotations in there already, which were added with a script I wrote to automatically find and wiki-fy taxonomic names.

So, instructions: 1) copy text from below 2) paste text to appropriate page 3) please delete text once it has been matched with a scan. This way newcomers can understand where to pick up work. 4) leave notes, if helpful, explaining where you left off

Make sense? Copy/paste away! --Ack-thom (talk) 02:13, 1 August 2012 (UTC)Reply

Left off at page 9 --Ack-thom (talk) 02:33, 1 August 2012 (UTC)Reply

Text to be matched with Notebook 5 scans[edit]

have been once completely filled. Crossed the divide and found a well-marked glacier directly opposite the head of the South St. Vrain which I call the Fair Glacier. Could not get to it. Estimated 1500 ft. wide and 2000 ft. high using a measured lake as basis of estimate. Very steep n?v? with well defined Bergschrund a third of the way from the head to foot of ice. Some distance below this the ice flattens, then the end is very steep. Stratification lines are bent into a double loop this way ((drawing in field book)), and are somewhat cut by closed crevasse lines. Front probably a 45 % angle. Moraine shows rapid retreat, many recessional moraines just in front of it on steep slopes. Lake just below is very green from the discharged water. Lake in next cirque perfectly clear. This cirque faces almost north and forms a natural trap for wind blown snow from west, with glacier at head thus ((drawing in field book)). Then we crossed the Isabel Glacier at head of South St. Vrain. It is 2500 ft wide and about 1500 long. The bergschrund affords fine examples of plucking and sapping. Rocks were loosened by freezing and thawing and others pulled away by the consolidated snow. Here melting and freezing at base of the bergschrund is undoubtedly going on. No open crevasses below bergschrund. Shrinkage exposes 10 to 30 ft of the rather fresh moraine. Ice tongue has slope of from 20° at top first to 15° then 10°, then 5° and finally flattens. Ice seems to extend under the moraine, so actual tongue not seen. If water from beneath is discolored it is much mingled with clear surface water. There is a slightly milky appearance to it anyhow, but it may be from surface wash, though not likely. Ice shown in bergschrund clearly 40 ft thick. Bergschrund in places 20 ft wide. In main ice tongue probably 60 to 75. Strangely the cirque faces SE, part of nev? facing NE and E and part SE. At 1 p.m. we ate lunch and started on. Has sprinkled, rained and snowed much of the time, with east wind. Reached camp at 4:30 very tired. 

At camp there are Rocky Mt jays, white crowned sparrows, gray headed juncos, dusky grouse, pine squirrels, little chipmunk, mink, Mt sheep. (We saw signs above camp). On range saw Leucostictes and heard Ptarmigan. Deer mice abundant at camp. Fair saw shrew in the water.

Lake Isabel, Colo. Sunday Sept. 18, 1910

Bright beautiful morning. Up at Sunrise. It soon clouded up, however, and sprinkled at intervals until I got nearly out of the mts. Started at 8:30 a.m., reached Ward at 10:30 and Boulder at 4:15 p.m., not stopping for dinner. Hot when I reached Boulder.

((End of notes for 1910))

((Two drawings, one of human skeleton, one of domestic chicken, pasted in the notebook, each one filling a page.))

Shipped to Needles Cali. by freight, 2/6/11

Ditmar's Reptile book, Cope's reptiles (Nat. Mus.), Cope's [[w:Batrachia |Batrachia]] [[w:Batrachia |Batrachia ]] (Nat. Mus. Bull. 34), Chapman's color key, Bailey's Birds of W. U. S., Forest Trees pacific slope, Jepson's flora Middle Cali. Contrib. Nat'l Herb Vol. 3, Stephen's California mammals, Warren's Colorado Mammals, N. Amer. Fauna 1 to 21, 26,28, 29-31, Mearn's Mammals Mex. Boundary, Pt 1 U. S. Nat'l Mus Bull 56, Pilsbury Moll. of SW 1-2-3-4, Hornaday's taxidermy, Marshal and Hurst practical zoology, Elliot's Mammals N. Amer., Ruthven's Variations in garter snakes, Styneger's Poisonous Reptiles, Topographic sheets of Yuma, Needles and Mohave. 1 insect net, 1 fish seine, 1plant press and straps, 2 boxes driers and paper, 90 traps, 1 insect box, 2 cyanide bottles, labels, ink, 100 bottles, 1 dozen jars, 1 pocket hatchet, 1 saw, 1 pick, taxidermy tools, 1-16 gauge gun, ammunition, 2 tarpaulins, 2 pieces canvas, 2 camp stools, paper and envelopes, tags 3 kinds, 100 nested museum boxes, insect envelopes, 200 gelatin capsules, potassium permanganate, alum 2 parts arsenic 1 part, match boxes (pocket), dissecting case, shells for work with Indians, mollusk strainer, 4 canteens, rope for seine, pick belt, newspapers, coffee pot, frying pan, writing tablets, 1 gal. alcohol, 1 gal. formaldehyde, cotton, oil for guns, formaldehyde ((sic)), string 2 kinds, wire 3 sizes, towels, collecting bags 10, 1 camp pack, negative rack, notebooks, receipt books, knives and forks, spoons and cups, developing outfit, developers, hypo etc.

To carry as baggage

     Hunting licenses, game laws Cali. maps Cali. And Ariz., nail puller, mirror, receipt book, 1 note book, shaving outfit, clothes, "West Coast Shells", Keep, marking pencil for boxes, tripod, additional plates, some ammunition, field cases, 1 taxidermy outfit, Game Getter gun, 2 blankets, boots, barometer, compass. 
     
     Shells
     
     Miss Barbara Friere-Marreco bought shells at Phoenix for use on the Mojave-Navajo Reservation, Camp McDowell, Ariz., and gives me the following names: ((I have not been able to copy all of Henderson's diacritical markings))
     

A small marine snail, exotic- ach?l k?dje "small, unimportant, whereas p?wa is used of animate things as a rule and perhaps = young [[w:Strombus |Strombus]] [[w:Strombus |Strombus ]] sp. (exotic) - ?ch?l a [[w:Cardium |Cardium]] [[w:Cardium |Cardium ]] sp. (exotic) jabagam?nXa- white, curved over like palm held palm downward [[w:Pecten circularis |Pecten circularis]] [[w:Pecten circularis |Pecten circularis ]] Sby. (Lower Cali.) "same kind, only striped

[[w:Murex |Murex]] [[w:Murex |Murex ]] sp. (exotic) jaba ga munXa tat. Kwagami said it is s?b? k? m?n X ?. "kind of white looking, curved over, thorny" Said he has seen them over west and smaller ones down on Colorado River. Turbo marmoratus (exotic) alger?b (shiny colors) g?t? (large) [[w:Calliostoma |Calliostoma]] [[w:Calliostoma |Calliostoma ]] sp. (exotic) alger?b p?w? (little or young) Rotella sp. (exotic) dju r?b djindi (spiral) alger?ba. [[w:Cypraea |Cypraea]] [[w:Cypraea |Cypraea ]] caput-sepentis (exotic) ?chila a (because something like bone. Bone in ordinary sense is tj ?g?.) Shells in general alger?ba (shiny colors) or, ha got? alger?ba (great water shiny colors).

These being nearly all exotic shells, I suspect the Indian words are merely descriptive terms, not true original Indian names, or, if so, certainly of very recent application to these species. Lack of close observation is exhibited by noting only color, stripes to differentiate Cardium and [[w:Pecten |Pecten]] [[w:Pecten |Pecten ]]. Miss Friere-Marreco showed the [[w:Pecten |Pecten]] [[w:Pecten |Pecten ]] valves to Santa Clara Indians, who thought the difference in color was due to sex. Stearns (Ann. Rept. 1887, p. 325) says [[w:Olivella biplicata |Olivella biplicata]] [[w:Olivella biplicata |Olivella biplicata ]] was used extensively as wampum among the Navajo. Don Jose Cortes found them in use among the tribes near the Colorado in 1799. Dr. Edward Palmer saw a horse exchanged for an abalone shell in New Mexico (Stearns, id. P. 329). The Mojaves have a species of currency called pook, consisting of strings of shell beads, whose value is determined by length (Whipple, Pac. R. R. Repts. Vol. III, p. 115, per Stearns op. cit. p. 330). Navajos constantly searching ruins for shells, hence present rarity (Stearns p. 325). Staple currency of S. and central California made of [[w:Tivela stultorum |Tivela stultorum]] [[w:Tivela stultorum |Tivela stultorum ]] (Pachydesma crassatelloides he calls it) cut into disks or buttons 1/4 to 1 inch diameter, pierced in center, strung on strings made from inner bark of wild cotton or milk weed. This takes place of silver, their gold or more precious coin being made of Abalone (Haliotis) of various species. Strings of both were worn as ornaments and sacrificed as offerings on death of prominent persons. Stephen Powers "Tribes of California" Contrib. To N. Am. Ethnology vol. III pp.. 335-338, 1887. Whole volume under above title.

"Concave-convex disks much used by both ancient and modern tribes of California, Arizona and New Mexico. I essayed at one time to purchase a long necklace of these homely ornaments from a Navajo Indian in Arizona but soon discovered it was beyond my reach, as my best mule was hardly considered a fair exchange for it. These beads are made from Oliva [[[w:Olivella biplicata

|Olivella biplicata]] [[w:Olivella biplicata |Olivella biplicata ]]] chiefly, but to some extent from small bivalves" Holmes, William H., "Art in shell of the Ancient Americans" 2nd ann. Rept. Bur. Ethn. For 1880-81, p. 222, 1883. Frog carved on shell in Arizona, Op. cit. p. 268.

Mammals of S. W. Ariz. And S. E. Cali. Indian names from Means, Mex. Bound. Mam.

Mexican antelope [[w:Antilocapra americana mexicana |Antilocapra americana mexicana]] [[w:Antilocapra americana mexicana |Antilocapra americana mexicana ]] N. Mex. and from San Francisco Mts. Ariz. to Colo. Desert Cali. Rare now. Hualapai an uhl. Hopi chur-va?.

Badger ?no records here (Hornaday reports in S. Ariz, p. 31 etc. Russell says not now eaten by Pima believe it "cases disease among men")

Bat. [[w:Nyctinomus |Nyctinomus]] [[w:Nyctinomus |Nyctinomus ]] femorasacens Merriam. Free-tailed. L. 103; head and body 60; tail 41; exserted tail 23; head 23; ear from crown 14; from antiragus 20; tragus 1; humerus 28, forearm 47; 3rd finger metacarpel (sic) 45; 1st phalanx 20, 2nd 19, 5th finger 44. Type loc. Agua Caliente, Colo. Desert, Cali. N. Am. F. #2 p. 23 Bat. N. mohavensis Merriam. Free-tailed. L. 94; head and body 56; head 19.5; ear from base of antiragus 18; ear from crown 12; tragus 2; tail 34; exserted tail 13.5; humerus 24; forearm 44; 3rd metacarpel 43;first phalanx 16; 2nd 16 5th finger 42. Type loc. Ft. Mohave, Ariz. N. Amer. Fauna No. 2, p. 23.

Bear-Grizzly- Rept on San Francisco Mts by early writers (N. Am. F #3, p. 85) Bear- Black San Francisco Mts. Ariz. " p. 85 Beaver, broad tailed. [[w:Castor canadensis frondator |Castor canadensis frondator]] [[w:Castor canadensis frondator |Castor canadensis frondator ]] Mearns. Mex. N to Montana along wooded streams. P?h-h?n?-?'h, Hopi; Ap-?'-n?, Hualapai Coyote- no records Deer-Coues' white-tailed. [[w:Odocoileus couesi |Odocoileus couesi]] [[w:Odocoileus couesi |Odocoileus couesi ]] Coues and Yarrow. S.W.N. Mex., S. Ariz. and southward. Likely not W to Colo. River. Deer- Crook's Blacktail O. crooki Mearns. E. Ariz. and W. N. Mex. to Bill Williams Mts. Ariz. Cuervo (sic) (Cacalote) Mexican; Akwa'ka, Hualapai. Pe-ash , book tse ga, Hopi. ((I think the correct form for Spanish is cervo (Latin cervus) and not cuervo (crow- Latin corvus ))). Deer- Mexican mule deer O. hemionus canus Merriam. To N. Ariz. Likely not W Ariz. Cuervo (cacalote) Mexican. Akwa"ka Hualapai. Sho-we'h-hua, cho-we'e, boolk-tsi-ga'; schu-we'-nig-wuh; Hopi. Deer- desert (or burro) mule deer O. h. eremicus Mearns. Both sides of river and around head of gulf. Deer-O. h. californicus Caton Coast region. Elk- Merriams [[w:Cervus merriami |Cervus merriami]] [[w:Cervus merriami |Cervus merriami ]] Nelson W. N. Mex and E. Ariz. approaching extinction. Gopher- Desert Pocket. [[w:Thomomys perpallidus |Thomomys perpallidus]] [[w:Thomomys perpallidus |Thomomys perpallidus ]] Merr. Painted Desert Ariz. to Colo. Desert, Cali. M. Am/ F #3 p.71 Gopher. T. fulvus. San Francisco Mts and Grand Canyon

