The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Cyclopædia
CYCLOPÆDIA, or Encyclopædia (Gr. κύκλος, a circle, and παιδεία, education), originally the cycle of the seven liberal arts and sciences which constituted with the ancients the course of education for the higher class of citizens, viz.: grammar, arithmetic, geometry, music, astronomy, dialectics, and rhetoric. Quintilian mentions it as the orb or full circle of learning: Orbis illa doctrinæ quam Græci ἑγκυκλοπαιδείαν vocant. In its modern acceptation the word commonly designates a summary of human knowledge, either in one or in all departments, arranged either systematically according to the logical connection of topics, or lexicographically according to the alphabetical succession of terms; and therefore distinguished as either general or special, systematic or alphabetical. Speusippus, the nephew and disciple of Plato, is usually accounted to have written the first cyclopædic work, under the title Διάλογοι τῶν περί τήν Πραγματείαν Ὁμοίων, which has not been preserved. The work of Aristotle on the sciences (Περί Ἐπιστήμων), the lost books of Varro entitled Rerum Humanarum et Divinarum Antiquitates, and the Historia Naturalis of Pliny, approached to the character of cyclopædias. The last is a vast compilation, treating of 20,000 matters of importance, drawn from about 2,000 volumes. Astronomy, mathematics, natural philosophy, botany, mineralogy, medical science, arts, agriculture, all came within the compass of his researches. His work has the merit of showing the progress which science and the arts had made down to the time at which he wrote. The collections of Stobæus, Suidas, and especially of Marcianus Capella (about A. D. 480), and of Isidorus Hispalensis (about 630), may also be regarded as works of the same character. The Satyra of Capella is a confused exposition of the seven liberal arts, and the Origines of Isidorus furnishes a complete knowledge of the state of mental culture at the epoch of its publication. Cyclopædias were not uncommon in the middle ages, under the titles of Summæ and Specula. One of the most celebrated is the Speculum Historiale, Naturale et Doctrinale, by the indefatigable Dominican Vincent of Beauvais (Vincentius Bellovacencis, about 1250), to which a Speculum Morale, by an unknown author, was afterward added. This repository of scholastic science, consisting mostly of extracts from the works of writers of the time, is particularly valuable for the light it sheds on the literary history of that period. The first edition was published at Strasburg (7 vols. fol., 1473-'6), and the last at Douai (4 vols. fol., 1624). Of mediæval particular cyclopædias, or complete treatises on special subjects, the Summa Theologiæ of Thomas Aquinas is an eminent example. Alfarabius enriched the 10th century with a cyclopædia which; on account of its systematic subdivision of the various branches of knowledge, might be justly compared to works of the same denomination in later centuries. Casiri describes it, in his Bibliotheca Arabico-Hispana Escurialensis, as a work ubi scientiarum, artiumque liberalium, synopsis occurrit, una cum accurata et perspicua earum notitia, definitione, divisione, methodo. In the 16th century several works of a cyclopædic character appeared, such as the Margarita Philosophica of Reisch (Freiburg, 1503, and Basel, 1583); the Cyclopædia of Ringelberg (Basel, 1541), a small thick volume, consisting of concise treatises on grammar, logic, and other branches; the Encyclopædia seu Orbis Disciplinarum Epistemon of Scalich (Basel, 1559); and the Idea Methodicæ et Brevis Encyclopædia, seu Adumbratio Universitatis, by Martini (Herborn, 1606). These were followed by Alsted's more elaborate work, Cursus Philosophici Encyclopædia (4 vols., Herborn, 1620; afterward entitled Scientiarum Omnium Encyclopædia, Herborn, 1630, and Lyons, 1649), which is commonly referred to as the most celebrated of the early cyclopædias. Its plan is not unlike that of Ringelberg, but its subjects are more varied and more elaborately treated. It consists of 35 books, of which the first 4 contain an explanation of the nature of the subjects discussed in the rest. Then follow 6 on philology; 10 on speculation and 4 on practical philosophy; 3 on geology, jurisprudence, and medicine; 3 on the mechanical arts; and 5 on history, chronology, and miscellaneous topics. This work was held in high estimation till the close of that century. In the early part of the 17th century appeared also the De Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum (1605) and the Novum Organum Scientiarum (1620) of Lord Bacon; works not voluminous, but rich in deep and acute thinking, and in which he laid the foundation of a logical arrangement of the sciences. After his time appeared a multitude of cyclopædias designed for the instruction of the young and uninformed. Such were the Science des personnes de la cour, de l'épée et de la robe, by Chevigny (5th ed. by Limiers, 4 vols., Amsterdam, 1717), and the