The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Connecticut

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CONNECTICUT, one of the thirteen original states of the American Union, and the smallest of the present states in area except Rhode Island and Delaware. It derives its name from its chief river, the Connecticut, meaning in the original Indian language the Long river. It is bounded N. by Massachusetts, E. by Rhode Island, S. by Long Island sound, and W. by New York. The northern line, as originally run, measured 88 m., viz., 41 m. E. of Connecticut river, and 47 m. W.; the eastern line, 45 m.; the western line, 72 m. by the indirect course near the southern extremity, or 68 in a direct line. The average length of the state is 86 m., and the average breadth 55 m. Its area is 4,750 sq. m. It lies between lat. 41° and 42° 3' N., and lon. 71° 55' and 73° 50' W.

AmCyc Connecticut - seal.jpg

State Seal of Connecticut.

The state contains 8 counties and 166 towns. Of the former, Hartford, New Haven, New London, and Fairfield were incorporated in 1666, Windham in 1726, Litchfield in 1751, Middlesex and Tolland in 1785. Four counties border on Massachusetts and four on Long Island sound. The cities are: New Haven, pop. in 1870, 50,840; Hartford, 37,180; Bridgeport, 18,969; Norwich, 16,653; Waterbury, 10,826; New London, 9,576; and Middletown, 6,923. Connecticut until 1873 had two capitals, Hartford and New Haven, the legislature meeting alternately at each; but in that year it was after much discussion decided that Hartford should be the capital. Many of the boroughs and villages of the state are extensively engaged in manufactures and commerce. The chief of these are New Britain, Danbury, Willimantic, Clinton, Sharon, Meriden, Collinsville, Bristol, Salisbury, Naugatuck, Norfolk, Greenville, and Windsor Locks. Stamford, Norwalk, Guilford, and Stonington have considerable coasting trade.—The population of Connecticut in 1679 was 12,535; in 1756, 131,805; in 1762, 145,666; in 1774, 197,856; in 1782, 208,870. At subsequent decennial periods the population and the comparative rank of the state in the Union have been as follows:

 YEARS.  White. Free
 Slave.  Total.  Rank. 

1790 232,374 2,808  2,764  237,946
1800 244,721 5,330 951  251,002
1810 255,l79 6,458 310  261,942
1820 267,181 7,870 97  275,148 14 
1830 289,603 8,047 25  297,675 16 
1840 301,856 8,105 17  309,978 20 
1850 363,099 7,693 ..  370,792 21 
1860 451,520 8,627 ..  460,147 24 
1870  527,509  9,668 ..   537,454  25 