Mice Deermouse- True's. [[w:Peromyscus truei |Peromyscus truei]] [[w:Peromyscus truei |Peromyscus truei ]] Shufeldt N. W. Ariz. to about Mohave City, S in Cali. To nearly Needles. Av L. 186 (180-195); T 92 (86-102); H.F. 23. Ear from notch, dry, 22.4(21.5-24). Deermouse-tawny. P. maniculatus rufinus Merr. S. Rockies and scattered mountains of Ariz. Type loc. San Francisco Mts. Av L 160 (150-170); T 70(56-75); H.F. 20 (19-21); ear from notch, dry, 15.5 (14.1-16.6). Tail blackish brown above, white below. Pow-wip'-scha Hopi. Deermouse- Stephens' canyon mouse. P. crinitus stephensi Mearns. W and N of river in rocky places. Av. L 170 (161-176); T 94 (88-101); H. F. 20; ear from notch, dry, 16(15.3-16.5). Hairy tail distinguishes from eremicus; shorter ear distinguishes from truei. Deermouse- P. rowleyi Allen. Cali. and Ariz. Mts; not reaching river below, thus ((drawing in field book)). Deermouse- P. l. ochraceus E. Ariz. P. nasutus Allen S. W. Ariz.(Springerville) Deermouse- P. p. eremicoides Osgood. Mex. N to S. Ariz. P. l. arizonae S. E. Ariz and S into Mex. Deermouse- Western desert mouse. P. eremicus Baird (see under stephensi). Both sides of River, gulf to Utah. Tail longer than head and body, finely annulated, closely covered with short hairs. L. 183 (172-192); T 101 (84-108); ear from notch, dry, 17.5 (17.3-17.8). Deermouse- P. maniculatus sonoriensis Le Conte. W. Ariz and E Cali. Yuma Co., Mohave Co. opposite Needles, Ft. Mohave, Gila City, Phoenix etc. Cali. Needles, Yuma, Colo. Desert etc. L 166 (152-176); T 75 (65-80); ear from notch, dry, 16.4 (15.2-17.7); Tail brownish dusky above, white below. House mouse next page Mouse-Desert harvest. [[w:Reithrodontomys megalotis deserti |Reithrodontomys megalotis deserti]] [[w:Reithrodontomys megalotis deserti |Reithrodontomys megalotis deserti ]] Allen L. 140; T. 75; H. F. 18; ear from crown 11.35. Pelage long, soft, tail and ears hairy. Above yellowish gray. Hairs pointed with blackish in medial region. Below white, hair gray at base. S. Nev. S to mouth of Colo. River, Sonora and Lower Cali. Mouse- Grasshopper. O. pallescens and O. torridus. More eastern, probably do not reach river. Mouse-Yuma Grasshopper- [[w:Onychomys torridus perpallidus |Onychomys torridus perpallidus]] [[w:Onychomys torridus perpallidus |Onychomys torridus perpallidus ]] Mearns. Lower Colo. Valley, both sides of river. L. 154; T. 56.5; ear from crown 15; H. F. 21.3. Pocket Mice- [[w:Perognathus apache |Perognathus apache]] [[w:Perognathus apache |Perognathus apache ]] Merriam. Type loc. Apache Co. Ariz. L. 140; T. 68; H. F. 18.5; ear from crown, dry, 4. P. inornatus Merr. Type loc. Fresno, Cali. L. 137; T. 71; Tail pencil 4; H. F. 18.5; ear from crown 4. P. olivaceus Merr. Type loc. Kelton, Utah. L. 184; T. 101; pencil 9; H. F. 23; ear from crown, dry, 5. P. o. amoenus Merr. Type loc. Nephi, Utah. L. 178; T. 93; pencil 9; H. F. 24; ear from crown, dry, 4. P. formosus Merr. St. George, Utah. L. 195; T. 111; pencil 16; H.F. 26; ear from crown, dry, 6. P. intermedius Merr. Mud Spring, Ariz. L. 183; T. 106; pencil 18; H. F. 21; ear from crown, dry, 4.5. P. fallax Merr. San Bernardino, Cali. L. 183; T. 104; pencil 15; H. F. 24; ear from crown, dry, 6. P. spinatus Merr. Lower Colo. Cali. 25 mi. below Needles. L. 179; T. 104; pencil 15; H. F. 21; ear from crown, dry, 3.5. ((This record checked and underlined in red at a later date)). P. penicillatus Woodhouse. San Francisco Mts., Ariz. L. 204; T. 115; pencil 15; H. F. 25.5. P. armatus Merr. Mt. Diablo, Cali. L. 160; T. 90; pencil 15; H. F. 24; ear from crown, dry, 7. Muskrat- Fiber zibethicus pallidus Mearns. Pallid muskrat. Said to occur on lower Colo. Peccary- N to central Arizona. Porcupine-no records. No timber. Watch for gnawings. Prairie-dog. Arizona. [[w:Cynomys ludovicianus arizonensis |Cynomys ludovicianus arizonensis]] [[w:Cynomys ludovicianus arizonensis |Cynomys ludovicianus arizonensis ]] Mearns. S. E. Ariz. Prairie-dog- short tailed. Plateau and Mts N. E. Ariz., N. W. N Mex, Colo. T?ck-s?' Hualapai; T?ll k?h?, Hopi.

((I have omitted many other refernces to published material))

Boulder Colo., Monday Feby. 27, 1911 Have had snow for 12 days. The first two storms brought about a foot. Then followed a week of cold weather with no thawing in the shade. Saturday afternoon it began again. Yesterday morning there was 9 inches of fresh snow, continued snowing all day, probably resulting in a foot and a half. Cold this evening with north wind. Lots of snow on the range before this, from 10, 000 to 12,000 ft. Has snowed frequently all winter there, but not much below 10,000 ft. Left Boulder for Denver at 4:40 this afternoon. Left Denver at 7:45 p.m. for Needles, Cali. travelling second class. Car dirty. Only a few passengers.

Between La Junta and Trinidad Tuesday, Feby. 28, 1911 Snowed all night and still snowing. Had my window open, with a screen in. At La Junta I found a snowdrift on the bed, and closed the window. Only an inch or so of snow on flat plains s.w. of La Junta at 7:30. Very fine flakes. Shore larks common, branching cactus abundant. Breakfasted at Trinidad at 8:15, doughnuts, 2 baked apples and coffee 40¢. South of Trinidad we entered the foothills, with pinyon pines, cedars and scrub oaks on the hills. At about 7,000 ft rock pines appeared, or probably somewhat lower. The rocks are approximately level, sandstones, coal and shales. At 7200 ft. (W of the Raton Tunnel,) spruces or fir were abundant. Narrow leafed cottonwoods in the gulches. Reached Raton at 9:05, on time. Here we left the foothills and passed out onto the plains again. At Shoemaker we were again in hills, with Sandstone like "Dakota" of Boulder district, but not tilted, covered with rock pines and scrub oaks. Dined at Las Vegas at 1:50, on time. West of Las Vegas were occasional rock pines, soon passing into the loose cedar-pinon formation. Rock pines reappeared for a short distance as we crossed the divide to the Rio Grande Valley. On the divide red rock hills. Formation resembles Upper Carboniferous of Northern Colorado. Cleared off as we started down Rio Grand Valley for Albuquerque about sunset.

Winslow Ariz. Wednesday March 1, 1911 Cloudy again. Breakfasted here at 6:50, on time. No trees now. Soil scantily clad with stunted sage and a little grass. No snow here. Grand Canyon-like buttes appear to the north in hazy distance. Occasional clumps of cedars in storm water channels. Westward as we approach the mountains there is a loose cedar formations. As we approached Flagstaff there was much snow along the way and rock pines extended out in the valley and covered the mountains. Altitude 6,800. East of Williams the oaks were much larger than any seen before on the trip and abundant young rock pines of all sizes from seedlings up, mingled with the large rock pines, forming a dominant feature of the landscape, continuing to the very edge of the formation a short distance west of Williams. Then we abruptly entered the loose pinyon-cedar formation. Both large and small rock pines are found here, mingled with pinyons and cedars, but not so numerous, even small seedlings. Still some at Fairview. Here are many dead cedars, old and young, some dying covered with mistletoe, others dying not so infested, and some infected ones seem healthy. Struck a deaf man who was walking on the track at noon. He ceased to breathe after I reached him. Dined at Ash Fork at 12:20, a trifle late on account of the accident. Here the cedars and pinyons are much more scattered. As we approached Seligman the cedars gave way and retreated to the distant hills. Alt. 5234 ft. At Seligman just on time. Had cedars again on run to Peach Springs, which has an altitude of 4796 ft. Then they at once dropped out as we continued down the gulch turning s.w. for Needles. Mostly lava and red sandstone for a long distance back. A little green grass starting in moist places at Peach Springs, the first I have noticed. Greener as we go down. A few more cedars seen. We must be going down Truxton Canyon, as Truxton is the Truxton Canyon Indian School. Great scarcity of bird life all through Arizona. Saw two yellowbreasted birds which may have been meadowlarks, but looked smaller, in dry valley before reaching Kingman. Saw several hawks today. Mountains on our left as we approached Kingman had a thin covering of snow. Reached Needles at 6 p.m., 10 minutes late, and found J. P. Harrington at Hotel Bagnall. At((e)) at Harvey House. Cool evening.

Needles, Cali. Thursday March 2, 1911 Up at 6 a.m. Rented a one-room house from an Indian named jack Jones, for a workroom, and moved out outfit into it. Cloudy, very comfortable forenoon. We started after noon with Jones going to the terrace S. of town. Edge of terrace about 75 to 100 ft. above banks of river. Terrace is composed of river debris and covered with large boulders, chiefly or entirely igneous. The river is now cutting rapidly into the town on the north. English sparrow abundant about town. Brewers blackbird abundant about town. Took one swift (lizard) and some large black ants, all from one hill. Jones said that the large ones were different from the small ones, and that these black ones were confined mostly to the mesas. I disturbed the nest, and he said they sent out messengers to all the ants which were away from home to come and help build a new nest. Holes along sides of gulch appear to be those of striped ground squirrels. Jones says they occur here in abundance. Have had copious rain within a week. Ground moist and flowering plants beginning to blossom profusely. Set some traps in the evening. Got room at Needles Hotel.

Needles, Cali. Friday Mch. 3, 1911 Up at 6:30 a.m. Cloudy. Air moist. Nothing in traps. Saw Sonora redwings among Brewers blackbirds in town and apparently young Brewers. Saw intermediate whitecrowned sparrows in town. Rock wren on mesa- [[w:Salpinctes obsoletus |Salpinctes obsoletus]] [[w:Salpinctes obsoletus |Salpinctes obsoletus ]]. Gray titmouse in a gulch. Began raining at 9:40 just after I returned from the mesa. Jack Jones came at 7:30 a.m. to announce that a relative had died across the river and he must go across. He said he would be gone till noon. Harrington asked if he could go and Jones said yes. Then he said he would not stay long-would "only cry for half an hour and then come back". Intermediate white-crowned sparrows abundant in brush near our cabin. I watched them with field glasses and saw none with black in front of the bill. Gopher mounds s.w. of Truxton around Kingman are probably desert or pallid pocket gopher. [[w:Thomomys perpallidus |Thomomys perpallidus]] [[w:Thomomys perpallidus |Thomomys perpallidus ]] (Merr.). Pale muskrat- Fiber zibethicus pallidus Mearns, in small lake above Needles, Cali., on the Arizona side. (Spephens Mammals of Calif. P. 132). The old river terrace here has a gentle slope from the foot of the mountains on the west to the edge where it abruptly drops to the present flood plain of the Colorado River. The banks of the river are about 10 ft. above water at the present stage. Jack Jones showed familiarity with the idea of the small gulches in the mesa having been eroded by storm waters and called gulches and gullies washes. Rain continued until noon and it sprinkled until middle of afternoon, quite cold, then cleared off and warmed up. Harrington returned at 4 p.m. and we packed my trunk for a trip to Mohave, Arizona, up the river.

Needles, Cali. Saturday March 4, 1911 Heavy rain just before daylight, cloudy and cool when I got up. Yesterday the wind was northerly. This morning it is southerly. We carried our outfit to the ferry, very exhausting work. Got it on stage at 9:30 and started up river on Arizona side. Cleared with south breeze, sun hot but tempered by wind. River bottom lands a perfect jungle of willow, cottonwood and arrowweed. Took a nest six inches in diameter, enclosed except one-inch opening in upper part of side, leading to an inch tunnel which curved downwards on inside. Lined with cotton from cottonwood or tule probably. In the tree 8 ft from ground. Flock of Canada geese passed over. Killed vermillion flycatcher 4 mi. s. of Mohave School. Indian there had 6 green winged teal. Red on side of head and crown, green each side of red crown.

2 bluebill, not know name, blue with black tip. Scaup marila marila

1 duck with yellow bill and black down middle of bill. I young cottontail. A perfectly gorgeous sunset. Reached Government Indian School at Ft. Mohave at 7 p.m., very tired, and were kindly received by Doctor Lander or Landis. The river valley presents many old channels, closed and silted up ox bows, and small sloughs. Found no molluscs except [[w:Physa |Physa]] [[w:Physa |Physa ]]. Saw one Pharopepla ((spelling?)). Clear, warm day. Saw several great blue herons.