Pera Librorum Juvenilium, by Wagenseil (5 vols., Altdorf, 1695). Treatises written to bring universal knowledge into systematic order also became more numerous. This was the aim of the Polyhistor of Morhof (Lübeck, 1688), and of the Cours d'études of Condillac. In Germany, Sulzer endeavored to show the essential connection of all branches of learning in his Kurzer Inbegriff aller Wissenschaften (Berlin, 1756); and his classification was adopted and improved by many succeeding cyclopædists, as J. M. Gesner, in his Primæ Lineæ Isagoges in Eruditionem Universam (Göttingen, 1774), Reimarus (1775), Adelung(l778), Reuss(l783), Klügel (l788), Buhle (1790), and Büsch (1795). Eschenburg, in his Lehrbuch der Wissenschaften (Berlin, 1792), was the first to attempt a cyclopædia of the sciences on the principles of the Kantian philosophy. He found imitators in Burdach, Kraus, and others. Complete logical classifications were made also by Krug, in his Versuch einer systematischen Encyklopädie der Wissenschaften (Wittenberg, 1796-'8); by Schmid, in his Allgemeine Encyklopädie und Methodologie der Wissenschaften (Jena, 1811); by Jäsche, in his Einleitung zu einer Architektonik der Wissenschaften (Dorpat, 1816); by Kronburg, in his Allgemeine Wissenschaftslehre (Berlin, 1825); by Gruber, in the introduction to the second volume of Ersch and Gruber's Encyklopädie; and by Kirchner, in his Akademische Propädeutik (Leipsic, 1842). — Although the lexicographic arrangement had been employed by Suidas, it was but slowly brought into use after the revival of learning. It was long before the idea occurred that it might be used as the basis of a universal repertory of human learning, and still longer before it was employed as the vehicle of general treatises. The first lexicographic cyclopædias contained notices only of celebrated persons and places, as the Dictionarium Proprium Nominum Virorum, Mulierum, Populorum, Idolorum, Urbium, Fluviorum, Montium, &c., by Robert Stephens (Paris, 1544); and the Dictionarium Historicum et Poeticum, by Charles Stephens (Paris, 1553; enlarged by K. Lloyd, Oxford, 1671, and London, 1686). The Grand dictionnaire historique of Moréri (Lyons, 1673), and the Dictionnaire historique et critique of Bayle (Rotterdam, 1696), were the most important of many biographical cyclopædias of this period, the latter treating also incidentally of many scientific questions. Of larger compass and of less thorough execution were the Lexicon Universale Historico-Geographico-Chronologico-Poetico-Philologicum, by J. J. Hofmann (Basel, 1677; supplement added, 1683; new ed., Leyden, 1698), and the Bibliotheca Universalis Sacro-Profana, by Coronelli (Venice, 1701), which was intended to form 45 volumes, but was continued only into the letter C in 7 volumes. — The first English cyclopædia was the “Lexicon Technicum, or an Universal Dictionary of the Arts and Sciences,” by John Harris (2 vols., London, 1706-'10). It explained both the terms of art and the arts themselves; but it was in fact limited almost exclusively to the mathematical and the physical sciences, and hence was far from fulfilling its purpose. The “Cyclopædia” of Ephraim Chambers (2 vols. large fol., London, 1728) was also termed a general dictionary of the arts and sciences, and was the first work in which knowledge was subdivided under appropriate heads, which were placed in alphabetical order, and treated so as to exhibit at the same time a complete account of the various branches and of their connections and dependencies. “His view,” he says, “was to consider the several matters, not only in themselves, but relatively, or as they respect each other; both to treat them as so many wholes, and as so many parts of some greater whole, their connection with which to be pointed out by reference; so that by a course of references from generals to particulars, from premises to conclusions, from cause to effect, and vice versa, i. e., from more to less complex, and from less to more, a communication might be opened between the several parts of the work, and the several articles be in some measure replaced in their natural order of science, out of which the alphabetical order had removed them.” Yet Chambers remained far from attaining his object, for the ramifications are so varied and minute that one would seek in vain in his volumes for anything like a substitute for separate treatises, or for more, under many heads, than short and unconnected elucidations, or mere definitions and incomplete explanations. But with all its defects, this work must be regarded as the production of a mind of superior compass and vigor, and as the fruit of remarkable research and diligence. Five editions were published within 18 years. It was translated into French and Italian, and its plan was highly applauded in the preliminary discourse of the great French Encyclopédie. Its success gave rise to a number of similar works, mostly modelled after it. The first of these was the “New and Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences,” by