Of the total population in 1870, 265,270 were males and 272,184 females; 423,815 were native born, of whom 344,254 were born in the state, and 113,639 foreign born. Of the foreigners, 10,861 were born in British America, 13,001 in England, 70,630 in Ireland, 3,238 in Scotland, 12,443 in Germany, and 820 in France. The density of population was 113.15 to a square mile. There were 114,981 families with an average of 4.67 persons to each, and 96,880 dwellings with an average of 5.55 persons to each. The increase of population from 1860 to 1870 was 16.8 per cent. The number of male citizens 21 years old and upward was 127,499. There were in the state 125,409 persons between the ages of 4 and 16 years; the total number attending school was 99,663; 19,680, 10 years old and upward, were unable to read, and 29,616 could not write. Of the latter 5,678 were of native and 23,938 of foreign birth; 12,374 were males and 17,244 females; 27,941 were white and 1,675 colored; 2,661 were from 10 to 15 years old, 2,923 from 15 to 21, and 24,004 were 21 and over, of whom 8,990 were white males, 13,683 white females, 627 colored males, and 704 colored females. There were 4 adults unable to write to every 100 inhabitants. The number of paupers supported during the year ending June 30, 1870, was 1,728, at a cost of $189,918. Of the total number (1,705) receiving support June 1, 1870, 1,237 were natives and 468 foreigners. The number of persons convicted of crime during the year was 450. Of the total number (430) in prison June 1, 1870, 278 were of native and 152 of foreign birth. The state contained 252 blind, 475 deaf and dumb, 772 insane, and 341 idiotic. Of the total population 10 years of age and over (425,896) there were engaged in all occupations 193,421 persons, of whom 159,460 were males and 33,961 females; in agriculture, 43,653, including 18,934 agricultural laborers, 23,704 farmers and planters, and 865 gardeners and nurserymen; in professional and personal services, 38,704, of whom 908 were clergymen, 15,104 domestic servants, 13,017 laborers (not specified), 391 lawyers, 680 physicians and surgeons, and 2,711 teachers (not specified); in trade and transportation, 24,720; in manufactures, mechanical and mining industries, 86,344, including 2,698 blacksmiths, 2,540 shoemakers, 7,130 carpenters and joiners, 9,057 cotton-mill operatives, 3,148 machinists, 4,515 mill and factory operatives (not specified), 1,279 sewing-machine factory operatives, and 4,499 woollen-mill operatives. According to the report of the state librarian to the general assembly, there were registered during the year ending Jan. 1, 1871, 13,136 births, an increase of 655 over the number registered in any previous year; ratio of births to the population 1 in 40.9. There were 105 illegitimate, 1 to each 125.1 births, and 141 plurality births. The number of marriages was 4,871, an increase of 117 over the previous year, the ratio being 1 in every 55.2 of the population. The number of deaths was 8,895, or 1 to every 60.5 of population; ratio of males to females, 109.9 to 100. Of the total number of deaths, 2,012 resulted from zymotic diseases, 1,088 from diseases of the nervous organs, 1,913 of the respirative, 322 of the circulative, and 389 of the digestive.—The face of the country is diversified by hills and valleys, which intersect the state from N. to S. and present beautiful and constantly varying scenery. The surface is rugged; the several ranges of mountains, or rather hills, which traverse the state, are continuations of those found in the states lying northward. The most westerly of these ranges is the Housatonic, which is rather a succession of hills than a continuous range. The Green mountain range, extending from Vermont and Massachusetts, terminates 2 m. N. W. of New Haven. Between this range and the Connecticut river is the Mt. Tom range, terminating at East Rock, a short distance N. E. of New Haven. The Blue hills of Southington, a part of this range, are 1,000 ft. high, and are said to be the most elevated land in the state. A fourth range on the E. side of the Connecticut terminates at East Haven. Three extensive valleys extend N. and S. across the state, viz.: the Housatonic in the west, the Connecticut in the centre, and the Quinebaug in the east, all of which contain much fine agricultural land. The valley of the Connecticut varies in width from 10 to 16 m.—Connecticut has about 100 m. of seacoast on Long Island sound, from the mouth of the Pawcatuck river on the southeast to the mouth of the Byram on the southwest. The sound is 140 m. long and 24 m. wide in its broadest part, and is navigable by the largest ships. The coast is indented by numerous bays which afford excellent harbors, the chief of which are at New London, New Haven, Stonington, Bridgeport, and Saybrook. The first named, capacious, deep, and not liable to be frozen over in winter, is one of the finest harbors in the country. There are other convenient harbors at Mystic, Niantic, Clinton, Guilford, Sachem's Head, Branford, Milford, Black Rock, Southport, Saugatuck, Norwalk, Stamford, and Greenwich.—Most of the state is drained by three principal rivers, with their branches: the Connecticut in the central, the Housatonic in the western, and the Thames in the eastern part. Besides these, there are various small streams of limited extent, which flow into Long Island sound. Of these the Quinepiack, which rises between Farmington and New Britain and empties into New Haven harbor, is the largest, and the only one which extends half across the state. The Connecticut, the longest river in New England, has a southerly course as far as Middletown, where turning abruptly it flows S. E. to its mouth at Saybrook on Long Island sound. With its branches it drains the central part of the state, including all of Hartford co. except Southington and the S. E. part of Farmington, all of Middlesex co. except Killingworth, the western part of Tolland and the N. E. part of Litchfield co. Vessels drawing 8 ft. of water can ascend to Hartford, 50 m. from the mouth. The only considerable tributary of the Connecticut in the state is the Farmington or Tunxis river. This stream has a singular course. Rising in the highlands of Berkshire, Mass., it runs S. E. to the centre of Farmington, then turns N. in a sluggish stream with little fall 15 m. to Tariffville, where it turns S. E., breaks through the trap mountains, and flows into the Connecticut at Windsor. The natural outlet of this river is New Haven harbor; and at a trifling expense the stream might be turned into the Quinepiack river, as a considerable part of its waters were carried to New Haven by the Farmington canal. The E. part of the state is watered by the Thames and its affluents. Its head waters rise in Massachusetts, and its basin embraces all of Windham, most of Tolland, and nearly the whole of New London counties. It takes the name of the Thames at the junction of the Yantic with the Quinebaug at Norwich, to which place or to Allyn's Point it is navigable for steamboats and small vessels; and from its mouth to New London it forms the best harbor in the state. In the view of the first settlers, the locality corresponded so well with London in facilities for commerce, that they named the river the Thames and the place New London, looking to a future city, which was in fact the first incorporated in the state. Above Norwich the waters of the Thames take different names. The Shetucket unites with the Quinebaug in the upper part of that town, and the two streams which unite and form the Shetucket are the Willimantic and Hop rivers. Corresponding with the Thames in the eastern is the Housatonic in the western part of the state, which with its main branch, the Naugatuck, and their branches, waters all of Litchfield co. except the N. E. towns, the W. half of New Haven co., and the N. and E. part of Fairfield co. The Housatonic is navigable for small vessels to its junction with the Naugatuck at Derby. The whole northern and the larger part of the state is wholly drained by the three large rivers above mentioned. Numerous small streams fall directly into Long Island sound, the largest into New Haven harbor. Some of these afford water power for manufacturing purposes; and the broad mouths of most of them form numerous harbors along the coast. Considering the general course of the mountainous ranges through the state, bearing to the W. of S., there is something peculiar in the S. E. bearing of the principal streams. There is a marked correspondence in the courses of the Housatonic from New Milford to Derby, the Farmington from its entrance into the state to Farmington, and the Willimantic and Shetucket to their entrance into the Thames, and especially the Connecticut from Middletown into the sound, through an unnatural bed of primitive formation.