Ft. Mohave, Ariz. Sunday March 5, 1911

Cloudy, cool morning. We were assigned to a table at the regular government mess. Say's phoebe very common about the buildings. Up at 5:45 a.m. Rising bell rang then instead of 6 a.m. Had breakfast at 6:30 instead of 7 a.m. The Indian children marched to their breakfast in companies led by a very good Indian boy's band of 18 pieces. At 9 a.m. we watched inspection. Boys divided into companies according to size, all uniformed and regularly officered. Girls similarly divided, with girls for officers. There are, I should say, about 150 boys and girls here. The girl officers did not salute, as the boys did. Two small girls were sent from the ranks for failure to wash their hands or some other untidiness. They hung their heads but did not cry. The old fort buildings are of adobe brick, not slatted, painted red. The doctors showed us through the hospital. Our quarters are in one of the old fort buildings, adobe walls 2 ft thick. They were having a dance at the gymnasium when we arrived, the Indian band furnishing the music, except when the band boys were dancing. Then they used a phonograph. Plant lighted by acetylene gas, which is turned off early except on Saturday nights when it burns till 9 p.m. on account of the dance, which ends at 8 p.m. Miss Flint, who sat opposite meat the table, is an Oklahoma Indian, probably halfbreed, Cherokee or Osage. N. P. White, disciplinarian of the school, is a halfbreed (from a Ft. Mohave soldier, probably) Mohave. Caught a cockroach last night and a house mouse at house today. Set traps along rive bank and one on mesa. The river terrace just below the school is fine. The mesa here has a covering of rather fine gravel (up to 2 inches or so) and below are larger boulders several inches in diameter, all thoroughly water worn, no angular material on surface as at Needles. Afternoon partly clear, warmer, and cool again in evening. Hazy.

Ft Mohave, Ariz., Monday Mch. 6, 1911

Up at 5:30. Saw the interesting ceremony of raising the flag just as the sun peeped over the hills in the morning, The Indian boys and girls drawn up in double line, facing the flag with hats off, the flag rising very slowly as the band played Star Spangled Banner very softly, then all marched off to breakfast. They did not have uniforms on, but were dressed promiscuously. Bright clear morning. A house mouse and a deermouse in the traps, former at house on terrace, latter at river's edge. A trap under a greasewood bush was sprung- nothing in it. Very little Indian music here. They all sing and whistle white man's music instead. There are about 100 boys and 65 girls in the school. Five days each week they spend forenoon in school learning reading, writing, arithmetic etc. up to about 7th grade work. Afternoons the boys spend at industrial training, carpentering, farming etc., and the girls engage in domestic science. Have religious service Thursday evenings by a Needles minister, and Christian endeavor Sunday evenings. Salute flag morning and evening daily. Marriage customs lax. When girls reach early marriageable age they go with first one man, than another, until pregnant, then live with one of them until her tires of her, when she goes to another. Government insisting now upon regular marriage. When boy and girl meet in the brush they have intercourse without further ceremony. Girls go to Los Angeles to good families under "outing matron" to learn household duties, and boys go to farms orange groves etc. Mr. T. Harmon Parkhurst, 4421 Kingswell Ave. Los Angeles. Cali. With the Santa Fe R. R. survey, camped below the school, called at noon. He was formerly with Smithsonian Institution. I went up river afternoon. Cloudy. River bottom opens out above and blow the school, which is situated on a peninsula of old river gravel thus: ((drawing in field book)) Shot a shore bird, but it fell where I could not get it. Did not identify it. Saw lots of Great Blue Heron tracks on the muddy flood plain. Shot 2 Stansberry's Swift lizards and saw many. They were both females. Shot an immature intermediate sparrow, a brewer's sparrow, a rock wren and a plumbeous gnatcatcher. Set 13 traps. The exposed bed of gravel is fully 250 ft. deep here.

Mohave, Ariz., Tuesday Mch. 7, 1911

Cool, cloudy, strong southerly breeze. Nothing in traps. Collected some plants and skinned birds in forenoon. Two sand hill cranes flew over camp. In afternoon I went down river. Saw several ducks and snipe, Wilson's, Gallinayo ((sp.?)) delicata. Shot 2 female redwings, one western bluebird, [[w:Sialia mexicana occidentalis |Sialia mexicana occidentalis]] [[w:Sialia mexicana occidentalis |Sialia mexicana occidentalis ]], 2 western savannah sparrows?, one western vesper sparrow and one desert song sparrow. Also one round-tailed ground squirrel. Saw one sparrow hawk.

Mohave, Ariz., Wednesday Mch. 8, 1911

Cloudy, breezy, warmer this morning. Old Mohave information identified the young female ground squirrel #253 as an old female about to bring forth young. It was in fact a young female, with teats undeveloped and no signs of pregnancy. Also said it's hearing is very acute, which is doubtful, in view of the rudimentary ears. He identified western bluebird male ([[w:Sialia mexicana occidentalis |Sialia mexicana occidentalis]] [[w:Sialia mexicana occidentalis |Sialia mexicana occidentalis ]] #255), as a female and said male was all blue, no red. Gave but one name to western vesper sparrow and desert song sparrow designating the former as female and the latter as male. When asked why he considered former female of the species he said it was because it was larger. He made it clear that he considers the two species but one. Took a western black phoebe in the evening. Warm wind all day. The gravel of the valley in the bluffs just above the school is well consolidated conglomerate, making several well marked ledges.

Fort Mohave Ariz. Thursday Mch. 9, 1911

Cloudy, not cool, sprinkling at times this morning. Tow Sonora deermice in traps. An adult female #262 or Mohave Indian informant called a male and the young male in the "blue" pelage he called the male of a different species. A lizard with distinct head and reticulated back, #3, Mch. 9, 1911, he said if bite ((sic)), may kill your. The western black phoebe #261 he called a male, but of course no one could tell without dissection, as the sexual organs are internal and the sexes are otherwise alike. T. H. Parkhurst brought in a horned lizard and a lizard (zebra-tailed swift). #34 The Mohave always cremate their dead. They sit about and discuss how long the patient will live. After cremation they have a feast. Jack Jones said they killed a horse for the last feast. Went out for a short time after noon. Saw another western black phoebe and heard several. Saw a flock of a dozen or more Barrow's goldeneyes (Claugula islandica) on the river. Also 2 blue herons on the bank. Vesper sparrows common on the mesa. Found 2 Abert towhees in the traps.

Ft. Mohave, Ariz. Friday Mch. 10, 1911

Rained during night, cool and cloudy this morning, wind southerly. Ft. Mohave was established nearly 60 years ago, at the point where the old Santa Fe Trail crossed the Colorado River. The trail can still be seen. One young male Sonora deermouse in the traps, 2 sprung. Two had been tampered with by Indians. A foot of a wood rat was in one steel trap and tracks around it the fox or small dog which robbed the trap. Several peals of thunder and a brisk rain during forenoon, then cleared off with a strong west wind. Bought $5.00 worth of beadwork from a Mohave woman who spoke good English. She said Mohave do not make baskets or blankets and had forgotten how to make mud pottery. Jack Jones wanted the bodies to eat of the mice I skin. An Indian boy said "Please can I come in and see your birds" so I let him in. The Indians consider the zebra-tailed swift (our field no. 34) good to eat. Parkhurst brought in two more specimens of what I take to be ashy horned lizard (P. calcidiarium Cope), but the three specimens we have had have a decided pink hue, especially in spots, with rows of white spots across the back and only dark bands, not black. An Indian boy brought in a striped lizard, with 4 yellow stripes, the dark intervening stripes dotted with yellow, abdomen and tail blue, perhaps a young tessellated lizard [[w:Cnemidophorus tesselatus |Cnemidophorus tesselatus]] [[w:Cnemidophorus tesselatus |Cnemidophorus tesselatus ]]. Wind has blown strongly from the s.w. since middle of the forenoon. River is rising, showing warm weather in the mountains. Henry Fulton, now full-bearded and in charge of the Santa Fe R. R. survey for a road up valley, called in afternoon.

Ft. Mohave, Ariz., Saturday Mch. 11, 1911

Bright, sharp morning, but quite warm by 8:30. Old Indian informant said the bird which I have identified as female ruby crowned kinglet and the Vermillion flycatcher live on insects which they catch on the wing, which is correct. He also said (Jack Jones agreeing with him) that the western bluebird lives on wheat and corn and they never saw him eat anything else. This, of course, is not correct. The old man identified the male vermillion flycatcher as a female and said the male is all red. At 8:22 I started on foot for Needles with a light pack. Just below the fort I took off one pair of drawers and undershirt, having put on two thin suits in the cool morning. On bottomland below the fort saw a dozen Abert's towhees, 2 flocks of quail, one flock of ducks and heard many strange bird songs. Reached Cottoina ((spelling)) (just changed, I believe to Luicoluia ((spelling))) 6 miles from Needles at 11:10 and stopped for lunch. Reached the ferry opposite Needles at 3:15. River was flooding the lower flood plain, so I had to go down river half a mile and wait for the boat for 40 minutes. Shot an Abert Towhee about 4 miles above ferry and saw several others. Saw a western black phoebe at ferry. Evening warmer than any I have seen since arrival in Colorado Valley.

Needles, Cali. Sunday Mch. 12, 1911

Bright morning, cool at first, quite comfortable by 9 a.m., with strong west breeze. Packed Harrington's trunk and a box of formaldehyde and bottles in the forenoon. English sparrow is common here. The presence of abundant palms and eucalyptus, peppers, oleanders and a few olives here makes it a typical California town. Friday a young Mohave carpenter's assistant was looking at a young and one old Mohave deermouse and called them both "white man's mouse", confusing them with the house mouse. Saw one intermediate sparrow, Z. l. gambeli. Robbins arrived at 6 p.m.

Needles, Cali., Monday Mch. 13, 1911.

Up at 6 a.m. Got 2 trunks and a box to the ferry at 8 a.m. Bright, cool, strong north wind. Got across river at 9:10 and started north on foot. Reached store 6 miles N. at noon, lunched, and started on. Wind has blown strongly from the north (directly ahead) all the way. Saw two large flocks of Gambel quail, some W. vesper sparrows, Abert's towhee, shot a w. bluebird and 2 small species and saw one duck. Reached Ft. Mohave at 4 p.m. One of the small birds collected was a female verdine, the other a female plumbeous gnatcatcher.

Ft. Mohave, Ariz., Tuesday Mch. 14, 1911

Wind still howling from north, cool but not cold, clear. Bought a bat from an Indian woman, 10¢. In afternoon I walked down to lower bottomland. Saw 15 killdeer, 1 marsh hawk, a flock of ducks, abundant swallows. The carpenter brought in a sidewinder rattlesnake in evening.

Ft. Mohave, Ariz. Wednesday Mch. 15, 1911

Hazy, warm, not very windy. A fine rat and a field mouse in traps, 3 other rat traps sprung with hairs of rats and one rat leg in. Half a dozen mouse traps were sprung, perhaps by wind. Parkhurst brought in a kangaroo rat, badly torn, and I skinned it. Skinned 3 bats, one rat, one deermouse, one kangaroo rat, 2 birds and one decapitated snake today. Much warmer this afternoon. I worked with sleeves rolled up. Talked with Mr. Brace about school. Says there are about 190 pupils there. 15 more boys than girls. Mr. Davis is principal, Mr. Brace and Mrs. Duclos assistants. Mr. Duclos is superintendent. Miss Flint is seamstress. Many graduates then go to larger schools, as Phoenix or Carlisle. Many go back to tribal customs. They need considerable stimulus from without. The ditch at foot of bluff at Ft. Mohave exposes a fine sand, but slightly consolidated, beneath the coarse gravel. The lower gravel is cross-bedded. Saw killdeer in numbers and a marsh hawk.

Ft. Mohave, Ariz., Thursday Mch. 16, 1911

Bright, very calm, warm. Early morning was cool. An Abert's towhee in mouse trap and a rat's foot in steel trap. Robbins and Harrington went down the river in forenoon to remain several days. Skinned two birds and one mouse in forenoon. In afternoon went up to the nearly treeless bottomlands above the fort. Shot one [[w:Phainopepla |Phainopepla]] [[w:Phainopepla |Phainopepla ]], 2 intermediate sparrows, one western vesper sparrow. After supper I went to the farmland below the fort and set out poison. Saw 2 pairs of mourning doves and shot one. Saw a dozen Abert's towhees roosting in one mesquite tree. It is the most common bird in the bottomland brush. The western vesper sparrow is common on the creosote mesa. It has been a very hot day. Slight movement of air from south.

Ft. Mohave, Ariz., Friday Mch. 17, 1911.

Bright cool, calm morning. Saw 2 Phaniopeplas ((spelling)) (probably a pair) together in the thicket on the river bank at the fort. Mr. McMillan says he saw mourning doves some time ago. It was very hot this afternoon. I skinned 5 birds and 3 bats today.

Ft. Mohave, Ariz., Saturday Mch. 18, 1911

Bright, calm morning. Wind northerly. Heard first meadowlark just after breakfast. Shot a robin. At 9:30 a.m. a flock of about 125 sand hill cranes passed over. Flying in 4 divisions close together, going north in usual V-shape. Went to lower bottom land in afternoon. Saw 2 more robins, 40 or 50 Wilson snipe, 20 or more killdeer. Some teal ducks, plumbeous gnatcatchers and Abert's towhees.