John Barrow (1 vol. fol., London, 1751; supplementary vol. added, 1754). Its only recommendation, as compared with its predecessor, consisted in an enlarged number of articles on mathematical subjects, on the mechanical arts, and on naval affairs; to make room for which, church history and all scholastic topics were excluded. This was followed in 1754 (2d ed., 1764) by a “New and Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences,” comprised in 4 large 8vo vols., written, according to the title page, “by a society of gentlemen,” and commonly called, from the name of its publisher, “Owen's Dictionary.” It is distinguished by the general brevity of its articles, a quality which enabled its compilers to widen its range in the departments of geography, commerce, and natural history. In 1766 was published the “Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences,” in 3 vols. fol., a work compiled under the joint direction of Henry Croker, Thomas Williams, and Samuel Clark; the theological, philosophical, and critical branches being edited by the first; those of anatomy, medicine, and chemistry, by the second; and the mathematical by the last. Notwithstanding this division of labor, the work was not marked either by excellence in the respective departments, or method in their arrangement. In 1745 Dr. De Coetlogon published in London a “Universal History of Arts and Sciences,” which was largely composed of complete treatises on distinct arts and sciences, and may therefore have suggested the plan of the “Encyclopædia Britannica.” The latter work made its first appearance in Edinburgh in 1771, in 3 vols. 4to. Instead of attempting to elucidate the sciences by a number of separate articles corresponding to their technical titles or sections, introduced in alphabetical order, it treated each science completely in a systematic form under its proper denomination; the technical terms and subordinate heads being also explained alphabetically, when anything more than a reference to the general treatise was required. This plan was prosecuted on a wider scale and with more maturity of execution in the subsequent editions. The objects aimed at in the early cyclopædias were in this way reconciled with the lexicographic arrangement, while its adaptation to particular topics was in no respect impaired. The editor and principal compiler of this first edition was William Smellie, a scholar particularly conversant with natural history, although by profession a printer. The second edition (extended to 10 vols., 1776-'83) was chiefly remarkable for the addition of the two popular departments, history and biography. The third edition (18 vols., 1786-'97; a supplement of 2 vols. was added afterward) contained valuable contributions in speculative philosophy, ancient erudition, and physical science, from the pens of Dr. Gleig, Dr. Doig, and Prof. Robison, which attracted general attention, and gave to the work a new and more dignified aspect. This edition of the “Encyclopædia Britannica” was republished in Philadelphia by Thomas Dobson (21 vols. 4to, including the supplement, 1798-1803). A fourth edition, increased to 20 vols., was completed in 1810, under the able superintendence of Dr. James Millar. This was enriched with the contributions of Prof. Wallace on pure mathematics. A fifth and a sixth edition soon followed, but were little more than reprints of the former. While these were in progress, a supplement extending to 6 vols. made its appearance, edited by Macvey Napier, and published by Archibald Constable. The first half volume was produced in 1815, under the sanction of the name of Dugald Stewart, as the author of the first of those preliminary dissertations on the history of the sciences which, in a more complete state, so greatly adorn and recommend the later editions. Enriched as it was by contributions from the most eminent writers and scholars of the day, including the distinguished philosophers of France, Arago and Biot, the work rose rapidly in public favor. The copyrights of the previous editions having passed into the hands of A. and C. Black of Edinburgh, they immediately commenced the publication of an enlarged edition, under the editorial supervision of Prof. Napier (21 vols., including the later supplement, a general index, and numerous engravings, 1830-'42). The eighth edition, with extensive improvements and additions, and an introductory volume of dissertations, was commenced in 1853, and published jointly by A. and C. Black of Edinburgh, and Little and Brown of Boston; the concluding (21st) volume appeared in 1860. For this, as for the preceding editions, articles were furnished by the most distinguished contemporary authors. — The following is a summary of the principal English and American cyclopædias since the commencement of the last quarter of the 18th century:
- New Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, or an Universal System of Useful Knowledge. By E. Middleton and others. 2 vols. folio, London, 1778.