—Several ranges of trap rock pass through the central valley of Connecticut, sometimes continuous, and sometimes in broken elevations, with mural fronts on their western sides, and gentle declivities on the eastern. In some instances small elevations of trap rock are found, which have broken through the granitic rocks, at short distances E. and W. of this secondary valley. They are arranged in dikes and ridges, mostly in one general range, with collateral branches, running centrally through the secondary formation, dividing it into two portions. The eastern commences at New Haven, passes easterly of East rock to Middletown, and thence follows the Connecticut river into Massachusetts. The western portion runs from New Haven through Farmington, to Northampton. This secondary region, with its borders, embraces valuable mineral resources. The rocks on the E. and W. borders, and underlying the trap, are the red sandstone, or freestone, so useful for building purposes; immense quantities of it are quarried at Portland, on the Connecticut, and shipped to New York. In Bolton, near the E. border of this section, is the celebrated quarry of Bolton stone, a micaceous slate, which splits smoothly and beautifully in thin strata, and is extensively used for flagging and other purposes. Copper is found in various parts of the trap range. The Simsbury mines, in the present town of Granby, which was once a part of Simsbury, were worked early in the history of the colony, and were rendered famous by being converted into a state prison, the first in the state. The Bristol copper mines are in the N. E. borders of Bristol, a short distance W. of the secondary section, and within two miles of the railroad. Lead mines, with a large percentage of silver, have at various times been worked in Middletown, especially during the revolutionary war, but as yet to little profit. Veins of sulphate of barytes (heavy spar) are found in the E. parts of Cheshire and Southington, and large quantities are quarried and used in the composition of paints. Between the trap ridges on the borders of Southington and Berlin is found hydraulic lime, from which are manufactured large quantities of water cement. There is a cobalt mine in Chatham. The country watered by the Thames and its tributaries is granitic and metamorphic in gentle swelling hills, capable of cultivation to their summits. The quarries and mines of the Housatonic valley form valuable sources of wealth. Extensive beds of hematite iron ore are found, especially in Salisbury and Kent; and the heavy iron works at the former place have long been celebrated. The valleys of the Housatonic and branches, especially N. of New Milford, contain immense beds of limestone of the best quality, for ornamental and useful purposes, for buildings and monuments, and for burnt lime. The mountains furnish cheap fuel for burning, and the quarries of limestone are easily worked. The quarries of New Preston in Washington furnish large blocks of pure white marble, of fine grain and firm texture, which is suitable for buildings, monuments, and ornamental purposes. The whole seacoast, except across New Haven harbor, is of primitive formation, and difficult of cultivation. Much of it is suitable for grazing, but it is the most valuable for the production of fruit and vegetables. Granite in great variety, with gneiss and mica slate, is extensively quarried for use as building materials, flagging, &c. The quarries in Haddam on the Connecticut, and in other places, are extensively worked. The mineral resources of the state have been but partially developed. Slate for tiling prevails, but to what extent or excellence is not yet well tested. A beautiful marble, some portions resembling the verd antique, is found in Milford and North Milford. Clay for the manufacture of bricks and pottery abounds, especially in the secondary region; and bricks are extensively manufactured through the valleys, and pottery in Hartford and vicinity. Materials for the manufacture of porcelain and crockery have been discovered. Fire-brick furnaces and crucibles are extensively manufactured in New Milford. The feldspar quarry of Middletown furnishes a pure material for porcelain ware. Mineral chalybeate springs, some of them slightly sulphurous, are found in various parts of the state, but the only one of note is in Stafford, which formerly was much resorted to.—The climate, though changeable, is remarkably mild and healthful. The seasons are more uniform than in the northern parts of New England, the temperature in winter and summer being less extreme. Observations covering a period of 20 years show the mean temperature in winter to be 29.92°, spring 46.41°, summer 69.27°, and autumn 52.86°; whole year, 49.62°; highest mean for any month, 75.80°; lowest, 19.97°; range, 55.83°. In 1870 the lowest temperature was 7° below zero in January; highest, 97° in July. The fall of rain and snow during the winter was 15.60 inches; spring, 12.26; summer, 9.54; autumn, 10.21. According to the mortality statistics of 1870, the chief diseases were consumption, which was the cause of 15.65 per cent. of the total deaths; cholera infantum, 7.46 per cent.; pneumonia, 6.29; typhus fever, 5.49; scarlatina, 3.22; and apoplexy, 2.25.—The soil is generally good; while much of it is fitted for cereal agriculture, the greater part is better adapted to grass growing. In the alluvial bottom lands exists a rich loam, seldom equalled for continuous tillage and productiveness, while much of the land in the valleys is composed of a diluvial, light sandy or gravelly soil, unproductive unless artificially fertilized. The mountain and hill sides afford excellent pasturage, and many portions of the state are noted for their dairy products. The mountainous regions, unfit for cultivation, furnish wood and timber for domestic uses, and for buildings and ships. A great variety of trees abound in the forests, the most common of which are oak, chestnut, walnut, butternut, birch, beech, ash, elm, maple, poplar, basswood, whitewood, and cedar. Most of the hardy fruit trees adapted to the climate grow naturally, and are easily and profitably cultivated: the apple and pear in great varieties and perfection, the cherry, plum, quince, and formerly the peach; also, berry-bearing shrubs and plants, as the strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, whortleberry, barberry, cranberry, currant, gooseberry, &c. Most of these grow wild, but some of them are much improved by cultivation. The strawberry is an important article of production for the market, and grapes are cultivated. On the rich alluvial bottoms and highly manured uplands tobacco is extensively raised. Garden seeds are largely produced, especially in Wethersfield, and by the Shakers at Enfield. Hay is one of the most important crops of the state. From the nature of the soil and face of the country, meadows and pastures must ever be numerous and extensive. Away from the interval lands, the dairy and beef cattle are the most profitable for the farmer. According to the census of 1870, there were in the state 25,508 farms; the number of acres of improved land in the state was 1,646,752; unimproved, 2,224,085, of which 577,333 were woodland; value of farms, $124,241,382; of farming implements and machinery, $3,246,599; total amount of wages paid during the year, including value of board, $4,405,064. There were 34,935 horses, 190 mules and asses, 98,889 milch cows, 39,639 working oxen, 79,485 other cattle, 83,884 sheep, and 51,983 swine; value of all live stock, $17,545,038. The productions were 2,085 bushels of spring and 36,059 of winter wheat, 289,057 of rye, 1,570,364 of Indian corn, 1,114,595 of oats, 26,458 of barley, 148,155 of buckwheat, 13,038 of peas and beans, 2,789,894 of Irish and 867 of sweet potatoes, 8,328,798 lbs. of tobacco, and 254,129 of wool. The orchard products were valued at $535,954, and the produce of market gardens at $599,718; 27,414 gallons of wine were made, 6,716,007 lbs. of butter, 2,031,194 of cheese, and 6,253,259 gallons of milk were sold. Other products were: 563,328 tons of hay, 1,725 bushels of clover and 4,471 of grass seed, 1,004 lbs. of hops, 14,266 of maple sugar, 6,832 gallons of sorghum molasses, 1,326 lbs. of wax, and 32,158 of honey. The value of forest products was $1,224,107; of home manufactures, $53,297; of animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter, $4,881,858; total estimated value of all farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock, $26,482,150. During the past few years much attention has been given in Connecticut to pisciculture, and laws have been passed for the protection and restoration of the fishes in the various waters of the state. The design is to introduce into the state new varieties of well known and marketable fish, and also to supply a greater abundance of the best varieties existing there. Under the supervision of the commissioners of fisheries, the principal ponds and many of the rivers have been stocked with fish, chiefly black bass, shad, and salmon from Maine and Canada. The first experiment in the artificial propagation of shad in the Connecticut river was made a short distance below Holyoke dam, in July, 1867, when about 40,000,000 of young shad were put into the river. Since that date the commissioners have continued their efforts with success.—The manufactures of the state are more general, multifarious, and productive than those of any other people of similar means. The abundant water power furnished by the rivers of the state contributes largely to this result. Nearly all the inhabitants are directly or indirectly interested in some kind of manufactures. Much of the machinery used is the fruit of inventions and improvements by the manufacturers themselves, among whom may be mentioned the names of Whitney, Goodyear, and Colt. The ingenuity and inventive talent of the people of Connecticut have ever been remarkable. In 1872 the proportion of patents granted by the United States to the number of inhabitants was greater in Connecticut than in any other state, being one to each 829 inhabitants. According to the census of 1870, Connecticut ranked first among the states in the production of clocks, India-rubber and elastic goods, and hardware; next to New York in the production of sewing machines, and to New Jersey in silk goods; next to Massachusetts and Rhode Island in woollen goods, New York and New Jersey in hats and caps, and New York and Massachusetts in edge tools and axes; fifth in the production of cotton goods, and eighth in the total value of all products. Connecticut has almost monopolized the manufacture of clocks for the United States and for a large part of the civilized world. Of the total value ($2,509,643) of all the clocks made in the United States in 1870, $2,245,043 were made in Connecticut. Nearly half of all the India-rubber goods and more than half of all the hardware manufactured in the United States in 1870 were the product of Connecticut industry. In the manufacture of carriages Connecticut is also noted. The other most extensive manufactures are those of agricultural and mechanical implements, hats, leather, boots and shoes, paper, saddlery, cabinet furniture, combs, buttons, wooden ware, powder, glass, soap and candles, friction matches, silver and plated ware, jewelry, and distilled spirits. The total number of manufacturing establishments reported by the census was 5,128, using 711 steam engines of 25,979 horse power, and 1,988 water wheels of 54,395 horse power, and employing 89,523 hands, of whom 61,684 were males above 16, 20,810 females above 15, and 7,029 youth. The total amount of capital employed was $95,281,278; wages paid, $38,987,187; value of materials used, $86,419,579; of products, $161,065,474. The chief industries are shown by the following table :