Ft. Mohave, Ariz. Sunday Mch. 19, 1911

Strong north wind during night, continuing this morning, cooler, partly cloudy. Went down river after breakfast. Saw about 15 robins, several flocks of blue-winged teal and 2 green-winged teal, and a flock of female redwings. Have seen no male redwings since the flock at the barn a day or two after our arrival here. The mourning dove I killed two or three days ago had its crop full of wheat and oats, probably taken from the freshly sown fields. Robbins returned this evening.

Ft. Mohave, Ariz. Monday, Mch. 20, 1911

Bright, hot morning. 2 mice in trap. At 8 a. m. a flock of over 100 white pelicans passed over the fort. Killed a species of cactus wren. Have heard them frequently for a week or two but had seen none before. The mice caught this morning are pocket mice. Their cheek pouches contained beans of screw mesquite and bean mesquite and the cornmeal which was used for bait. Harrington returned with Jack Jones at noon and we began preparations for a trip to Dead Mt. A Mohave schoolboy was pelting a Stansbury's swift lizard with rocks. I picked it up and tried to induce him to touch it, but he shrank away and emphatically shook his head. We got across the river with our outfit by rowboat at 4 p.m., Robbins, Harrington, Jack Jones and another Mohave. A flock of birds, black with red bills, about 20 of them, which I took to be cormorants, passed down the river, flying very low over the water. (Baird's cormorants). Harrington and the Indians went for a pack burro and Harrington brought it back after Robbins and I had camped on the river bank. Harrington and Robbins slept in bottom of two boats moored at the river bank. I found two boards and used them to keep me off the wet sand.

Nevada, opposite Ft. Wingate, Ariz., Tuesday Mch. 21., 1911

I was cold all night, with but one blanket. Robbins and I got up at 3 a.m., rekindled the fire and sat by it. I arose at 5 a.m. We got the pack on the burro a 6:45 and started west. Had trouble keeping the pack on and just before we reached the terrace it turned under. It clouded up at 7 a.m. and the barometer dropped 150 ft. Got a saddle and repacked, starting for the mesa at 8:45. Had to wade up to knees in three places. After lunch Indians went on ahead with burro, through Harrington's mismanagement, and were soon lost to sight in the rough ground. We did not find their trail again. At dusk we found wood and water and camped in a light drizzle of rain, without food or blankets. It was quite cold and we found poor shelter from the variable wind in the rocks. Altitude 2200 ft by low barometer. Saw one mockingbird.

In Nevada, n.w. of Ft. Mohave, Ariz. Wednesday Mch. 22, 1911.

Barometer still low in morning, cloudy. We went up the gulch some distance until the country became very rough, then Robbins and I refused to go any further and started down gulch for food. Saw Gambel quail and heard a canyon wren and numerous house finches in the gulch. Saw a number of lizards but was too weary, weak and hurried to take any. Reached Ft. Mohave at 5:30, very weak and sore, both of us. When we arose and went up gulch in morning, Harrington insisted on crossing to a gulch northward in hope of finding Indians and burro. As the country was very rough, with a maze of deep canyons the search seemed hopeless, so we tried to dissuade him from going further from food in a weakened condition, but as he persisted we refused to go and turned back. The whole trip was ill-advised, not planned at all, and ill prepared. Harrington came rushing in at noon day before yesterday and declared that we must start in half an hour. He had no plan at all and of course had made no preparation. Robbins and I protested but he was stubborn and unreasonable, his sole idea being to get started before his Indians backed out, He went to the store and boarding house and got several (three) gunnysacks of bread and canned goods. As we discovered afterwards, the things were simply thrown into the sacks, not packed at all. Butter was simply in the original package, nothing to prevent its melting in the hot sun and running over everything. Coffee and sugar were in thin paper bags, mingled with a lot of canned goods, so that when we opened the sack for lunch yesterday we found the coffee and sugar mingled in the bottom of the coarse gunny sack and running through the meshes. The only cup he had was one the cook had put over a pitcher of cream potatoes. He had some cold baked or boiled potatoes in the bottom of one sack where they were soon mashed into a sodden mass. We found he had only 5 small sized cans of beans, 3 small cans of beef, 2 small cans of salmon, 12 loaves of bread, one pound of butter to last 5 men for four days or more of hard travel on foot and mountain climbing. When he brought all that to the room I asked him how he expected to transport it. He said we would carry it on our backs. I asked Jack Jones how much he would carry. He said "nothing but his blanket". Harrington said we could not ask the Indians to carry anything or they would refuse to go. I told him I would not attempt to carry any of that load except my blanket, a can or two of beans and two loaves of bread for myself. He finally consented to get a pack burro. He first said he expected to get a burro for the Indian policemen to ride, but we three white men were to carry the food. He was utterly unreasonable, would listen to no argument. He knew nothing about trails, nothing of the country. He had no plan whatever except to get started at once. Robbins and I finally consented to start. I insisted that if we were to succeed we must push at once for a good camping place at the foot of the peak, ascend the peak, then if provisions and strength held out we could collect and get place name data on the way back. I doubt whether the Indians knew much about the country. Jack Jones says he was there, 20, 30 or 40 years ago, was very hazy about it and has no idea of distances. I do not know whether the other Indian (a policeman) was ever there. Tuesday morning the first thing Harrington did upon starting was to stop for an hour (after we had wasted a lot of time hunting for a saddle for the burro which he failed to get the evening before) taking notes on place name and tradition concerning a hill which is in plain sight from Ft. Mohave and could be taken at any time. We finally stopped at noon for lunch, within 4 miles of Ft. Mohave in an air line, not over five by our route. After lunch he began to pick up every plant he saw, wanting to stop and get the Indian names of each one as he collected it and to put it into the press at once, opening the press each time. We tried to convince him that it was folly to spend so much time, when we could collect them, carry them until we stopped to rest, then get their names and other data and put all in the press in a few moments. As usual, we could not convince him of the folly of his course. He has not the slightest capacity for planning work to save time, in order to do the maximum amount of work in the least time, a fact which he has illustrated daily, almost hourly, throughout the three weeks I have been with him, and he cannot appreciate the force of any suggestions in that direction. At the rate we were going we could not have reached any possible source of water in two days. Finally, while he was collecting plant fragments, work which he was wholly incompetent to do, owing to lack of judgment and botanical knowledge, and which Robbins was doing efficiently, he let the Indians get out of sight with the burro. Then we succeeded in getting him to hurry a little. Even as evening approached he insisted on our stopping to get a picture of Dead Mt., when the light was so poor it would not make a good picture, and the same view could be obtained next day from any ridge we might cross, with as good or better light. We were all loaded down, Robbins carrying the plant press, cameras etc. I carrying small gun, bags of bottles, alcohol etc., Harrington carrying plate holders and about 10 dozen plates, though plate holders could only be loaded during night, and with a limited number of plate holders the limit of possible pictures fro the trip was 80. In the morning, after another cold, sleepless night, when he insisted upon going into the next gulch, we tried to convince him of the folly of such a course and to point out that with a maze of gulches in a rough country the possibility of locating the Indians and burro was exceedingly remote, and would lead him further into a rough, foodless region, more remote from food and possibly from water, in a weakened condition, carrying him to the river miles further up with no knowledge as to the country or as to whether he would find anyone with food there. We urged him to turn back to where there was certainty of both food and water, but as usual he was unreasonable and we could make no impression on him. We finally parted from him with great regret that he should persist in a foolish course-foolish even if he should be accidentally successful. (see also tomorrow's record). We could not convince him of the folly of collecting a lot of common plants and carrying them up the mountains, instead of collecting them fresh on the way down, when they could be gotten into the press in fresh condition, or of the folly of collection unrecognizable fragments of plants, single leaves, dry stem etc., without the parts which would enable one to identify them or even recognize them again. He knows no botany or zoology and will not accept the judgment of men whose business it is to know those subjects and whose experience enables them to form accurate opinions. The same as to photography. He knows nothing of photography and cannot be convinced that it is impossible to take certain subjects so as to really show them, or that a photographer cannot retouch a photo of a plant he never saw, where the plant has been photographed waving in a violent wind, the camera also vibrating in the wind, so that the picture is completely blurred, with no detail to form the basis of retouching. He has constantly hampered our work by insisting on doing things which cannot be done, though we always explain why, and by insisting that the strictly botanical or zoological parts of our work must be done our way. He has constantly wasted our time, as well as his own, so that we cannot accomplish anything. We were asked to come here to do zoological and botanical work to help him with the ethnozoological and ethnobotanical work, yet he took Robbins down river and kept him for a couple of days photographing Jack Jones process of washing his hair in all its minute details. In the evening we saw another flock of cormorants flying down stream, low over the water, in wedge shape. Hot afternoon.

Ft. Mohave, Ariz. Thursday Mch. 23, 1911

Cloudy, cool morning. Sore from out trip, especially our feet. Saw numerous pocket gopher hills in the gulches of Nevada yesterday and day before. Tuesday evening, after dark Harrington talked seriously of starting over the divide into the next gulch to look for the Indians and burro, although the country is very rough, there was no moon, it was dark and rainy, and everywhere there were long-spined cacti of various species and thorny bushes, and he was very much fatigued. It was foolhardy but he would have gone, probably, if I had not dissuaded him. Harrington arrived at 6 p.m., to our great relief. He had found a mining camp and had plenty of food. One of the Indians also came in with the burro, but Jack Jones stayed to hunt us. I collected insects in the afternoon.

Ft. Mohave, Ariz. Friday March 24, 1911

Cloudy morning. The Mohave belong to the Yuman linguistic family and scarcely differ from the Yuma in language. The Yuman include the Hualapai, Yavepai, Cocopai, Diegue?o, and Havasupai (at Bright Angels Hotel). The Chemehuevo are in the Shoshonean linguistic family. They are really the lower Colorado River Paiutes (Ft. Mohave and Parker (?)). The family includes Cohuila, Shoshone, Comanche, Snake and many others. Went down river bottom. Saw a flock of ducks, many Abert towhees, several female redwings, 3 mourning doves, one sparrow hawk, abundant killdeer and Wilson snipe. Scarcity of hawks and owls here is noticeable, have seen but one marsh hawk and 3 sparrow hawks. In afternoon went up river. Collected a collared lizard and a black-throated sparrow, desert form. Jack Jones returned in the evening.

     Very hot afternoon. 
     

Ft. Mohave, Ariz., Saturday Mch. 25, 1911

Bright morning, hot day. Spent forenoon taking care of material already collected, cleaning our room and washing clothes. In afternoon went up river, and collected a few insects, seeing nothing else we need. Killdeer are common on mesa at the fort and on the farm in the bottom land below the fort. Have not seen them elsewhere. Robbins and Harrington brought in a 50-inch rattlesnake in the evening (western diamond) from the Nevada boundary. There is a good deal of agate in the gravel of the mesa about here and an occasional pebble of limestone containing fragments of crinoids and other fossils. There is much quartz and many black and red pebbles, the latter probably jasper. One piece of agatized wood was noticed.

Ft. Mohave, Ariz., Sunday Mch. 26, 1911

Cooler, hazy and windy this morning. Up to date we have taken at least 13 species of [[w:Reptilia |Reptilia]] [[w:Reptilia |Reptilia ]] (4 snakes, 1 tortoise, the balance lizards), one toad, 7 species of mammals (with records of several others) and 19 species of birds (with records of many others). In forenoon saw one great blue heron and one marsh hawk. Robbins says he saw the cormorants again and that they have yellow at the base of the bill instead of red. The afternoon was quite hot. I have done little work today except to get part of the outfit together for the trip to the mountains Harrington is planning for tomorrow. I evening a picnic party from the fort brought in from Hardyville a western diamond rattlesnake 53 1/4 inches long and 2 sidewinders 23 and 222 inches respectively.

Ft. Mohave, Ariz., Monday March 27, 1911

Partly cloudy, warm morning. Wagon started for boat landing with our outfit at about 7 a.m. We left landing at 8 a.m. reaching opposite side at 8:30. At Nevada side landing were a number of sparrows singing which I take for the desert song sparrow. Plumage mostly reddish brown above with a big spot of same color on breast like black spot of tree sparrow, speckles of same color on throat. Inner web of tail feathers dusky but outer reddish brown, so only the latter color shows when tail is closed or but partly spread. Gray mixed with reddish brown above, gray stripe over eye and another just beneath eye, with reddish brown stripe intervening behind the eye. The song reminds me of that of the white-crowned sparrow, but it is more extended and complex. Started from river bank with a stout wood wagon and Chemehueve (?) driver at 10:45, with barometer set at 500 ft. Stopped at 1:15 for lunch at 1200 ft., having travelled N 35? W at rate of perhaps 2 1/2 miles per hour, therefore 6 or 7 miles from the fort, road quite direct. Temperature 77. A week ago this was a veritable flower garden, a large number of species blossoming in profusion. Now many species have dried up and gone to seed. Still many California poppies. Started on at 2:15. At 1500 ft. blue lupine and [[w:Opuntia |Opuntia]] [[w:Opuntia |Opuntia ]] biglovei (?) etc. became abundant. Crossed divide at 4:50 and watered horse at Hyecho Springs at 5:30 and camped. Altitude 2000 ft. Road thus: ((drawing in field book. Hyecho Springs are now called, I think, Hiko Springs and are on the Bridge Canyon 71/2 minute Quadrangle at an altitude of 1900 feet. Henderson's barometer was quite good)).