- New Royal Encyclopædia. By W. H. Hall. 3 vols. folio, London, 1789. (2d ed., enlarged by J. Lloyd, with plates, 3 vols. folio, 1796.)
- The Encyclopædia Londinensis, or Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Literature. Projected and arranged by John Wilkes. 24 vols. 4to, London, 1797-1829.
- The English Encyclopædia, or a Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. 10 vols. 4to, London, 1801.
- Rees's Cyclopædia, or Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Literature. 89 vols. with 6 vols. of plates, London, 1808-'19. (This work, comprising the various articles in Chambers's Cyclopædia, with additions and improvements, was far more extensive than any previous similar work in England, being particularly complete in the technical department. An American edition was published at Philadelphia, 47 vols., 1810-'24, which, proving unsuccessful from the magnitude and difficulty of the enterprise, was at last disposed of by lottery.)
- Gregory's Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. 2 vols. 4to, London, 1806. (A compilation formerly in high repute. American ed., 8 vols. 4to, Philadelphia. 1815-'16.)
- Nicholson's British Encyclopædia, illustrated with engravings by Lowry and Scott. 6 vols. 8vo, London, 1809. (3d American ed., Philadelphia, 12 vols. 8vo, 1819.)
- The Imperial Encyclopædia. By W. M. Johnson and T. Exley. 4 vols. 4to, London, 1809-'14.
- The Edinburgh Encyclopædia. Conducted by Sir David Brewster. 18 vols. 4to, Edinburgh, 1809-'30. (This important work was especially rich in its scientific department. American ed., improved by the addition of numerous articles relative to the American continent, Philadelphia, 1882.)
- The Encyclopædia Metropolitana, or Universal Dictionary of Knowledge, on an Original Plan, comprising the twofold Advantage of a Philosophical and an Alphabetical Arrangement, with appropriate Engravings. Edited by Edward Smedley, Hugh James Rose, and Henry John Rose. 25 thick vols. with 8 additional vols. of plates and one of index, London, 1815-'45. (The divisions of this work, which follow a system of universal knowledge projected by S. T. Coleridge, are as follows: Vols. 1, 2, pure sciences; 3-8, mixed and applied sciences; 9-13, history and biography; 14-25, a miscellaneous lexicon. A cabinet edition was published in small 8vo volumes. In this large collection are contained many complete treatises of great value, as the “Science of Method” of Coleridge, the “Logic” and “Rhetoric” of Archbishop Whately, portions of Roman history by Dr. Arnold, and works on the history of moral and metaphysical philosophy by F. D. Maurice.)
- The Encyclopædia Edinensis. By James Millar. 6 vols. 4to, Edinburgh, 1816.
- The Encyclopædia Perthensis, with Plates. Attributed to Millar. 23 vols. 8vo, London, 1816.
- The London Encyclopædia, or Universal Dictionary of Sciences and Arts, Literature, and Practical Mechanics. By Thomas Curtis. 22 vols. 4to, with an additional vol. of maps, London, 1829.