Capital. Wages. Materials. Products.

Bleaching and dyeing 18  13  258  188  $150,100  $81,352  $2,541,985  $2,849,743 
Boots and shoes 281  19  30  2,417  585,800  640,774  1,225,048  2,319,596 
Brass ware 12  316  327  416  785,000  244,300  694,630  1,331,013 
Carpentering and building 430  169  70  2,156  685,000  1,103,145  2,040,500  4,015,351 
Carpets, other than rag 800  ....  1,185  1,530,000  432,031  1,307,397  2,027,136 
Carriages and wagons 205  185  401  2,341  2,292,810  1,402,034  1,798,299  4,164,480 
Clocks 10  447  275  1,204  759,000  736,000  713,518  2,245,048 
Clothing 189  111  3,112  1,166,675  1,053,784  2,519,559  4,120,190 
Cotton goods 79  585  9,405  10,849  10,973,900  2,870,434  7,741,551  12,305,101 
Cotton thread, twine, and yarn 32  275  1,435  1,237  1,736,800  376,349  1,077,100  1,721,233 
Cutlery and edge tools 41  376  1,046  1,788  1,306,555  912,563  607,217  2,099,895 
Edge tools and axes 125  917  590  911,675  361,110  534,385  959,911 
Firearms, small arms 654  224  1,607  1,793,770  1,100,668  315,247  2,222,873 
Flouring and grist-mill products  276  420  6,251  562  1,165,358  128,353  3,352,964  3,966,328 
Hardware 145  2,640  1,773  7,246  6,863,395  3,549,840  5,122,759  12,111,034 
Hats and caps 33  534  56  2,464  1,153,300  1,018,108  1,894,647  3,740,871 
India-rubber and elastic goods 13  1,183  981  1,946  2,345,000  761,434  2,355,488  4,239,329 
Iron castings 81  1,380  559  2,348  2,866,650  1,368,345  1,682,535  3,986,544 
Machinery 77  1,011  635  1,758  2,542,441  1,160,000  969,963  3,324,847 
Paper, printing 18  135  1,157  437  854,100  206,936  932,230  1,467,489 
Paper, writing 386  1,450  616  1,046,346  315,348  1,637,929  2,158,511 
Plated ware 32  685  499  2,107  2,337,500  1,201,552  2,005,090  4,066,806 
Sewing machines 585  30  2,300  2,350,000  1,640,246  1,200,335  3,619,000 
Silk goods 20  362  300  1,576  1,355,130  536,380  1,921,509  3,138,620 
Woollen goods 103  2,258  6,110  7,285   12,490,400   2,860,120   11,016,925   17,365,148 

—The extensive seacoast and various harbors, together with the enterprising and hardy character of the men, are favorable to commerce and navigation. Besides the coasting trade, which is extensive, especially with New York, Connecticut is largely interested in foreign commerce. There are in the state five customs districts, of which the ports of entry are Fairfield, Middletown, New Haven, New London, and Stonington. The imports from foreign countries and domestic exports for the year ending June 30, 1872, were as follows:

PORTS. Imports. Exports.