Hyecho Springs, Nev. Tuesday, Mch. 28, 1911

Name of place not spelled correctly, probably. Bright morning, up at dawn. Mockingbirds sang all night, abundant. Gambel's quail calling this morning. Housefinch abundant. Desert (western blackthroated sparrow) several. [[w:Phainopepla |Phainopepla]] [[w:Phainopepla |Phainopepla ]] 1 Started with wagon at 7:45. Crossed a divide and a gulch, then another divide at 2300 ft. 9 a.m. Crossed still another and into another, where we reached Rattlesnake Spring at 10:35 and camped. Altitude 2425 by aneroid. Hot. Canyon wren here Mourning dove 1 robin 2 turkey vultures Had a big-eared rat in trap this morning, and took an antelope squirrel at base of Dead Mt., altitude 3200 ft. Quail abundant in all these gulches. At noon I started to get a view of the mountain to see what is the best route to the top. At 2 p.m. I reached the saddle at the west end of the mountain, altitude 3200 ft. Then started down the gulch to the spring, reaching camp at 4:30.

Rattlesnake Spring, Nev. Wednesday, Mch. 29, 1911

Up at 4:30 a.m. Owl called through night thus: ((four notes indicated)). Started at 5:40 a.m. for Dead Mt. ((this may be Spirit Mountain on the modern maps)) ? Robbins, Jack Jones, Harrington and I. Very high, cold wind on the mountain. We went up the s.e. face and reached the top at 10:30. Barometer at stone monument at apex read 5690, probably high barometer on account of wind. Started back at 12:15, stopping considerable (sic) Robbins and I reaching camp at 4 p.m. Harrington and Jones came later. Saw white throated swifts on mountain at 4000 ft.

Rattlespring (sic), Nev. Thursday Mch. 30, 1911

Up at sunrize (sic). Bright, warm, breezy. Started for Ft. Mohave by wagon at 7:25. One deermouse in traps. Reached river opposite Ft. Mohave at 2:45 p.m. and got across river at 4 p.m.

Ft. Mohave, Ariz., Friday Mch. 31, 1911

     Bright morning. Robbins left on morning stage. In afternoon Harrington and I took Indian animal names from Chemehueve Indians.
     Deer mice puzzled them One young man put 2 species together, separating them by size only, but correctly designated the "blue" young specimens of Sonora deermouse as young. No two agreed upon the names except after much urging by Harrington. 
     Insects # 143-144-145 they identified as house fly until difference in color and habitat was explained. 
     	Temperature today 96+.


Ft. Mohave, Ariz. Saturday Apl. 1, 1911

     Cloudy, cooler this morning. 

Worked all day getting Chemehueve names of plants and animals. In most cases they gave names with no hesitation and distinguished species superficially resembling each other. In evening a strong west wind arose, with lightening in the south. Indian girls at first about as white girls, but at 12 to 16 begin to get fat. Mohave and Chemehueve women all fat. Have boards, padded, with arch over head to keep cover from face, for babies. Rock babies on knee in this primitive cradle by moving the knees to and fro sideways. Chemehueve woman was working on a basket, scraping the twigs with knife and weaving slowly. Said it would take a month to finish the basket a foot or so wide and 6 inches deep.

Ft. Mohave, Ariz. Sunday Apl. 2, 1911

Bright cool morning, soon heating up. Put up a duck, then went to Chemehueve house to discuss mammals with them by use of colored pictures. Ft. spelled Mojave, P.O. Mohave.

Ft. Mohave, Ariz., Monday Apl. 3, 1911

Bright morning. Harrington started for Needles on the stage at 8 a.m. and I started up river with both guns and a packfull of lunch, water and collecting outfit. Mosquitoes by thousands Gambel's quail common-shot 1 Intermediate sparrow-1 Black throated sparrow common Desert song sparrow common Swainson's hawk 1 Abert towhee common [[w:Phainopepla |Phainopepla]] [[w:Phainopepla |Phainopepla ]] 1-1 Stansbury's swift abundant Tessellated lizard common Killdeer common at fort Robin 1 Cactus wren 1 Zebra-tailed lizard 1 Cormorant 12, shot 2, one drifted beyond reach, got other by wading Caspain (sic) tern, shot one, got it by undressing and wading in deep water through tall tules. Collared lizard 1 Started back at 12:45, reaching the fort at 2:30 p.m. Put up the quail and tern in the tern (sic) in the evening.

Ft Mojave, Ariz. Tuesday Apl. 4, 1911

Partly cloudy, very windy day, southerly wind. Put up the cormorant in forenoon. Then gave a natural history talk to a class of 22 Indian boys and girls from 14 to 16 years old, using specimens for illustration. Spent afternoon washing my clothes and preparing boxes for shipment. Also cleaned up the room.

Ft. Mojave, Ariz. Wednesday Apl. 5, 1911

     Cloudy cool morning. South wind. 

Started up river at 7:30 a.m. Killdeer at fort and up at big lake. 2 ducks unidentified Rough winged swallow- took one saw many Violet green swallow- saw a few Desert (w. black throated) sparrow Great blue heron 1 Cormorant 2 Cinnamon teal 15 Abert towhee common [[w:Phainopepla |Phainopepla]] [[w:Phainopepla |Phainopepla ]] Warbler Lycy's (?) took one Red wing blackbirds Vermillion flycatcher 1

     Returned at 3 p.m. Still cool, cloudy and windy. 

Harrington returned again in the evening.

Ft. Mojave, Ariz. Thursday. Apl. 6, 1911

Stayed at camp all day, put up 2 birds, began packing and sorted Harrington's ethnozoological slips. Bright, warm day. Harrington started down river again in morning.

Ft. Mojave, Ariz., Friday April 7, 1911

     Bright forenoon. Cloudy and windy afternoon. 

Finished getting Harrington's notes in shape and did a lot of packing.

Ft. Mojave, Ariz., Saturday Apl. 8, 1911

     Bright, cool morning.
     Took ashy throated flycatcher and saw several others. 
     Saw pack of yellowheaded blackbirds, both sexes, on barn and shot 2 cowbirds out of same flock. Went down to bottomland and saw.
     Ashy throated flycatcher several
     Say's phoebe 1
     Western meadowlark 1
     Bullock's oriole 1
     Yellowheaded blackbirds a dozen or more
     Cowbirds a dozen or more
     Mourning dove 6
     Rough winged swallows 10
     Abert's towhee a few
     Lycy's warbler 2
     Sparrow unidentified
     Songs of several unidentified species
     Killdeer.

Ft. Mojave, Ariz. Sunday April 9, 1911

Bright, warm morning At 9:30 I started with Mr. White and his brother (Mohaves) for the Nevada side, where we were joined by three other Mohaves with a fish net arranged with sticks about two feet apart instead of lead and cork lines, to seine a lake on the Nevada side. In some tules they set the seine by pushing the seine into the mud and tried to drive fish out of the tules, unsuccessfully. They caught three humpbacks and one salmon. Then they put in my 15 ft. minnow (?) and caught a lot of small catfish and 2 other small fish. I shot a fine bull snake 56 1/2 inches long and got a small gartersnake and some insects. Got back very tired in time for supper. Lute Wilson brought in a road runner which I skinned after dark.

Ft. Mojave, Ariz. Monday Apl. 10, 1911

     Bright morning
     Up early. Had everything packed and ready to leave at breakfast time. Started with wagon piled high with boxes and bundles at 8 a.m. and reached Lincoln's store, [[w:Cottonia

|Cottonia]] [[w:Cottonia |Cottonia ]] at 9:55, with Chemehueve driver.

     Rough winged swallows at Ft. Mojave
     Killdeer at ft. Mojave
     1 roadrunner on mesa at Ft. Mojave

2 Say's phoebe at Ft. Mohave (sic) 4 [[w:Phainopepla |Phainopepla]] [[w:Phainopepla |Phainopepla ]] in bottomland brush Gambel's quail, several flocks

     Mockingbird 1
     Abert's towhee

Stansbury's swifts common on mesa Tessellated lizards common on mesa and morning delightful, neither hot nor cool, nor windy and no mosquitoes. The mesquites, which were quite bare upon our arrival about March 2, both species, are now nearly in full leaf, making the valley quite green. The Mohaves and Chemehueves who can speak English well, are usually quite polite, using "please" and "thank you" constantly, but there are many exceptions, especially among the younger people. I heard very little swearing, but the Chemehueve Fisher bunch were rather profane, Dick Fisher and Smith cursing their horses and mules freely. At Lincoln's we are provided with a tent and most of our outfit and boxes are outside the tent on the ground, for lack of room. Fortunately the weather is good. Arrangements are made for our meals at a ranch house a quarter of a mile away. W. black phoebe at Lincoln's store Took 2 zebra-tailed lizards at Lincoln's store Quail at Lincoln's store, many are paired

     Lucy's warbler hear at Lincoln's store
     [[w:Phainopepla

|Phainopepla]] [[w:Phainopepla |Phainopepla ]] common at Lincoln's store

     Abert's towhee common at Lincoln's store
     Blackbird
     Tessellated ((lizard)) common at Lincoln's store
     Weather has continued fine all day, one of the best days we have had in the valley.
     	Saw one big cottontail, many tracks and rabbit holes. 
     	At 7:30 I went to bed outside the tent, under the stars, in bright moonlight. 
     

[[w:Cottonia |Cottonia]] [[w:Cottonia |Cottonia ]], Ariz. Tuesday April 11, 1911

Quite cool at dawn, bright, warming up rapidly after sunrise. Up at 5 a.m.; breakfasted at 6 a.m. Landlady is Swiss. Deermouse, Sonora, 1 young one in trap. Did not save it. Oriole, Bullock's 1 [[w:Planorbis trivolvis |Planorbis trivolvis]] [[w:Planorbis trivolvis |Planorbis trivolvis ]], 1 dead shell [[w:Physa |Physa]] [[w:Physa |Physa ]], sp., several in slough Three crows flew over at 6:30 p.m. Wind blows hard from the west every afternoon, tempering the heat. The mountains this evening are a dim blur on account of the dust in the air. Gale continued with increased fury in the early part of the night. Harrington and Jack Jones returned at 9 p.m.

[[w:Cottonia |Cottonia]] [[w:Cottonia |Cottonia ]], Ariz. Wednesday April 12, 1911

Bright cool and calm. Haze of dust from the windstorm hangs over the mountains. Harrington and I worked with Tapok, Jack Jones and other Indians s.w. of Lincoln's store on Ethnozoology. Roadrunner- they say nest in mesquite tree, nest of mesquite twigs- no grass- Eggs white like domestic chicken eggs. Eat snakes, lizards, etc., frogs, striped water (garter?) snakes Roadway- Roadrunner, rabbit, and all other animals have roads or roadways leading to water etc. Set snares with spring poles in runways. Divided primaries of roadrunner into 2 divisions, outer to fly with, classed secondaries and tertiaries together.

     26 buzzards hovering near the Indian camp as we approached. 
     In afternoon, spent half an hour discussing stars with the Indians and 2 hours discussing tattooing, while the specimens (4 boxes) we brought to get their identifications of waited. At 4 p.m. we had 5 specimens identified for the day's work. 
     Have had a cold for a week and felt miserable all day today. Very little wind today.
     

[[w:Cottonia |Cottonia]] [[w:Cottonia |Cottonia ]], Ariz., Thursday Apl. 13, 1911

Was very sick all night, bowels running freely. Cold night and at daybreak a strong cold north wind arose. Bright morning. Went to Indian camp again to work on ethnozoology. Bought an Indian pot and a jar for 25¢ and 75¢ respectively for the museum. Indians describe and name two species of yucca- the tree yucca and the one with the long, slender flower stalk and the basal leaves.

     At noon I had a telegram from Dr. Hodge, of Bureau of Ethnology, asking about newspaper reports of accident to us. It must refer to our escapade on the first attempt to reach dead Mt.
     Jack Jones showed me a dead king snake which was in good state of preservation and I put it in formaldehyde. 

[[w:Cottonia |Cottonia]] [[w:Cottonia |Cottonia ]], Ariz., Friday April 14, 1911

Cold, strong north wind this morning. Continued ethnozoology. Handled only one specimen in forenoon. Mohave told us in old days before white men came the Indians, women and children, were not fat as they are now. They were usually starving and ate various species of rates etc. Indian gopher trap: ((drawing in field book))

[[w:Cottonia |Cottonia]] [[w:Cottonia |Cottonia ]], Ariz., Saturday April 15, 1911

Bright morning. Cold north wind continues. Fixed my bed better and got it where it was protected from wind last night, kept warm, slept better and my cold is better this morning. Continued ethnozoology. Antelope squirrel killed at Dead Mt. Mohave named it and said it occurred in brush of bottomland. When told it was taken in the mountains they gave it another name but said they could not distinguish it except by the fact it was killed in the mountains. Chipmunk- they do not know it from pictures ? say it does not occur here. Report large bushy-tailed ground squirrel- possibly the California ground squirrel of the coast region- as occurring in this region. California ground squirrel ([[w:Citellus beecheyi |Citellus beecheyi]] [[w:Citellus beecheyi |Citellus beecheyi ]] Richardson). Stephens (California Mammals pp. 65 etc.) says "abundant in nearly all parts of central and southern California, frequenting open valleys, brush and rocky hillsides alike". Described to Indians, they say found at Kingman, etc., "given to Hualapai, not given to Mohave" by the culture here or chief god. They know beaver, muskrat and pocket gopher, identifying them from pictures and describing them, mentioning the "bags" (cheek pouches) of the gopher and comparing the pouches to those of the Kangaroo rat, which was shown to them. Woodchuck- too low for them- found only above 5000 ft. according to Stephens "California Mammals" and according to our Colorado observations. Prairie dog- no records in Stephens "California Mammals" and none west of San Pedro River (Monument #98) in Mearns Mammals of Mexican Boundary pp. 339, 345. Harrington says he has name for it at Kingman. Indians eat pith of tule ((cattails)) while green. They describe a kangaroo rat with body 5 1/2 inches long. Failed utterly to distinguish house mouse and deer mice.