- The Encyclopædia Americana, a Popular Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, History, Politics, and Biography; on the basis of the 7th ed. of the German Conversations-Lexikon. Edited by Francis Lieber, assisted by E. Wigglesworth and T. G. Bradford. 13 vols. 8vo, Philadelphia, 1829-'33. (Supplementary vol., edited by H. Vethake, 1847.)
- Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopædia, comprising a series of original works on History, Biography, Literature, the Sciences, Arts, and Manufactures. 132 vols. small 8vo, London, 1830-'46. (Among the numerous valuable treatises in this series are works of Herschel on astronomy, of Brewster on optics, Mackintosh's “History of England,” Sismondi's “Italian Republics,” Scott's “History of Scotland,” and Thirwall's “History of Greece.”)
- Partington's British Cyclopædia. 12 vols. 8vo, London. 1832.
- The Penny Cyclopædia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. Edited by George Long. 27 vols. small folio, London, 1833-'43; 2 supplementary vols., 1846-'51; 2d supplement, 1 vol., 1856.
- The Popular Encyclopædia, or Conversations Lexicon; being a General Dictionary of Useful Knowledge, with Dissertations by Eminent Writers. 7 vols. royal 8vo, Glasgow, 1841.
- Brande's Dictionary of Science, Literature, and Art. Royal 8vo, London, 1842; 2d ed., 1852-'3; American ed., New York, 1843; new and revised ed., 3 vols., London, 1865-7.
- The National Cyclopædia of Useful Knowledge. 12 vols. small 8vo, London, 1847-'51; Boston, 1853. (This is an abridgment of the “Penny Cyclopædia.”)
- The Iconographic Encyclopædia of Science, Literature, and Art. Translated from the German of J. G. Heck, with additions, and edited by Spencer F. Baird. 4 vols. royal 8vo of text, and 2 vols. of plates, New York, 1851; reprinted, 1869.
- The English Cyclopædia, a New Dictionary of Universal Knowledge. Conducted by Charles Knight. 20 vols. 4to, London, 1854-'61; supplements to 1867-'8. (This work is based upon the “Penny Cyclopædia,” and is divided into the four departments of Geography, Natural History, Biography, and Arts and Sciences.)
- The New American Cyclopædia. Edited by George Ripley and Charles A. Dana. 16 vols. royal 8vo, New York, 1857-'63.
- Chambers's Encyclopædia. 10 vols. 8vo, Edinburgh and Philadelphia, 1860-'68; new ed., 1871-'2.
- Zell's Popular Encyclopædia. 2 vols. 4to, illustrated, Philadelphia, 1871.
- The National Encyclopædia. 8vo, New York, 1872 et seq.
- The American Cyclopædia. The present work, a revised and illustrated edition of the “New American Cyclopædia.” New York, 1873 et seq.
A cyclopædia which possesses a unique feature in being printed in a language different from that of the country of its publication, is Prof. A. J. Schem's Deutsch-Amerikanisches Conversations-Lexicon, now (1873) in course of publication in New York. It is in German, and intended especially for German-American readers. Besides these works a multitude of cyclopædias have been published, intended to impart information in special branches of knowledge, as London's “Encyclopædia of Gardening” (London, 1822; various editions till 1850), and of “Agriculture, Gardening, Architecture, Plants, Trees,” &c. (London, 1825); Todd's “Cyclopædia of Anatomy and Physiology” (5 vols., London, 1836-'56; new ed., 6 vols., 1859); Nichol's “Cyclopædia of the Physical Sciences;” Chambers's “Cyclopædia of English Literature” (latest eds., 2 vols. 8vo, London and Philadelphia, 1872); Duyckinck's “Cyclopædia of American Literature ” (2 vols. 8vo, New York, 1855; 2d ed., 1866); Homans's “Cyclopædia of Commerce” (New York, 1858); Allibone's “Critical Dictionary of English Literature” (3 vols. large 8vo, Philadelphia, 1858-'71); Ure's “Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines” (3 vols., London, last ed., 1867); Watts's “Dictionary of Chemistry” (5 vols., London, 1870; supplement, 1872); Woodward and Cates's “Encyclopædia of Chronology” (1 vol., London, 1872); and many others. — On the continent, as well as in England, the “Cyclopædia” of Ephraim Chambers gave an impulse to the desire for such publications. A