Fairfield $18,798  $4,490 
Middletown 814  ...... 
New Haven 843,227  321,359 
New London  255,352  106,711 
Stonington 82,108  ...... 

Total  $1,200,299   $433,160 

The principal articles of export were flour, manufactures of wood, provisions, and carriages. The vessels entering from and clearing for foreign countries, together with the vessels registered, enrolled, and licensed at the different ports, were as follows:


 No.  Tons.  No.  Tons.  No.  Tons.

Fairfield 39  5,509  34  4,580  163 11,296
Middletown 201  .. .... 151 18,694
New Haven 117  24,681  97  16,489  155 17,600
New London  28  4,616  25  3,878  197 20,878
Stonington 13  2,873  870  115 15,290

Totals  198   37,880   164   25,817   781   83,760 

Besides these, 1,055 vessels of 584,715 tons engaged in the coasting trade and fisheries entered, and 498 of 553,361 tons cleared. Of the total number enrolled, registered, and licensed, 696 were sailing vessels, with a total tonnage of 55,339, and 68 were steam vessels, tonnage 25,047. Ship building is an important item of industry. During the year there were built in the state 26 sailing vessels, tonnage 1,550, and 10 steam vessels, tonnage 373. The fisheries of the state are carried on chiefly from Stonington and New London. In 1872, 69 vessels with a tonnage of 1,473 from the former place were engaged in the cod and mackerel fishery; from the latter, 100 vessels, tonnage 2,918, were engaged in the cod and mackerel fishery, and 19 vessels of 3,113 tons in the whale fishery. According to the census of 1870, 1,001 persons were engaged in fisheries, and the products for that year amounted to $769,799.—Connecticut has one mile of railroad to every 5.38 square miles of area, and to every 620 inhabitants. According to the report of the general railroad commissioners of the state made in May, 1873, there were 22 railroad companies, representing 1,268 m. of railroad wholly or partly in the state, of which 10 were dividend-paying. The total number of miles in operation was 1,163, of which 868 were in Connecticut. The aggregate chartered capital of these companies amounted to $44,344,550; amount of funded and floating debts, $43,273,492; cost of road and equipments, $74,074,037. Up to May 1, 1873, $35,460,117 of the capital had been paid in, of which 44 per cent. was held by 4,005 stockholders resident in Connecticut. The gross earnings of all the companies during the year amounted to $11,368,425, of which about 50 per cent. was from passengers. The net income was $3,169,902, of which $2,271,143 was paid in dividends, being 7.9 per cent. on the paid-in capital of the companies paying dividends. There were 10,134,633 passengers transported during the year. The railroads lying wholly or partly in the state were as follows:

RAILROADS. TERMINI.  Capit'l stock.  Cost of
road and
 of road. 
Length in
in Conn.

New York, New Haven, and Hartford  New York city and New Haven $15,500,000  $14,702,445 97  1838 140  120 
Hartford, Providence and Fishkill  Waterbury and Providence, R. I. 4,000.000  4,800,361 39  1842 112  96 
New Haven and Northampton  N. Haven and Northampton, Mass.  2,100,000  3,427,057 01  1848 109  60 
Norwich and Worcester  Norwich and Worcester, Mass. 2,825,000  2,613,694 21  1840 66  49 
New London Northern  N. Lond'n and Grouts' Corner, Mass.  1,418,800  1,533,933 78  1849 100  56 
Housatonic  Bridgeport and Pittsfleld, Mass. 2,000,000  2,205,558 52  1842 74  74 
Naugatuck  Bridgeport and Winsted, Mass. 2,000,000  2,041,451 77  1849 61  61 
New York, Providence, and Boston  New London and Providence, R. I. 2,000,000  2,222,363 30  1839 62  17 
Shore Line  New Haven and New London 1,000,000  1,200,000 00  1852 50  50 
Boston, Hartford, and Erie  Fishkill, N. Y., and Boston, Mass. ........  22,500,000 00  1867 139  42 
Connecticut Valley  Hartford and Saybrook 1,500,000  2,649,764 28  1871 45  45 
Connecticut Western  Hartford and Millerton, N. Y. 3,000,000  4,092,986 52  1871 67  67 
Danbury and Norwalk  South Norwalk and Danbury 600,000  1,253,733 52  1852 34  34 
New Haven and Derby  New Haven and Derby 455,700  1,130,460 00  1871 13  13 
New Haven, Middletown, and Willimantic   New Haven and Willimantic 3,000,000  5,461,959 31  1870 52  22 
Shepaug Valley  Litchfield and Hawleyville 1,000,000  819,708 76  1871 32  32 
New Canaan  Stamford and New Canaan 164,050  257,089 63  1868
Watertown and Waterbury  Watertown and Waterbury 130,000  135,000 00  1870
Rockville  Vernon and Rockville 100,000  173,105 65  1863
South Manchester  Manchester and South Manchester  40,000  67,000 00  1869
New York, Housatonic, and Northern  Brookfield and White Plains, N. Y. 261,000  616,363 78  1868 60 
Ridgefield and New York  Ridgefield and Port Chester, N. Y. 1,250,000  170,000 00  .... 23  .. 