     Indians formerly ate most or all kinds of mice and rats and many kinds of lizards. Fond of bats.
     They confused free-tailed bat and small pale bat under one name.
     Stephens (California Mammals p. 234) says Sonora otter ([[w:Lutra canadensis sonora

|Lutra canadensis sonora]] [[w:Lutra canadensis sonora |Lutra canadensis sonora ]] Rhoades) "occasionally caught in the Colorado River", perhaps southward. The Chemehueve and Mohave have thus far failed to recognize picture.

[[w:Cottonia |Cottonia]] [[w:Cottonia |Cottonia ]], Ariz., Sunday Apl. 16, 1911

North wind continues, but not so cold. My cold is better. Everything about camp is full of dust. Have heard killdeer several times here and saw 2 this morning. Also saw 2 sparrow hawks. Intermediate sparrow 1 (possibly white throated). Elk- have no records. Occurs in Kern County, and formerly over much of central and northern California, including San Joaquin and Sacramento Valleys (Cali. Mammals p. 48). The eastern Arizona form not known to reach lower Colorado River. Chemehueve did not recognize pictures or description. Mule deer smaller tail than Blacktail or Western whitetails, naked just part way down on underside, terminal third black, remainder white thus: ((drawing in field book)). Burro deer ([[w:Odocoileus hemionus eremicus |Odocoileus hemionus eremicus]] [[w:Odocoileus hemionus eremicus |Odocoileus hemionus eremicus ]] Mearns) like mule deer but larger. Found on level ground rather than mountains, "even in the mesquit timber of the Colorado Valley where they feed on willow twigs along the sloughs. I saw also where these deer had eaten the wild gourds ("mock oranges")". Stephens "California Mammals" p.51. California mule deer much smaller than Burro deer, touching range of latter along edge of Colorado and Cacopah Deserts. Ibid p. 52 Antelope (A. americana) almost exterminated in California. A few in Modoc, Lassen and Mono Counties. Ibid p. 56. Chemehueve and Mohave know it. Nelson Bighorn ([[w:Ovis nelsoni |Ovis nelsoni]] [[w:Ovis nelsoni |Ovis nelsoni ]] Merriam) range "Southern Nevada, southeastern California, the northeastern border of Lower California and probably western Arizona". Ibid p.-. Prefer hills and mountains but come into small valleys. Chemehueve and Mohave are familiar with it. Black bear- practically extinct in southern California. Ibid p. 230 Sonora otter "Occasionally caught in the Colorado River. While not common, they are not rare". Stephens, California Mammals p. 234. Badger, probably western (neglecta) in the mountains and higher valleys of California and californica in the lower valleys. Ibid p. 236 Skunk. Arizona ([[w:Mephitis estor |Mephitis estor]] [[w:Mephitis estor |Mephitis estor ]] Merriam) Arizona, New Mexico, etc., and eastern California along the Colorado River. Ibid p. 239. Skunk- Western spotted ([[w:Spilogale phenax |Spilogale phenax]] [[w:Spilogale phenax |Spilogale phenax ]] Merriam) common in many valleys of central and southern California. Ibid p. 240. Chemehueve recognized picture and said it occurs in mountains. They distinguished it from the striped skunk, whose picture they also recognize. Stephens says it ordinarily does not range as high as the larger skunks do. Wolverine, fisher and marten likely do not occur here. No mink records yet and saw no tracks. Indians have not recognized my descriptions. Look up in Elliott, etc. No weasel records yet. No shrew records yet. Moles- have seen no mole runs. Stephens reports several spp. In California but I believe his records are mostly for mountains. Spotted bat reported at Yuma, Ariz. Stephens California mammals p. 264. Yuma bat. Type loc. Old Ft. Yuma, Cali. Id. p. 267 Western Bat. Type loc. Old Ft. Yuma, Cali. Id. p. 269

     Cali. Leaf-nosed bat. Type loc. Old Ft. Yuma, Cali. Id. p. 276
     Saw marsh hawk in evening. Saw about 25 male redwings. Their notes are very different from those of the redwings of Colorado. 
     	Hot afternoon, and calm. Mosquitoes bad in evening.

[[w:Cottonia |Cottonia]] [[w:Cottonia |Cottonia ]], Ariz., Monday Apl. 17, 1911

Quite cold just before daylight. Bright, calm morning, soon getting very hot. Quails calling at daylight. [[w:Phainopepla |Phainopepla]] [[w:Phainopepla |Phainopepla ]] calling at daylight Bullock's Oriole calling soon after daylight. Redwing- several Killdeer Saw a dozen or more orioles in a mesquite tree west of camp. Collected a cottonwood mortar which was set in the ground a foot or more, at an abandoned camp, and nearly all of an ancient basalt mortar E. of our boarding house. Cooled off somewhat noon ((sic)) with N. W. wind. Cormorants- 2 passed over. Buzzard- 1 seen Ash throated flycatcher- 1 seen, 2 seen day before yesterday Swallows (roughwinged) are abundant here. Quail very abundant. I suppose I have seen over 100 today and heard many more. Collected a lizard with big, sharply keeled scales, like the collared swift. Saw 2 big zebra-tailed lizards, but could not get near them. Missed both shots.

[[w:Cottonia |Cottonia]] [[w:Cottonia |Cottonia ]], Ariz. Tuesday Apl. 18, 1911

Bright morning, not so cool as yesterday. My cold much better. Orioles common this morning. Collected insects in forenoon. At noon Harrington came back from annual Indian memorial ceremony and we continued to work on ethnozoology, but made no progress, handling only two or three pictures and no specimens. Calm and fearfully hot all day. Indian had never seen Mt. Lion. Gave two names, but descriptions vague. Know bear only through Hualapai. Badger habits they well know, say live in bottomlands and on mesas. Know but one deer. Say it has no black tip of tail but recognized antlers of Burro deer. Heard a yellowthroat in evening. Bought a basalt metate and mano for $3.00 at Indian camp.

[[w:Cottonia |Cottonia]] [[w:Cottonia |Cottonia ]], Ariz., Wednesday Apl. 19, 1911

Bright, hot morning. Night not so cold as usual. Packed the mortars and metate. Continued Mohave ethnozoology. Used to use dried alkali mud in place of salt, throwing a handful in a boiling pot of meat. An older Mohave than yesterday said deer has a black tipped tail. Both Indians yesterday said had no black tip. Know horns only on female. Don't know velvet stage of growth of antlers. Only knows shedding of antlers from the Hualapai, and suppose it is old ones which lose antlers, but know they grow out again. The woman knows the song of the legend of shedding antlers and getting new ones. Do not know spotted skunk from picture but do know striped one. Do not know mole from picture and description of appearance and habits. Vaguely report animal like porcupine in mountains. I heard and saw another yellowthroat this morning.

     Found a small bass by the canal and put it in formaldehyde. 
     Heard several yellow warblers today. 
     Chemehueve hunted elk up river and in mountains. 
     	Mohave say Wilson snipe is resident. 

[[w:Cottonia |Cottonia]] [[w:Cottonia |Cottonia ]], Ariz., Thursday Apl. 20, 1911

Bright morning with strong, cool northerly wind, which arose about 8 p.m. yesterday. E. (Edmund?) Lincoln, the postmaster here, is the son of the Lincoln who accompanied Audubon on his Labrador trip. Continued work on ethnozoology, taking up birds, having finished mammals yesterday. Progress slow, because Harrington constantly swings off at tangents, and discusses all sorts of things totally foreign to birds, including astronomy, methods of making combs and dressing hair, tattooing. etc. They describe the nest and the nest building of the cowbirds. They say redwings nest in trees on account of high water. Female lays eggs which make yellowheads, redwings etc. Heard yellow warblers and yellowthroats today. Orioles not plentiful or noisy today. Mohave knew Merriam turkey through Yavasupi (sic), from whom they received feathers before whites introduced domestic species. Made greater progress this afternoon with birds.

[[w:Cottonia |Cottonia]] [[w:Cottonia |Cottonia ]], Ariz., Friday April 21, 1911

Cold, bright, calm morning, soon getting hot. Saw a belted kingfisher. Saw an Anthony green heron. A boy reported a flock of a dozen blacknecked stilts on the canal. He described them and recognized a picture of one. The large canals about [[w:Cottonia |Cottonia]] [[w:Cottonia |Cottonia ]] are necessarily built, rather than excavated, so that the water stands above the level of the surrounding land, thus: ((drawing in field book)). A Mohave had a specimen of the Arizona cottontail, young male specimen, this morning. H.F. 3 in, T. 1 7/8 in. Ear from notch, dry, 2.75 in. Obtained a large parasite from the base of the neck. Probably all the valley rabbits are arizonae, but another sp. occurs to the n.e. in mts. Saw the process of fire making by twisting a dry arrowhead stick with the end resting on a dry willow stick. Also saw them roast a rabbit in the hot sand. Bought water jar, small bowl and big bowl for $1.50 from sister of Oough ((spelling)). Indians recognize red-shafted flicker but say gilded flicker not occur here ((sic)). They do not know personally Louisiana tanager nor cooper tanager. Described nest of roughwinged swallow as if made like cliff swallow's nest, 2 white eggs. When pictures of barn, cliff and other swallows were shown they declared they had never seen them. They recognized from pictures and described the black-necked stilt, American avocet, snow goose, Canada goose, white pelican (not California brown pelican), great horned owl, but not shrike or long billed curlew. Their guesses on sex are usually wild and they utterly failed to describe or imitate any birds songs or calls except redwing and Gambel quail. Finished birds in evening.

[[w:Cottonia |Cottonia]] [[w:Cottonia |Cottonia ]], Ariz., Saturday April 22, 1911

     Bright, hot and calm. Continued ethnozoology, taking up reptiles.
     The 4 spp. Of rattlesnakes appear to be simply young and old of sidewinder and Western Diamond rattlesnakes respectively. 
     They say the small catfish seined from the lake is the same as the big one in river. Two other spp. Introduced. 
     Finished all but insects in evening. 
     4 night hawks in evening. 

[[w:Cottonia |Cottonia]] [[w:Cottonia |Cottonia ]], Ariz., Sunday April 23, 1911.

Cooler, partly cloudy early in the morning. Began packing at once after breakfast, which occurs at 6 a.m. at our boarding house. An Indian brought us a great horned owl this morning, measured 19 inches. I did not put it up, for lack of time. I got a red racer (red whip snake). Finished packing at noon and spent afternoon with Harrington getting Indian names of the insects. 3 night hawks in evening. Hot day. 101? in shade.

[[w:Cottonia |Cottonia]] [[w:Cottonia |Cottonia ]], Ariz., Monday Apl. 24, 1911

     Bright morning. Before sunrise I saw or heard the following. Morning dove; redwing; oriole, Bullocks; cormorant; Heron sp.; Gambel quail; buzzard; killdeer (roadrunner S. of [[w:Cottonia

|Cottonia]] [[w:Cottonia |Cottonia ]]).

     Got wagon loaded and started for needles at 7:30. Reached ferry at 9:15. At 5 p.m. had the outfit packed and shipped, trunk checked and ticket bought via Gran Canyon. Left Needles at 9:15 p.m., an hour late. I got berth in through sleeper to Grand Canyon. 
     Very warm evening, has not cooled at all. 

Grand Canyon, Ariz. Tuesday, Apl. 25, 1911

     Arose at 8 a.m., after leaving Williams. In pinyon and cedar formation. At Apex we entered rock pine zone. Reached rim of canyon at 9:10 a.m. 
     Here were rock pines, cedars and pinyon, young and old, all three species intermingled promiscuously. Saw hummingbirds, swifts (white-throated), pinyon jay, Chickadee-longtailed, red shafted flicker.
     Walked along the rim of the canyon nearly all day. 
     Bought a Navaho blanket for 12>50 at independent store. 
     Left for Williams in sleeper at 7:30, which will lie over at Williams until after 5 a.m.

Williams, Ariz. Wednesday April 26, 1911

Left Williams on morning train and reached Adamana at 9:50 a.m. There we found a three seated rig ready to start for petrified forests no. 1 and 2. So President Crossfield, of Transylvania University, Lexington, Ky., and I joined them. It was a fine trip. Some logs were about 100 feet long and four or five feet in diameter, mostly agatized. Returned about 4:45 and got comfortable room in a cottage.