second edition of the French translation having been proposed, it was resolved, upon the suggestion of the abbé Gua de Malves, to divide the manuscript among several literati, in order to elaborate the respective articles, that they might be combined into a cyclopædia at once more original and more comprehensive than the English model. The abbé having disagreed with the bookseller in the outset, Diderot and D'Alembert became the principal managers. Thus originated the great French Encyclopédie, which, at first intended to consist of 10, was enlarged to 28 folio volumes. Its title is Encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, par une société de gens de lettres, mis en ordre et publié par M. Diderot, et quant à la partie mathématique par M. d'Alembert. The first 7 vols. appeared in Paris (1751-'7); the remaining 10 vols. of text were published, according to the title page, at Neufchâtel (1765); and there were 11 additional vols. of plates. A supplement of 4 vols., with 1 additional vol. of plates, was issued at Amsterdam (1776-'7). A Table analytique et raisonnée des matières was added in 2 vols. (1780). The work, though several times interrupted by the government, was everywhere received with enthusiasm, and gave to the editors and principal collaborators a place in European history, and in the history of philosophy, under the name of the “Encyclopædists.” Around Diderot and D'Alembert were grouped Voltaire, Rousseau, Turgot, Helvétius, Duclos, Condillac, Mably, Buffon, La Harpe, Marmontel, Raynal, Morellet, Grimm, Saint-Lambert, and many others. Four new editions were rapidly issued, at Leghorn (33 vols., 1770), at Lucca (28 vols., 1771), at Geneva (39 vols., incorporating the supplements, 1777), and at Lausanne and Bern (36 vols., 1778). It was the basis also of the cyclopædia of Felice (48 vols., with 10 additional vols. of plates, Yverdun, 1770-'80), among the collaborators of which were Euler, Lalande, and Haller. The Discours préliminaire, which is ranked among the chefs d'œuvre of the age, was written by D'Alembert. Its style is severe and simple, adhering closely to the language proper to philosophy, yet rendering clear and palpable the most abstract ideas. The work itself exerted an immense influence in hastening the greatest political revolution of modern times. It was designed at once to reveal to the human mind the extent of its power by unfolding the picture of its riches, and to emancipate human thought by treating freely every science and doctrine; and it was conceived in a spirit indifferent, if not antagonistic, to the institutions, usages, and faith of the time. It is the most complete expression of the philosophical, critical, irreligious, and reformatory tendencies of the 18th century. Its generally polished and correct style, and its blending of philosophy, elegance, and gayety, made it fashionable in courtly society, and contributed much to its authority and influence. To counteract the disorganizing tendencies of the Encyclopédie, and to apply a more methodical system, was the design of the Encyclopédie méthodique, the most elaborate work of the kind extant in France, published by Panckoucke and Agasse (201 vols., including 47 vols. of plates, Paris, 1781-1832). Its method consists in assigning to each science a special alphabetical dictionary, and the whole work is therefore a collection of 48 distinct cyclopædias or dictionaries of science, literature, and art, with dissertations interspersed throughout. Among the editors were Quatremère de Quincy for architecture, Bergier for theology, Mongez for antiquities, Ginguené for music, Lamarck for natural history, and Vicq d'Azyr, Cassini, Latreille, Tessier, Naigeon, Condorcet, and Lacretelle for other departments. A Spanish translation of it (vols. i.-xi., Madrid, 1780-1806) was commenced, but not completed. The following are the most important of recent French encyclopædias: 1. Encyclopédie moderne: Dictionnaire abrégé des sciences, des lettres, des arts, de l'industrie, de l'agriculture et du commerce, conducted by Courtin (24 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1823-'32; 2d ed., 1843; new ed., with additions, 27 vols., with 3 of plates and 12 of supplement, 1844-'63). 