Total  $44,344,550   $74,074,037 40  1,268  868 

The directors of every railroad company are required to make an annual report, under oath, of the condition, receipts, and expenditures of their respective roads, to the railroad commissioners, who in turn report to the general assembly. All companies incorporated since 1850 are required by law to erect fences on both sides of their tracks throughout the whole extent, except at places where the commissioners may deem fences unnecessary; also to furnish all passenger trains with connecting aprons between the platforms of the cars as a protection to passengers from accidents. The liability of companies for the loss of life of a passenger through negligence of the company is limited to $5,000.—In 1871 there were 66 savings banks, with an aggregate deposit of $55,297,705 40, an increase during the year of $7,392,871; whole number of depositors, 177,887; average amount due each depositor, $310; average amount of deposit to each person in the state, $90 40; amount of state tax paid, $351,897; United States tax, $105,164; market value of total assets, $58,619,779. In January, 1873, the number of savings banks had increased to 78, with assets amounting to $71,271,395, and deposits to $68,523,397, of which $21,864,553 had been received during 1872, while $16,058,992 had been withdrawn during the same period. The state contained 4 state banks, with an aggregate capital of $1,450,000, and a circulation of $31,406; 8 chartered trust companies and 3 organized under the joint stock law, with an aggregate capital of $2,263,890, and deposits amounting to $2,869,406; and 81 national banks, with an aggregate capital of $25,656,820, and circulation issued to the amount of $20,443,410. The whole number of fire insurance companies doing business in the state in 1873 was 98, of which 27 were Connecticut companies, 63 incorporated by other states, and 8 foreign companies. The Connecticut companies employ 564 agents in the state, and the other companies 802. The gross premium receipts on risks written in Connecticut in 1872 amounted to $1,682,449, and the losses to $535,433, making an average ratio in favor of the receipts of over three to one. The total of risks written in the state during 1872 amounted to $147,717,429. In 1873 there were 34 life and casualty insurance companies authorized to transact business in the state, with gross assets amounting to $254,392,070.—The constitution of Connecticut was adopted in 1818, but has since been amended. It provides that the legislative, executive, and judicial powers shall be kept distinct. The legislature shall consist of a senate and house of representatives, called the general assembly, and meet on the first Monday of May. The governor may call extra sessions. The house of representatives consists of two members from each town incorporated before 1785, whatever its size; and with few exceptions, each town incorporated since is entitled to only one. The present number of representatives is 237. The senate consists of not less than 18 and not more than 24 members, elected by districts which consist of counties or divisions of counties, the number and extent to be determined by the general assembly after each decennial United States census. The present number of districts and senators is 21. Senators and representatives are elected annually by a plurality vote; there is no limitation as to age. The members receive $3 a day for not more than 45 days of actual session, and 10 cents per mile for travel. The speaker of the house receives $5 a day. The governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, treasurer, and comptroller are chosen annually. The governor must be 30 years of age. A majority of all the votes is required for a choice; and if no choice is made by the people, the two houses of the general assembly in convention make a choice from the two having the highest number of votes. The salary of the governor is $2,000; lieutenant governor, ex officio president of the senate, $500; treasurer, $1,200; secretary of state and comptroller, $1,000 each. Connecticut has no attorney general or state law officer. The commissioner of the school fund and the state librarian are appointed by the legislature; the salary of the former is $2,000 and expenses, and of the latter $1,600. The secretary of the board of education is appointed by the board, and receives a salary of $3,000 and expenses. A majority vote in each house is sufficient to pass a bill over the governor's veto. The pardoning power is vested in the general assembly; the governor can only grant a temporary reprieve. The judicial power is vested in a supreme court of errors, superior court, courts of common pleas for certain counties, probate court, inferior courts for certain cities and boroughs, and justices of the peace. The supreme court of errors consists of a chief justice and four associates, who are also judges of the superior court. This court has general appellate jurisdiction, civil and criminal, in matters of law and equity brought before it by writ of error or appeal from the judgments and decisions of the superior court. The superior court consists of six judges, exclusive of those who are judges of the supreme court. It has general original jurisdiction, civil, criminal, and equitable, and hears appeals from inferior courts. In all trials for crime punishable by death, the court must consist of at least two judges, one of whom must be a judge of the supreme court. The judges of the supreme and superior courts are elected by concurrent vote of the senate and house of representatives for a term of eight years, but are disqualified by the constitution when 70 years of age; the salary of each is $3,500. They may be removed by impeachment or by the governor on address of two thirds of each house. There are four courts of common pleas, respectively for the counties of Hartford, New Haven, Fairfield, and New London. These courts have civil jurisdiction in law and equity in cases where the amount in controversy does not exceed $500, and in cases not criminal hear appeals and writs of error from justices of the peace. Each court of common pleas consists of one judge, who is elected annually by the general assembly, and receives a salary of $2,500. Probate courts are held in each district, of which there are more than 100 in the state, most of them embracing single towns. The judges are chosen annually by the people. Justices of the peace are chosen biennially by the people of the towns in which they reside. The state militia consists of four regiments and a company of light artillery, comprising a total of 149 officers and 2,234 enlisted men. All elections are by ballot. The annual election is held on the first Monday of April, and in May following, when the legislature meets, the officers chosen enter upon their duties. By the laws of the state every white male citizen of the United States, having attained the age of 21 years, and resided one year in the state and six months in the town where he offers to vote, and who is able to read any article of the constitution, is entitled to the privileges of an elector. Colored citizens are entitled to vote by virtue of the 15th amendment to the federal constitution. An amendment to the constitution must first be passed by the house of representatives, receive a two-thirds vote of each house the following year, and then be ratified by a popular vote. The penalty for murder in the first degree, arson causing death, and perjury with intent to take life, is death. The crimes of arson endangering life, rape, and maiming may be punished by imprisonment for life, and manslaughter by a fine of not more than $1,000 and imprisonment for not more than 10 years. The laws concerning divorce are regarded as very loose, the following being the grounds upon which divorce may be granted: adultery; fraudulent contract; wilful desertion for three years with total neglect of duty; seven years' absence without being heard from; habitual intemperance; intolerable cruelty; sentence to imprisonment for life; bestiality or any other infamous crime involving a violation of conjugal duty and punishable by imprisonment in the state prison; and any such misconduct as permanently destroys the happiness of the petitioner and defeats the purposes of the marriage relation. All real estate conveyed to a married woman for money, or other property acquired by her personal services during marriage, may be held by her to her sole and separate use. Personal property of the wife vests in the husband as trustee, and upon his death goes to her if living, or if dead to her devisees, legatees, or heirs at law, as though she had always been sole; the husband is entitled to the rents, profits, and interests. When abandoned by the husband, the wife may transact business, sue and be sued, as if sole, during such abandonment. The husband is not liable for debts of the wife contracted before marriage; but she may be sued as if sole, and levy made on her property. Married women may dispose of both real and personal property by will in the same manner as other persons; but in conveyances by deed the husband must join, except during abandonment, when the wife may convey by order of the superior court. Connecticut is represented in congress by four representatives and two senators, and is entitled to six votes in the electoral college.—The state debt in 1860 amounted to only $50,000, which had been borrowed from the school fund. From July 1, 1861, to Oct. 1, 1865, five issues of bonds were made, amounting in the aggregate to $10,000,000, and drawing 6 per cent. interest, payable semi-annually. This bonded debt has been steadily diminishing; the bonds outstanding April 1, 1873, amounted to $5,095,900. Deducting $738,078 cash in the treasury, the debt of the state beyond its assets amounted to $4,357,822. The revenue of the state during the year ending April 1, 1873, amounted to $2,054,465, and the expenditures to $1,175,567. The chief sources of revenue and expenditure were as follows:

Insurance department $26,231 61
Interest on deposits 22,020 74
State tax from towns 785,888 77
Tax on telegraph companies 725 78
Tax on agents of foreign insurance companies 21,254 21
Tax on savings banks 471,222 90
Tax on mutual insurance companies 305,670 88
Tax on railroad companies 339,620 44
Tax on express companies 2,000 00
Tax on non-resident stockholders 25,256 47
Miscellaneous sources 32,475 06
Forfeited bonds 19,565 80
Avails of courts 2,532 58

Total  $2,054,465 54
General assembly $97,276 18
Salaries 65,650 00
Judicial expenses 146,823 34
State paupers 3,416 50
Board of education 8,935 61
Directors of state prison 600 00
Public buildings, &c. 89,117 60
Families of volunteers 108,448 85
Advances to quartermaster general 56,000 00
Advances to paymaster general 43,000 00
Advances to adjutant general 8,000 00
Miscellaneous accounts, including common and normal schools, &c.  362,426 53