Adamana, Ariz. Thursday April 27, 1911

Up at 6:30 a.m. Got train for La Junta at 10:15, 27 minutes late. West of Gonzales I noticed white tailed prairie dogs for the first time, but have not been watching for them. At Adamana saw English sparrows, house finches, Brewer's blackbirds and horned larks (?). Killdeer. E. of Gonzales saw sparrow hawk, Brewer's blackbirds, 4 mourning doves together. Snow in higher mts. on both sides of R.R. in Arizona. Snow on mountains northeasterly from Bluewater, N. Mex. Another and bigger flock of doves near Laguna (and others further on, all in flocks) and a big flock of Brewer blackbirds. Sprinkled soon after leaving Laguna. Doves in Rio Grande valley all paired. Has rained at Albuquerque.

La Junta, Colo., Friday Apl. 28, 1911 Reached here at 6:30 a.m. Left for Denver at 7:45 a.m. Raining when we reached Colorado Springs at 11:30. Reached Denver at 2:30, just on time, and took 4 p.m. train to Boulder.

((After here several pages of information he would need for trip to NW Colorado. Most of it is notes from publications about the area and where to look. I have not included this material as it is from published sources. I have included notes he included from unpublished sources))

Fossils. D. P. Howard, attorney, Sulphur Springs, says big bones in line 6 miles from there.

Geo. A. Pughe, attorney, Craig, Colo., writes of bones tp 11 N., R. 92 W., 30 mi. from Craig, 12 mi s.w. of Dixon, Wyo., N. E. Corner of sec. 7. Reported by Wm. H. Rose.

Boulder, Colo. Wednesday July 5, 1911

Had sleepless night in tent on account of heavy wind and pain in bowels. Rained, cloudy. Up at 5 a.m. Left Boulder on Interurban at 6:20 Reached loop at Denver at 7:44, caught car for Moffat Depot at 7:50, and took train for Kremmling at 8 a.m., with F. F. Grout, Norman E. Hinds, and Austin P. Russell. P. G. Worcester got off at "Y" east of Boulder, because his baggage had inadvertently been put off the car, and went back to town to take a team and catch the Moffat train at Crags ((Crags was a small station on the Moffat Road, between Plainview and Crescent- see timetable for Moffat Road in Henderson NB#6)). He caught the train all right. Reached Kremmling at 3:07 in the rain and got team from Martin to haul our outfit to his place. Spent afternoon and evening sorting outfit over and picking out the part to be taken on first trip out. Rained most of time and still raining when we went to hotel to bed at 9 p.m.

Kremmling, Colo., Thursday July 6, 1911

Up at 5:30 a.m. Partly cloudy. On banks of slough near river found Planorbis parvus, very large Planorbis exacuous, Lymnaea palustris and Physa sp. Also living [[w:Succinea |Succinea]] [[w:Succinea |Succinea ]] cf. S. grosvenori. Redwing blackbirds common, English sparrow common, Cliff swallow common, Nighthawk common. White crowned sparrow common (perhaps intermediate). Wagon loaded heavily for start and two saddle horses and four horse team ready at 8:15. Outfit from P. J. Martin. Started up Muddy Creek north at 8:30. At foot of bluff just out of town we found Pierre shales with impure calcareous sandstones and concretions as north of Boulder, containing Inoceramus spp., Baculites ovatus, [[w:Scaphites |Scaphites]] [[w:Scaphites |Scaphites ]] etc. At ranch four miles up creek Niobrara, or rather Colorado, is well exposed in a bluff on west side of creek, with thin bedded limestone at top containing [[w:Ostrea congesta |Ostrea congesta]] [[w:Ostrea congesta |Ostrea congesta ]] on a large Inoceramus. Below it is more shaly, containing only fragments of plant stems (sea weeds). "Dakota" s.s. forms a ridge to west of [[w:Niobrara |Niobrara]] [[w:Niobrara |Niobrara ]]. The rock looks like that back of sanitarium at Boulder and is quite hard. The formations dip toward an archaean mountain ((Wolford Mountain)) but along the slope of the mt. are reversed dips, indicating a fold. The [[w:Niobrara |Niobrara]] [[w:Niobrara |Niobrara ]] itself is an eroded anticline (?) dipping toward the mountain (east). In the Benton west of the road Grout found 2 casts of cephalopods which I take to Acanthoceras coloradensis ((this later crossed out in pencil)) and an [[w:Inoceramus |Inoceramus]] [[w:Inoceramus |Inoceramus ]]. Two or three miles further up Hinds found [[w:Baculites ovatus |Baculites ovatus]] [[w:Baculites ovatus |Baculites ovatus ]] in a bluff, where sandstones resembling the upper Hygiene north of Boulder occur, but they contain many large concretions like those above the Hygiene except larger. A little later I found a dead [[w:Succinea grosvenori |Succinea grosvenori]] [[w:Succinea grosvenori |Succinea grosvenori ]] shell on a dry hillside. It rained most of the time after 3 p.m. Reached a fine spring at 6 p.m. and put up three tents about 18 miles north of Kremmling near Muddy Creek. Rain ceased about 7 p.m. I am very tired tonight haven ridden horseback all day. Altitude 8,200 ft by aneroid. Mt. bluebirds along road, nighthawks and hummingbirds at camp, Brewer's blackbirds below camp, Sparrow hawks below camp, mourning doves at and below camp, Jack rabbit-white tailed below camp, 2 crows below camp, yellow warblers at camp. Took pictures of [[w:Niobrara bluff |Niobrara bluff]] [[w:Niobrara bluff |Niobrara bluff ]] four miles N of Kremmling and of Whitely Peak, at first camp.

Muddy Creek Camp, Friday, July 7, 1911

Up at 5 a.m. Partly cloudy. Collected three specimens of [[w:Vallonia cyclophorella |Vallonia cyclophorella]] [[w:Vallonia cyclophorella |Vallonia cyclophorella ]] in aspen grove, east slope. Broke camp at 8 a.m. and started on up the creek. The creek bottoms of this region are flat, grassy and wet, showing fine stream meanders and many abandoned channels. The stream terraces or mesas are emphatically sage brush terraces. There is little timber, aspens and conifers. Whitely peak and some others are sharp. The divides, generally speaking, are low and rounded. Camped about 4 miles below Muddy pass, at 8,500 ft, at noon. [[w:Oreohelix cooperi |Oreohelix cooperi]] [[w:Oreohelix cooperi |Oreohelix cooperi ]] common under sagebrush, etc. on creek terraces. Started on at 1:10 At Muddy Pass, instead of going down to the Dunlap ranch, we took the Steamboat Springs road for about two miles, and camped on a creek in coniferous open timber at 9,200 ft. about south of Rabbit Ears Peak, at 4. p.m. Rained some this afternoon but partly cleared soon after going into camp. We have up 3 10 x 12 sleeping tents. A cook tent and a dining room fly. Mosquitoes big and abundant. Am very tired having ridden horseback most of the day. Aspens 6 to 10 inches in diameter just below camp. [[w:Oreohelix cooperi |Oreohelix cooperi]] [[w:Oreohelix cooperi |Oreohelix cooperi ]] (dead shells) very abundant at head of Muddy Creek, but not after getting into spruces and firs. Violet green swallows below camp. White tailed jack rabbit down creek. Pine squirrels at camp.

Rabbit Ears Peak Saturday, July 8, 1911.

Up at 6 a.m. Bright and clear. Started from camp for peak at 7:30 a.m. on horseback. Aneroid reads 9425. On road just N. of camp are black shales like the lower Benton at Boulder. On S. slope of mt. are large boulders of gray granite and red crystalline rock. The peak is igneous breccia. Reached top at 9:15. My aneroid reads 11,000, high wind blowing. About S.S.E. from the peak are glacial deposits, of fine material with more or less coarse stuff. The ground mass is clay, with a large admixture of finely divided quartz and feldspar and possibly a little mica. Probably the mica and feldspar of the original rock form the clay. On the surface are large granite boulder (sic) and in the mass many smaller ones, all well worn and showing flattened sides, which flattening is likely at least partly structural. At the lower end of the moraine is a deposit of fine and coarse angular basalt, which probably came down over the moraine from the peak, and since then the amphitheater has been cut, thus: ((drawing in field book)). The glacier must have come from the high mts. to the N.W. Hinds and I lunched at 11:30 and started west at noon. Found great series of moraines west and southwest of peak, composed mostly of granite. Little or no basalt. Found gneiss and granite in place about 2 1/2 or 3 miles W. by S.W. of peak. At least one filled glacial lake basin occurs. On the east slope of the "Dakota" ridge we found considerable of the basal conglomerate, many piece showing the conglomerate-sandstone contact. This indicates that the formation is upturned (if the conglomerate is really basal) or the conglomerate could hardly have been broken out and carried down the slope. The ridge is broadly rounded on top. The glaciers must have come from the northwest, as indicated by the shape of the terminal moraines and the character of the material. 4 crows on top of peak 10,719 ft.; robin and meadowlark at 9,500 ft.; violet green swallows at top of peak; Mt. bluebird common; I Say's spermophile at 9,500 ft.; little chipmunk, small species, common; heard one woodchuck. We reached camp at 4 p.m. It is hard country to travel in, with much wet ground, patches of heavy timber and much fallen timber. Trees at higher elevations show effect of prevailing west winds, as in the Front Range.

Rabbit Ears Peak Sunday, July 9, 1911

Up at 7:15. 1/2 inch ice on water bucket and white frost. Took 2 pictures of the Peak from S., one looking S. to Whiteley Peak and one of camp. Collected mollusks in aspen below camp. Saw one woodhouse toad at 9,500 ft. Sparrow hawk, Saw spermophiles a few, pine squirrel common. It has been a perfectly clear day, rather cool, with westerly wind.

Rabbit Ears Peak, Colo. Monday, July 10, 1911 Breakfast at 6:30. White frost. Coyotes dug into our garbage pit 100 feet from the cook tent last night, in spite of the barking of the dog and his occasional runs toward them. Hinds and I started north on horseback at 7:30. The black shales just north of camp on the east side of road which we have taken for Benton contain numerous fish scales and may be [[w:Niobrara |Niobrara]] [[w:Niobrara |Niobrara ]]. It is separated from the "Dakota" ridge to the west by a broad valley which likely is occupied by Benton. Yesterday Grout brought from south of camp similar material with similar fish scales associated with [[w:Ostrea congesta |Ostrea congesta]] [[w:Ostrea congesta |Ostrea congesta ]]. ((O. congesta is a typical Niobrara oyster)). These shales are probably very calcareous and are likely the cause of the easterly ridge which extends northward to the W. end of Rabbit Ear "dyke", with a valley separating it from the Dakota. The "Dakota" ridge is covered with granite and basalt debris for the upper 1000 ft. or more in approaching the dyke and we found no rock in place anywhere, with none of the conglomerate fragments on top. The broad top of the ridge and a very slight tendency to separate into 2 ridges in places suggests an upper and lower ridge making member as at Boulder, with softer medial horizon. At the S.W. corner of dyke is morainal matter. ((Drawing in field book, showing essentially vertical Cretaceous beds.)) Passing over the dyke we found an exposure of typical "Dakota" as developed north of Boulder ? massive sandstone on top, ripple marked and containing plant impressions, softer, thinner sandstones and clays below this, and a basal conglomerate. It forms 2 benches in a sharp escarpment. Dip 22? N. 35? E. The lower talus, beneath the conglomerate is finely divided black shale weathering gray, etc. which must be disintegrated Morrison. I estimate the Dakota at 100 ft. thick. The shale beds in the upper 2/3 of Dakota are alternated with thick and thin bedded sandstones. Really the whole thing is a mass of rather soft sandstones and clays underlaid by conglomerate. In one of the upper clay bands are great quantities of plant fragments and poorly preserved leaves, of which we collected some, probably not identifiable. Saw mule deer tracks. Nighthawk flew up on Dakota ridge S. of the dyke. [[w:Oreohelix cooperi |Oreohelix cooperi]] [[w:Oreohelix cooperi |Oreohelix cooperi ]] at 10,000 ft.

Rabbit Ears Peak Tuesday, July 11, 1911

Worcester, Grout and I started S. on horseback at 7:15 a.m. Cloudy. [[w:Niobrara |Niobrara]] [[w:Niobrara |Niobrara ]] exposure of limestone where Grout collected fossils O. congesta Sunday dips 6? S. 65 E. magnetic. On Muddy Creek. Whitely's Peak bears S. 76 E., Bear Mt. Bears N. 77 E. magnetic. ((Station 1)) This is a decided limestone, with a few poorly preserved [[w:Ostrea congesta |Ostrea congesta]] [[w:Ostrea congesta |Ostrea congesta ]] and abundant plant fragments showing no structure, probably marine algae. About half a mile up creek above the wagon road crossing, is an exposure of limestone underlaid by black shale dipping 6? N. 17 E. magnetic. No fossils but doubtful plant fragments. ((Station 2)) [[w:Oreohelix cooperi |Oreohelix cooperi]] [[w:Oreohelix cooperi |Oreohelix cooperi ]] abundant here, both dead and alive, under sage and other brush on slopes. Live ones mostly just inside edges of brush, not on interior, and most abundant on the face of the terrace slope- few on top or bottom land. Altitude 8,500 ft. On W. side of lateral creek E. of this exposure, are thin bedded black shales, either upper [[w:Niobrara |Niobrara]] [[w:Niobrara |Niobrara ]] or Pierre, dipping 11? N magnetic. About 25 ft. thick on bluff at point. ((Station 3)) On E. side of the creek the higher yellowish shales are exposed, with the same dip, containing [[w:Ostrea congesta |Ostrea congesta]] [[w:Ostrea congesta |Ostrea congesta ]] and fragments of large Inoceramus. ((Drawing in field book)) Station 4 exposes over 150 ft. of calcareous shales with O. congesta scattered over face of slope from base to top. Woodhouse toad here at 8,500 ft. Up lateral creek a few hundred rods is another [[w:Niobrara |Niobrara]] [[w:Niobrara |Niobrara ]] exposure on W. bank. ((Station 5)) N. of [[w:Niobrara |Niobrara]] [[w:Niobrara |Niobrara ]] is igneous dyke. N. of dyke in same lateral creek near foot of Bear Mt. is 200 ft. or more of Pierre containing Baculites ovatus and fish scales. Dip 11? N.W. ((Station 6)) After leaving here lost bag containing $67.00 pair of field glasses and tried to follow the trail back to find them but did not find them. Then started to camp. Examined outcrop of Benton in gulch N. of miner's cabin about a mile below camp. It dips northward at a high angle and contains Inoceramus fragilis and [[w:Prionocyclus wyomingensis |Prionocyclus wyomingensis]] [[w:Prionocyclus wyomingensis |Prionocyclus wyomingensis ]] poorly preserved. Reached camp at 5:30. Clear afternoon and hot.