2. Dictionnaire de la conversation et de la lecture, directed by W. Duckett (52 vols., Paris, 1835-'9; 2d ed., revised and enlarged, 16 vols. large 8vo, 1852-'8; supplement, 1864 et seq.). This cyclopædia is very unequally executed, but many of its articles are unusually complete and entertaining. 3. Encyclopédie des gens du monde: Répertoire universel des sciences, des lettres et des arts, par une société de savants, de littérateurs et d'artistes (44 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1833-'44). 4. Encyclopédie du XIXe siècle, a Roman Catholic work, published by Ange de Saint-Priest (28 vols., Paris, 1839-'52). 5. Encyclopédie catholique: Répertoire universel et raisonné des sciences, des lettres, des arts et des métiers, avec la biographie des hommes célèbres, directed by the abbé Glaire and Viscount Walsh (18 vols. 4to, Paris, 1840-'48; supplement, 1859 et seq.). 6. Encyclopédie nouvelle, ou dictionnaire philosophique, scientifique, littéraire et industriel, edited by P. Leroux and J. Reynaud (8 vols., Paris, 1834 et seq.). This unfinished work contains many remarkable articles, and is less a dictionary of general knowledge than a series of dissertations. Its editors were distinguished philosophers of the St. Simonian school; the collaborators were few, and the elaborate articles present throughout a unity of view and doctrine. 7. Dictionnaire des sciences philosophiques, par une société de professeurs de philosophie, directed by A. Franck (5 vols., Paris, 1844-'52). 8. Dictionnaire général de biographie, d'histoire, de géeographie, des antiquités et des institutions, &c., by Dezobry and Bachelet (2 thick 8vo vols., Paris, 1857). 9. Dictionnaire universel des sciences, des lettres et des arts, by Bouillet (1 vol. 8vo, Paris, 9th ed., 1870). 10. Dictionnaire universel d'histoire et de géographie, by Bouillet (1 vol. 8vo, Paris, 22d ed., 1871). 11. Dictionnaire universel du XIXe siècle, by Pierre Larousse (8 vols. 4to, to the letter G, Paris, 1867-'73). — Among the early German cyclopædias, the most celebrated is the Oekonomisch-technologische Encyklopädie, commenced at Berlin in 1773 by Krünitz, and continued successively by F. J. Flörke, H. G. Flörke, Korth, and C. D. Hoffmann; of which upward of 200 vols. 4to have appeared. Though originally limited to economy and technology, it has become almost a general cyclopædia. A new, unchanged edition of the first 97 volumes appeared at Berlin (1782-1814), and another edition (32 vols., Berlin, 1785-1812) includes 116 volumes of the original work. The Deutsche Encyklopädie, begun at Frankfort by Köster (1778), and continued by Roos to the 23d volume, as far as the letter K (1804), remains unfinished. It excludes biography, geography, history, and ancient literature. The Allgemeines Lexikon der Künste und Wissenschaften, by J. T. Jablonski, appeared in Leipsic (1721; new ed. at Königsberg, 2 vols., 1748-'67). Theology, history, and geography were excluded from it. Hegel's Encyclopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften (Heidelberg, 1817; 3d ed., 1830), though bearing this general title, is in reality only an exposition of his system of philosophy. The Grosses vollständiges Universal-Lexikon aller Wissenchaften und Künste, edited successively by Ludewig, Frankenstein, Longolius, and others, and commonly called Zedler's Lexicon, after the publisher (64 vols., Halle and Leipsic, 1732-'52; 4 supplementary vols. added, 1751-'4), is still useful on account of the citations, and of its carefully prepared genealogical articles. The most comprehensive German work of this character is the celebrated Allgemeine Encyklopädie der Wissenschaften und Künste of J. S. Ersch and J. G. Gruber, late professors at Halle (Leipsic, 1818 et seq.; not yet concluded). In 1831 the undertaking passed from the hands of Enoch Richter, who began it, to the Brockhaus firm, its present publishers. The work is divided into three sections, the first including A-G, the second H-N, and the third