Total $1,175,567 88

The assessed value of real estate, according to the census of 1870, was $204,110,500; personal estate, $221,322,728; total, $425,433,237; true value of real and personal estate, $774,631,524. In 1860 the assessed value of real estate was $191,478,842; personal estate, $149,778,134; total, $341,256,976; true value of real and personal in 1860, $444,274,114, and in 1850, $155,707,980. The total taxation not national in 1870 was $6,064,843, including $1,875,024 state, $20,113 county, and $4,160,706 town, city, &c. In 1860 the total taxation not national was $1,015,037.—The public institutions sustained wholly or in part by the state are the reform school, normal school, industrial school for girls, American asylum for the deaf and dumb, general hospital for the insane, retreat for the insane, school for imbeciles, Hartford hospital, soldiers' orphans' homes, and the state prison. The state reform school, for the instruction, employment, and reformation of juvenile offenders, is at Meriden, and is under the control of a board of eight trustees, one from each county. The cost of the building and farm of 163 acres was $115,000. Boys between the ages of 10 and 16 years may be sent here for crime by the several courts of the state for a term of not less than nine months and during minority; they may also be received by indenture from parents or guardians, without expense to the state, for a period of not less than six months. The inmates are required to devote 6½ hours a day to labor and 4½ to study. Since the opening of the school, March 1, 1854, 1,662 boys have been received; 152 were received during the year ending April 1, 1872, at which date there were 314 inmates. The institution is self-sustaining, the receipts in 1872 amounting to $840 more than the expenditures. The boys are employed in the chair shop, on the farm, and in domestic labor. A similar institution, the industrial school for girls, was formally opened at Middletown, June 30, 1870, and is now in successful operation. It will accommodate 70 girls. For its establishment $10,000 were appropriated by the state, $70,000 contributed by individuals, and 46 acres of land given by the town of Middletown. Up to April 1, 1873, 123 girls had been admitted and 34 discharged. The American asylum for the deaf and dumb in Hartford is the oldest institution of the kind in the United States, having been incorporated in 1816, and opened April 15 of the following year. The governors and secretaries of state of the several New England states are ex officio members of the board of directors. Upward of 2,000 pupils have been received into the institution since its organization. The whole number in attendance during 1872 was 290; greatest number at any one time, 248; average attendance during the year, 247; number of instructors, 15. Of those attending during the year, 59 were supported by Maine, 22 by New Hampshire, 19 by Vermont, 109 by Massachusetts, 10 by Ehode Island, 60 by Connecticut, 1 by New Jersey, and 10 by Friends. The number of pupils April 1, 1873, was 225, of whom 51 were from Connecticut. The asylum makes an annual charge of $175 to each pupil. In the several New England states legislative appropriations have been made in aid of indigent pupils desiring to attend the institution. The fund of the asylum, April 1, 1872, amounted to $339,228, mostly derived from an endowment of land by congress in 1819. Connecticut has no institution for the blind; but an annual grant of $3,000 is made by the state for the education of the indigent blind at the Perkins institution in Boston. The general hospital for the insane, incorporated by the legislature in 1866, is pleasantly situated at Middletown, on the banks of the Connecticut river. The buildings are of Portland freestone, and when completed will be 768 ft. in length, with accommodations for at least 450 patients. The total cost will be $525,000, exclusive of the land, which was given by the town of Middletown. Provision is made for four classes of patients: pauper, indigent, private, and insane convicts. The institution is under the supervision of a board of trustees, consisting of the governor ex officio, and one person from each of the eight counties in the state. During the year ending April 1, 1873, the average number receiving daily treatment was 264. At that date there were 271 inmates, including 217 pauper patients, 98 indigent, 12 private, and 9 insane convicts; 74 were admitted and 65 discharged during the year. The revenue amounted to $79,793, and the total expenditures to $77,981. Up to April 1, 1873, 643 patients were admitted, of whom 116 were discharged recovered, 72 improved, and 91 stationary, and 93 died. The retreat for the insane in Hartford was incorporated in 1822, and has at various times received aid from the state and donations from individuals. The average number in this institution is about 250, who are maintained at an average cost of about $5 a week. Since its opening about 5,000 patients have been treated. According to the census of 1870, there were 772 insane in the state. The accommodations of the state not being sufficient for this number, some have been treated in the hospitals of neighboring states, while others have been unprovided for. A school for imbeciles has been established at Lakeville, in the town of Salisbury, which receives both state and private pupils. In 1873 the number of pupils was 50, of whom 20 were state beneficiaries. The number dismissed or improved since the opening of the institution has been 26 per cent. A commodious building has been erected with the $10,000 appropriated by the legislature in 1872, which will enable the institution to accommodate all of this unfortunate class for which the state may have to provide. The Hartford hospital was first opened Aug. 1, 1860, with accommodations for 44 patients; by the addition of wings to the main building, the institution now accommodates 100 patients. The whole cost of buildings and land (70 acres) was $188,495, of which $127,200 were contributed by individuals and $30,000 by the state, which has also made an annual grant of $2,000 toward defraying current expenses. The permanent fund of the hospital amounts to $153,500. Patients are received from the various towns of the state for a small compensation, while not a few are admitted free. A large number of Connecticut soldiers have been received and treated, for which the institution received from the state to March 1, 1871, $15,095 08. From the opening of the hospital to that date 2,239 patients received its benefits, at an average cost of $5 68. Of this number 1,596 recovered, 155 improved, 120 remained stationary, and 304 died; 1,097 were Americans, and 1,142 of foreign birth; 1,827 of temperate and 412 of intemperate habits. Their average time at the hospital was 8.3 weeks. During the year ending Feb. 28, 1871, 370 patients (246 males and 124 females) were under treatment. The receipts amounted to $19,443 63; disbursements, $19,854 90. There is also a hospital in New Haven, supported in part by the state. Two soldiers' orphans' homes for the education of children of deceased soldiers, situated at Mansfield and Darien, are under the charge of voluntary societies, aided by state appropriations. The number of children of this class in the state in 1871 receiving $1 50 weekly each for their support was 1,648. The state prison is situated at Wethersfield. The building was erected in 1827, contains 232 cells, and is inadequate to the requirements of the state. The construction of a new one has been recommended by a committee of the legislature. The mode of inflicting punishment on convicts is by confinement in dark and solitary cells, and by fetters and shackles. Punishment by the shower bath and “moderate whipping, not exceeding ten stripes for any one offence,” though not prohibited by law, has been discontinued. Convicts are employed in making boots, rules, &c., and burnishing plated ware. Instruction is given in the common English branches. The library contains 1,165 volumes. The number of convicts March 31, 1873, was 175; 142 were Americans and 33 foreigners, 3 females, 40 colored, 14 under 20 years of age, and 13 over 50; 160 for first offence; 23 under sentence for life. The income for the year was $26,452, including $14,695 from shoe shops, $3,030 from wire shop, $2,220 from burnishing shop, $4,833 from rule shops, and $880 for boarding United States prisoners. The expenditures amounted to $24,941. The whole number of persons committed to the various jails during 1871 was 2,593, being 347 more than in the preceding year. The whole number confined April 1, 1871, was 289, being 24 fewer than on April 1, 1870. There were six homicides committed in the state during the year.—The improvements made within the past few years in the system of education in Connecticut have given a marked prominence to the common schools of the state. The supervision and control of the educational interests of the state were in 1865 intrusted to a board of education, consisting of the governor, lieutenant governor, and four members, one from each congressional district, appointed by the legislature. The board appoints its own secretary, who performs the usual duties of a superintendent of education. In 1868 the law providing for the levying of tuition or rate bills was repealed, and a system of free public schools established, each town being required to levy a tax sufficient, with existing school revenues, for the maintenance of free schools. By the act of 1870 each town is required to maintain free public schools for at least 30 weeks in the year, in every district in which the number of persons between the ages of 4 and 16 years is 24 or more, and for at least 24 weeks in every district in which the number of such persons is less than 24. Proprietors of manufacturing establishments are by law prohibited, under a penalty of $100 fine, from employing children under 14 years of age who have not attended school for at least three months in each year; they are further required to see that all persons employed by them are able to read and write and understand the elements of arithmetic. An amendment to the law is recommended by the board of education, in order to secure the actual attendance at school for at least three months each year of all the children relieved from employment. There is no state school tax in Connecticut (though a tax of this kind has been recommended), the money for the support of common schools being derived from special funds and local taxation. The constitution directs that the school fund shall remain perpetual, and that the interest be used for the support and encouragement of common schools and for no other purpose. This fund, chiefly derived from the sale of the lands of the state in the Western Reserve, Ohio, amounted on Sept. 2, 1872, to $2,044,190. For the year ending March 31, 1873, the receipts amounted to $156,158; disbursements, $137,812; number of children returned, 132,924; rate of dividend per capita, $1. Owing to the increase of the number of school children, the fund is relatively diminishing. In 1863 the dividend per child was $1 20, and in 1873 it was $1. The town deposit fund amounts to $763,661; revenue, $45,650. During the first year of the free schools there was an increase in attendance of more than 6,000 over the increase in enumeration, while it is evident that not fewer than 10,000 children were prevented from attending school under the rate-bill system. The average school year has advanced to 8 months and 12½ days, making it longer than the school year in most of the other states of the Union. In 1872, of the children of school age, 95.23 per cent. were attending schools. There were 1,535 school districts in the state, and 1,630 public schools, taught by 2,420 teachers, of whom 1,721 were females. The number of children between the ages of 4 and 16 years was 131,748, of whom 122,342 attended school; 113,588 were registered in the public schools, and 8,754 in private schools; and 3,541 persons over 16 years of age were registered in the public schools. The total amount expended for public schools during the year (including $833,759 for teachers' salaries, $370,369 for new school houses, and $70,005 for repairs) was $1,496,980, being an advance of $218,154 beyond the expenditure of any former year for this purpose. The total amount received from all sources for public schools was $1,503,617, including $128,468 revenue of school fund distributed Feb. 28, 1871; town deposit fund, $45,167; income of local school funds, $9,627; town tax, $641,837; district tax, $410,708; voluntary contributions, $11,012; other sources, $256,796. The amount raised for each child enumerated was $11 70, while in 1871 it was $11 83. In addition to the public schools, there are other free schools supported by individual liberality, or by the income of invested funds. Among these are the day and evening schools maintained at Manchester by the Cheney brothers, at an annual expense of $3,400; Bacon academy at Colchester, with a fund of $25,000, free to the inhabitants of that place; Norwich free academy, with a fund of $90,000; and the Hopkins grammar school in New Haven. Since 1867 evening schools have been maintained as a part of the free public school system, with the most satisfactory results. The experiment was first made in New London, and its success led to the establishment of similar schools both for boys and for girls in several of the cities and larger villages. In six of these schools situated respectively in New London, Hartford, New Haven, Birmingham, and Bristol, the average length of the session of 1870-'71 was 15 weeks; average number of pupils, 593. The state normal school at New Britain was established by the legislature in 1849, and opened in May of the following year. It was under the charge of a board of eight trustees, one from each county, till 1865, when it was transferred to the supervision of the state board of education. After suspension for two years on account of the withdrawal of the appropriation by the legislature, it was reorganized in 1869. The annual appropriation for this school is $7,500. The expenses for 1872 were $9,655; number of instructors, 5; pupils in attendance, 148, of whom 130 were females; average age of pupils, 20 years and 2 months. The whole number of pupils connected with the school since its organization is 2,628, at an average cost to the state of less than $40 each. Teachers' institutes are held in the different counties under the direction of the secretary of the board of education, for which purpose a sum not exceeding $3,000 per annum may be drawn from the state treasury. During 1870-'71, 33 teachers' institutes were held, attended by 2,286 teachers and school officers. The total expenditures amounted to $2,999, including $2,483 for 289 lectures. Connecticut has three colleges, three theological schools, one law, one medical, and one scientific school. The total number of volumes in the libraries of these institutions is 142,750. There are 25 academies and seminaries (of which 4 are exclusively for females), with more than 100 instructors and 1,404 pupils, of whom 685 are females, and libraries containing 6,185 volumes. In addition to these there are four seminaries for the superior instruction of females exclusively, with 27 instructors, 198 pupils, and 1,750 volumes in their libraries. Yale college (Congregational), in New Haven, was established in 1701, and in 1873 had 73 instructors, 904 students in all departments, and 90,000 volumes in the library. Connected with it are a theological seminary, law school, school of fine arts, and the Sheffield scientific school. The last named institution has received the proceeds realized by the sale of the scrip for 180,000 acres of land granted to Connecticut under the act of congress of 1862, known as the agricultural college bill. The state holds four scholarships in the Sheffield scientific school. Six seats in the board of corporation, previously occupied by the six senior senators in the state legislature, were transferred to the alumni in 1872. Trinity college (Episcopal) was established in 1823 at Hartford, and in 1872 had 16 instructors, 163 students, and a library of 15,000 volumes. Wesleyan university (Methodist), at Middletown, was established in 1831; number of instructors, 10; students, 163; volumes in library, 20,000. The theological institute of Connecticut (Congregational), established in 1834 at East Windsor, and subsequently removed to Hartford, has 3 professors, 25 students, and 7,000 volumes in library; whole number of alumni, 290. The theological department of Yale college (Congregational), organized in 1823, has 7 professors, 55 students, and 865 alumni; amount of endowment, $308,000. Berkeley divinity school at Middletown (Episcopal), organized in 1855, has 10 professors, 38 students, and 149 alumni; endowment, $40,000. In 1866 the number of students in the colleges and professional schools of the state was 883; in 1867, 946; in 1868, 960; in 1869, 1,016; in 1870, 1,037; in 1871, 1,048. Of the latter, 179 were inhabitants of Connecticut, and 69 Connecticut students in 1871 were in colleges of other states. There are public libraries in 64 towns, which receive state aid under the act of 1856 providing for state library appropriations. The principal libraries of the state, exclusive of those connected with colleges, &c., number 13, and contain 66,280 volumes. According to the census of 1870, the total number of libraries was 63, having 285,937 volumes. These included the state library, with 12,000 volumes; 5 school, college, &c., with 142,000 volumes; 1 historical and scientific, with 14,000; and 56 circulating, with 117,937. The number of newspapers and periodicals was 71, with an aggregate circulation of 203,725; copies annually issued, 17,454,740. Of these there were 16 daily, circulation 35,730; 1 semi-weekly, circulation 800; 43 weekly, circulation 107,395; 2 semi-monthly, circulation 900; 7 monthly, circulation 56,400; 1 bi-monthly, circulation 1,150; and 1 quarterly, circulation 1,350.—In 1870 the state contained 826 religious organizations, having 902 edifices, with 338,735 sittings, and property valued at $13,428,109. The statistics were as follows:

DENOMINATIONS.  Organizations.   Edifices.   Sittings.   Property. 