Rabbit Ear Peak Wednesday, July 12, 1911

Bright and hot. We all started on horseback at 7:15 to look for the lost field glasses. Went to where I had them last at the Pierre outcrop. Followed the trail easily until we reached the thick timber, where we dismounted and Worcester and I followed the trail very slowly, step by step, through the timber. I found the bag just after leaving the timber.

     We then started S.E. and found Pierre shales o S. base of Bear Mt., across gulch from outcrop examined yesterday. 

At the edge of the terrace S.W. of Bear Mt. we found a thin exposure of baked Pierre shale containing poorly preserved Inoceramus vanuxemi. I. barabini (?), Baculites sp., [[w:Placenticeras |Placenticeras]] [[w:Placenticeras |Placenticeras ]] sp. and fish scales, overlaid by basalt. The edge of the laccolith turns up all around so as to enclose a lake on the terrace. S. of Bear Mt. the valley is occupied by Pierre shales, extending up on the slop of the mt. Also up to the top of the next terrace south, where it dips gently to the southeast. Well up on the slope of the laccolithic terrace is a coarse sandstone and conglomerate containing many water-worn quartz pebbles up to an inch in diameter. Reached camp at 6 p.m. Found C. A. Smith here. Norman saw porcupine yesterday at9, 600 ft. Saw dusky grouse yesterday and today near Bear Mt. at about 8,600 ft. Tanagers today at Bear Mt. Brewer's blackbirds on Muddy Creek.

Rabbit Ears Camp Thursday, July 13, 1911

Partly cloudy, warm morning. Hazy, east wind. Last night was warmest we have had. Team ran away as driver was ready to start for Steamboat Springs. Not much damage. Norman and I started at 7:45 on foot, horses all having been sent off to be shod. Reached crest of dyke to the north at 9:40. [[w:Inoceramus |Inoceramus]] [[w:Inoceramus |Inoceramus ]] cf. labiatus on east slope of "Dakota" ridge. Dropped down into amphitheater north of Dyke and worked to N.E. corner of dyke, where we found granitic morainal matter. Then worked N. and found mostly basalt fragments, with basalt apparently in place at one point. The amphitheater contains many low ridges and lakes. Its walls and the ridge slopes are all steep. About a mile N. 10? E. true bearings from peak we found an unwooded moraine of granitic material with a strike E-W. The Hayden survey has a wide "Dakota" area mapped as abutting on the N.E. point of the peak and occupying the big amphitheater, with moraines west of it. Instead the Dakota forms a ridge at the west of the main cirque, with moraines E of it. Starting west in a few hundred yards (probably not 200) we found a stream cutting the moraine and deeply into a black [[w:Niobrara |Niobrara]] [[w:Niobrara |Niobrara ]] clay dipping 23? S., containing large numbers of crushed Inoceramus deformis. The clay is watersoaked, making it hard to get good specimens. Passed on around the north end of the Dakota bluff and from 600 to 1000 yards thereof found a fine exposure of Morrison green clays and a little limestone in the west face of a high ridge. There was a little lower Dakota in fragments on the ridge. Then proceeded west to granite, and turning S.E., climbed out of the amphitheater and reached camp at 7:30, very tired and sore. There were many high ridges, covered with standing and fallen timber and filled in with wet vegetation, swamps intervening, making travel difficult, in addition to the hard climb over the dyke twice, the second time when very tired and carrying a heavy load. Rained and sprinkled at intervals all afternoon. Saw woodchuck ((marmot)) N. of camp at 9,600 ft. and heard them up to 10,000. Coneys ((pikas)) at 10,000 in rock slides. Robins and cliff swallows abundant at 10,000, meadowlark at 9,500. Crows on peak, 10,700. Beaver stumps, very old, occasionally seen. No fresh work seen yet. Worcester reports another porcupine and I saw several trees gnawed by them. Saw many deer tracks, some very large and fresh. Little chipmunk common. Got to bed at 10:30.

Rabbit Ears Camp Friday, July 14, 1911

Up at 6:15. Bright warm morning. As far as I can tell now, the upper limit of [[w:Oreohelix cooperi |Oreohelix cooperi]] [[w:Oreohelix cooperi |Oreohelix cooperi ]] seems to be fixed by the presence of aspens, as at the higher levels I have found it only where there are aspens. This is not true in the valleys. The same rule holds good in the White River Valley. It is much the most abundant snail here as well as in the Grand Hogback. Down the Muddy Creek the dead shells are strewn thickly under sage brush, etc., and live specimens are abundant. They are not so plentiful higher up or even down below in the aspens. In forenoon packed a lot of specimens, washed some clothes and collected ants, etc. Saw woodpecker without white markings and much red on head. They have been setting up a sawmill down creek from here, and at 11:15 a.m. blew the whistle for the first time. We are camped on West Grizzly, which flows into the North Platte. The creek just over the "Dakota" ridge to the west flows into the Muddy and thence to the Grand. ((For many years the name "Colorado River" was not applied to the reaches of the river above Grand Junction. The town got its name from the junction of the Grand and Gunnison Rivers. So Henderson is here referring to what is now known as the Colorado River)). Hence the low ridge is part of the Continental Divide. Hinds found Benton shales in gulch N. of miner's cabin just below camp to dip 34? N. 5? W.

Rabbit Ears Peak Saturday, July 15, 1911

Cold cloudy morning. Hinds and I started horseback for Baker's Peak vicinity at 7:10. Almost S. of the old miner's cabin below camp, E of baker's peak (N. 85? E.), we found a strong limestone, dip averaging 63? E., but changing to southerly in progressing southward and swinging around the hillside as though part of a fold produced by baker Mt. Found only oyster fragments. Looks like [[w:Niobrara |Niobrara]] [[w:Niobrara |Niobrara ]] N. of Boulder. ((Drawing in field book)). On opposite side of creek, 400 to 500 yds. east, at crest of ridge occurs a similar limestone containing apparently obscure plant fragments, dipping about 30? about S.W., I believe, though not sure. Maybe joint planes. If so then dip is N.E. [[w:Niobrara |Niobrara]] [[w:Niobrara |Niobrara ]] black clay with Inoceramus deformis is exposed at creek between the limestone, with apparently no dip. It looks to me as if we have here the creek occupying a syncline. S. of this is a basalt hill. S.W. of this basalt hill a stream from W. cuts through the end of a Benton fold, thus: ((drawing in field book)). Fold sharp, pitching S. Arenaceous limestone. Passing around S. of Baker Mt. and thence W. we found a series of approximately N.S. folds of "Dakota" sandstone with steep slopes, covered with fallen timber lying in every direction, chiefly E. Wly. Between the last two to the west was a small lake and the valley was partly occupied by soil which looked as though partly formed of Benton shale- possibly "Dakota" clay. The westernmost ridge is green and treeless, strike N. 15? W. On top is blackish clay soil and much angular sandstone. On the W. slope about half way down is soil resembling Morrison clay and just below it typical Lykins soil. To the W. lies granite. The Lykins soil is about S. 30? W. of Maker Mt. ((Drawing in field book)) Water lily pads cover most of the lake. Immense leeches but only obtained small ones. Took water beetles also. Rocky Mt. jays here. Upon reexamination we find the long green ridge to have apparently Morrison limestone and some quartzite mingled with the "Dakota" sandstone. My impression is that it is a Morrison ridge with residual Dakota scattered over the top. A few fragments of Morrison breccia, with green clay and sand mixture, were found. S. of the series of lakes, Benton calcareous shales were found passing around the end of the Dakota folds. Two marsh hawks seen. Rained in afternoon. Reached camp at 5:50 p.m. Rabbit Ears Camp Sunday, July 16, 1911

     Warm, partly cloudy morning. Puttered about camp all day, writing, washing clothes, putting up a deermouse, etc. Cold rain about noon and terrific shower in evening.

Rabbit Ears Camp Monday, July 17, 1911

Dense fog this morning, but partly cleared by 7 a.m. Hinds and I went down the road until we crossed the creek below camp (south), and there collected 2 bags of Benton fossils from a ridge, S. 20? E. from the peak. ((Rabbit Ears Peak; drawing in field book.)) The same material found on east slope of another ridge perhaps a quarter mile or so to the east, S. 25? E. from the peak. Down creek at edge of valley on N. side of creek (W. Grizzly) we passed along a steep south-facing slope, following a narrow cattle trail, and noticed numerous dead [[w:Oreohelix cooperi |Oreohelix cooperi]] [[w:Oreohelix cooperi |Oreohelix cooperi ]], so I began to search for live ones. The live specimens are exceedingly numerous and occur indiscriminately under all the bushes- sagebrush, scrub willow, wild rose, meadow-rue, thistles, etc. The locality is occupied by an exceedingly calcareous formation, shaly, either Benton or [[w:Niobrara |Niobrara]] [[w:Niobrara |Niobrara ]]. Vegetation very dense, making collecting difficult, but in a hasty search along a zone averaging 4 feet on each side of the trail for a distance of 72 feet I found a large package 511 specimens, counting most of the small ones, and probably saw only a small portion of the number living there. They are quite robust. In one place within a radius of five inches I obtained 19 live specimens. Altitude 8860 ft. by aneroid. Vegetation wet and air moist after last night's rain and the morning fog. Snails active, not lying dormant. In adjacent bottom lands where the soil was black loam, there were no snails, even under the same kind of vegetation. Up creek, on Benton formation, they again occurred, but not so many. Here we found Benton fossils on S. side of creek in bluff, dipping S. 22?. Mostly calcareous sandstone, with some strata containing many plant fragments, probably marine algae. Up creek a short distance 20 ft. of fossiliferous calcareous s.s. occurs at top of bluff, underlaid by 20 feet of calcareous black shales. The whole exposure I believe is upper Benton, and the one examined down creek where I collected snails is [[w:Niobrara |Niobrara]] [[w:Niobrara |Niobrara ]]. Further up creek is black Benton shale, slightly calcareous, thin bedded and harder, no fossils. Benton has minor folds. Reached camp at 4 p.m. Day closed clear.

Rabbit Ears Camp Tuesday, July 18, 1911

Cloudy morning. Rained during night. I drove a porcupine away from the tent door during the night. He was very light colored. Vesper sparrows common. At 7:30, Worcester, Grout, Hinds and I started north on the road on horseback. Passed over the "Dakota" ridge, where Worcester turned north and the rest of us turned south along the valley west of the ridge, where we found red beds (=Lykins) exposed along the west side of the valley. Continued to bluff of Dakota sandstone west of Baker Mt., where Grout went on south and Hinds and I stopped. Dakota s.s. is in a bluff, at one point strongly divided into 2 benches. It shows a sharp eroded anticline at S. end. ((drawing in field book)). Conglomerate not so hard as north of camp. Found many imperfect leaves in the sandstone half way or more up the bluff. Did not find the horizon in place. Rained hard at 2 p.m. Reached camp at 3 p.m. Day closed cloudy.

Rabbit ears Camp Wednesday, July 19. 1911

     Partly cloudy morning. John W. Fredrum, who owns the lakes at Baker Mt. called and breakfasted with us. Says black bear killed near camp recently and mt. lion followed him two years ago. Antelope formerly ranged in valley below camp. A few still range in park not far away. Ducks abundant at lakes in last of August. Trout up here all natives-rainbows planted below but do not get up here and natives not found below because eaten by rainbows. 
     Common woodpecker here has white stripe down back and rump. Saw western great horned owl below camp. Heard crows below camp. Chickadee sp. and horned larks sp. common. Saw two wrens, looked like house wren but song of same style as chipping sparrow. Saw large, dark colored rabbit in woods, without cottontail or white tail. 
     Returned to camp before noon and spent balance of day taking care of snails collected Monday, cleaning them etc. and collecting chipmunks. Set 12 traps before noon, and before middle of afternoon had caught 7 chipmunks and Russell shot one. Caught them in line 150 ft. long. Only skinned three. Caught nothing else. 
     Cloudy part of day but no rain
     
     ((End of notebook 5))