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The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Augusta (Maine)

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AUGUSTA, a city of Maine, capital of the state and of Kennebec county, situated at the head of sloop navigation on the Kennebec river, 43 m. from its mouth, 63 m. by railroad N. N. E. of Portland, 72 m. S. W. of Bangor, and 171 m. N. N. E. of Boston; pop. in 1860, 7,609; in 1870, 7,808. The city lies on both sides of the river, which is spanned by a bridge 520 ft. long. It is well laid out, and has many handsome buildings and a great abundance of shade trees and shrubbery. The state house, built of white granite, is considered the handsomest in New England except that of Montpelier, Vt.; the court house is the best and most convenient in the state; and the Maine insane asylum is a splendid granite structure, overlooking a landscape of peculiar beauty. The United States arsenal is on the E. side of the river. Just above the city a dam 1,000 ft. long provides an immense water power, while canals at the E. end render the river navigable N. of Augusta. The Maine Central railroad (Augusta division) runs through the city. There are 8 churches, 7 hotels, 5 newspapers (1 daily and 4 weekly), 3 banks, and 2 savings institutions. Lumber forms the chief manufacturing interest. An extensive cotton factory has recently been erected here.