Baptist, regular 111  115   44,075   $1,366,300
Baptist, other 1,075  12,100
Christian 750  6,500
Congregational 290  360   133,175  4,728,700
Episcopal, Protestant 139  147  50,962  3,275,534
Friends' 350  1,500
Jewish 1,850  105,000
Lutheran 1,240  23,500
Methodist 184  188  63,975  1,834,025
Miscellaneous 85  1,350
New Jerusalem (Swedenborgian) ..  .....  ......
Presbyterian, regular 10  3,875  195,300
Reformed Church in America[1] 1,300  100,000
Reformed Church in the United States[2]  250  6,000
Roman Catholic 44  34  26,418  1,429,500
Second Advent 1,380  8,700
Shaker 300  5,500
Spiritualist 600  13,500
Unitarian 225  6,000
Universalist 14  15  6,850  309,100
  1. Late Dutch Reformed.
  2. Late German Reformed.

—The Connecticut river and the seacoast adjacent to its mouth were first explored by the Dutch from New Netherlands, who laid claim to the territory. The counter claim of the English was based upon the patent of Connecticut granted in 1631 to Lord Say and Seal, Lord Brooke, Sir Richard Saltonstall, and associates, by the earl of Warwick, to whom with others the first patent of New England had been granted by James I. in 1620. In 1633 the Dutch made a settlement at Hartford, but in a few years sold out to the English. Early in 1636 permanent settlements were made at Hartford, Windsor, and Wethersfield, by companies from Massachusetts, bearing a commission from the general court of that colony investing certain of their number with legislative and judicial power to govern the new plantation. The first court was held April 26, 1636, at Hartford. In the following year the three towns organized themselves into an independent government for self-protection against the Pequots, declared war against that tribe, and completely annihilated its power. In 1638 New Haven was settled by a distinguished company of emigrants from England who had landed at Boston the preceding year. The peculiar feature of the civil polity adopted by them was that all civil power should be vested in members of the church. A constitution for the government of the colony of Connecticut was perfected and approved by a general vote of the people, Jan. 14, 1639; the first example in history of a written constitution organizing a government and defining its powers. It formed the basis of the charter of 1662, and its leading features have been copied into the constitutions of the several states and of the United States. After stating that the word of God requires human governments, and that the object of such governments is to maintain and preserve the moral and civil welfare of the people, it makes provision for the three departments of government, the legislative, judicial, and executive, which were all to be filled by persons to be appointed by and to derive their power from the people. The freemen (and all might be made freemen who had been admitted inhabitants by the towns themselves) were to meet annually in April,, at a court of elections, for the choice of so many magistrates and other public officers as should be found requisite, one of whom was to be designated as governor. All elections were by ballot. The governor was voted for first, and elected by a plurality vote; then the magistrates, subsequently called assistants, were voted for in a similar manner. The governor, or executive, sat with the magistrates in their judicial capacity, and both the governor and magistrates sat with the deputies elected by the several towns in a legislative capacity. As the deputies constituted a majority of the general assembly, the legislative power was substantially in the hands of the people, while the governor and magistrates could advise as to necessary legislation. As there were to be two sessions of the legislature annually, one in the spring, called the court of elections, and the other in the fall, for enacting laws and other public services, the towns chose their deputies semi-annually. In this constitution, and in the subsequent administration of it till 1661, there is no recognition of any higher human power than the people, and practically Connecticut was an independent government. But when Charles II. came to the throne, fears began to be entertained for the future, and the general court determined to make a formal avowal of their allegiance to the crown and apply for a charter. This charter, embracing the colonies of Connecticut and New Haven, was obtained in 1662, and the union between the colonies was completed in 1665. The charter granted the colony jurisdiction over the lands within its limits; provided for the election of a governor, deputy governor, and 12 assistants, and two deputies from each town, substantially the same as provided for under the previous constitution; allowed the free transportation of colonists and merchandise from England to the colony; guaranteed to the colonists the rights of English citizens; provided for the making of laws and organization of courts by the general assembly, and the appointment of all necessary officers for the public good, the organization of a soldiery, providing for the public defence, &c. This charter was of so general a character, and conferred so large powers, that no change was necessary when Connecticut took her stand as one of the independent states of the Union, on the declaration of independence in 1776; and it continued, without alteration, as the constitution of the state till 1818, when the present constitution was formed. Until 1670, at the general election, all the freemen assembled at Hartford and personally voted for the state officers and assistants. Thereafter they voted by proxy or sent up their votes. In July, 1685, a writ of quo warranto was issued by the king's bench, and served on the governor and company, with the design of taking away the charter and uniting the New England colonies in one government under a royal governor. Sir Edmund Andros arrived in Boston, Dec. 19, 1686, with his commission as governor. In October, 1687, he came to Hartford while the assembly was sitting and demanded the charter. According to current history, it was produced and laid upon the table, but was subsequently seized and concealed in the famous' charter oak. (See Andros, Sir Edmund.) Andros seized the government, which he administered, or rather it was administered under him, in a very oppressive manner. On the dethronement of James II., and the consequent deposition of Andros, the government, on May 9, 1689, resumed its functions as if the period since the usurpation of Andros to that time were annihilated; and as the charter had not in the king's court been declared forfeit, it was after a struggle allowed to continue in force, the freest constitution ever granted by royal favor. Until October, 1698, the general assembly constituted but one house, consisting of the governor, assistants, and deputies, over which the governor presided, and the secretary of state was clerk. At that session the governor and assistants, or council, were constituted the upper house, and the deputies from the several towns the lower house, with power to appoint their own speaker and clerk. Every bill must pass both houses before it could become a law. Soon after this separation of the general assembly into two bodies, the superior court was constituted a distinct judicial body. From the union of the colonies till 1701 the general court had met in Hartford. Thereafter it was ordered that the May session should be held in Hartford and the October in New Haven. While the early laws of Connecticut were in general liberal and enlightened, it is not denied that many extreme penalties were prescribed by the early statutes. There were twelve offences punishable with death, while there were severe laws against Baptists, Quakers, witchcraft, &c. The authenticity of the code commonly called the blue laws of Connecticut is denied by the best authorities. During the revolutionary struggle no other state in the Union furnished so many men according to its population, or so much aid according to its means, as Connecticut; and Gen. Washington had no coadjutor more efficient than Jonathan Trumbull (Brother Jonathan), governor of Connecticut. On June 14, 1776, twenty days before the declaration of independence, the general assembly of Connecticut unanimously instructed their delegates in congress to propose to that body “to declare the united American colonies free and independent states, absolved from all allegiance to the king of Great Britain.” The whole number of soldiers enlisted in Connecticut during the civil war was 54,882, being equivalent to 48,181 men for three years. There were 2,340 enlistments for three months, 5,602 for nine months, 529 for one year, 25 for two years, 44,556 for three years, 26 for four years, and 1,804 not known. The organizations were 30 regiments of infantry, 2 of heavy artillery, 2 light batteries, 1 independent battery, and 1 regiment and 1 squadron of cavalry. During the war 1,094 men and 97 officers were killed in action; 666 men and 48 officers died from wounds; 3,246 men and 63 officers died from disease; and 389 men and 21 officers were missing.