the remaining letters of the alphabet. The sections are prosecuted contemporaneously, the first since the death of Ersch being edited by Gruber and M. H. E. Meier; the second, by A. G. Hoffmann in Jena; and the third, by M. H. E. Meier in Halle. About 150 large 4to volumes have (1874) been issued. This cyclopædia is esteemed the most learned and thorough that has appeared in any literature. Biographies of the living are excluded from it. A new epoch in the literature of cyclopædias began with the publication of the Conversations-Lexikon (6 vols., Leipsic and Amsterdam, 1796-1810), a work of unequalled popularity, which has passed through 11 successive editions at home, and been translated into numerous languages abroad. The idea of the work originated with Dr. Löbel; it was, however, completed under the inspection of F. A. Brockhaus, who conducted the second edition (10 vols., 1812-'19). It was originally designed for persons who desired to take part in the conversation of well informed circles; but this distinctive feature has been to a certain degree changed by numerous improvements in successive editions, so that its present title, Allgemeine deutsche Real-Encyclopädie für die gebildeten Stände (Conversations-Lexikon), conveys a clearer idea of its general character. The 11th edition was published at Leipsic (15 vols., 1864-'8), and a supplement in 2 vols. was added in 1872-'3. Several important cyclopædic works have been issued by Brockhaus, in connection with the Conversations-Lexikon, as the Conversations-Lexicon der neuesten Zeit und Literatur (4 vols., Leipsic, 1832-'4); the Conversations-Lexikon der Gegenwart (4 vols., 1838-'41); the Gegenwart, a periodical, in which the alphabetical order was abandoned, but which consisted of essays giving a cyclopædic exhibition of the present time (12 vols., 1848-'56); and Unsere Zeit, a similar monthly, now in progress (1857 et seq.). The Universal-Lexicon der Vergangenheit und Gegenwart of Pierer (26 vols., Altenburg, 1824-'36; 6 supplementary vols., 1840-'47; 2d ed., 34 vols., 1840-'46; 3d ed., 17 vols., 1849-'52; supplement of 6 vols. added, 1851-'4, and of 2 vols., 1855; 5th ed., 19 vols., 1869-'72) is admirable on account of its universality and the brevity and completeness of its statements. The other principal German cyclopædias are: Encyklopädisches Sachwörterbuch (21 vols., Zeitz, 1792-1806; 2d ed., 3 vols., 1822-'3), which excludes biographies and natural history; the Conversations-Lexicon für alle Stände (8 vols., Leipsic and Halberstadt, 1823-'8), often called from its publishers the “Brüggemann Cyclopædia;” the Damen-Conversations-Lexikon (10 vols., Leipsic, 1834-'8; 2d unchanged ed., Adorf, 1846); Meyer's Conversations-Lexikon (50 vols. 12mo, Hildburghausen, 1839-'55), which is more comprehensive than any other conversations-lexicon; a new Conversations-Lexikon by Meyer (Hildburghausen, 1856 et seq.; abridged ed., under the title of Meyers Hand-Lexikon, 1870-'72); the Conversations-Lexikon für alle Stände, published by Wigand (15 vols., Leipsic, 1846-'52); and the Allgemeine Real-Encyklopädie, oder Conversations-Lexikon für das Katholische Deutschland, by W. Binder and others (12 vols., Ratisbon, 1846-'51). — The most important Italian cyclopædias are the Nuovo dizionario scientiftco e curioso sacro-profano, by Pivati (12 vols. folio, 1746-'51), and the Enciclopedia italiana (Venice, 1854 et seq.). Cyclopædias exist also in most other European languages, as, in Danish, the Almeennyttigt Dansk Konversations-Lexikon, by P. Larsen (Copenhagen, 1849 et seq.); in Swedish, the Svenskt Konversations-Lexikon (Stockholm, 1845 et seq.); in Polish, the Encyklopedja powszechna (28 vols., Warsaw, 1860-'68); and in Spanish, the Pan-Lexicon, by Juan Peñalver (Madrid, 1842), the Biblioteca universal de instruccion (Barcelona, 1842 et seq.), and the Enciclopedia española del siglo XIX. (Madrid, 1842 et seq.). — The oriental nations have general and special, systematic and alphabetic cyclopædias. The most complete is in Arabic, systematically arranged, and entitled Miftah es-seadet vemishbah et-tziyadet fi mevtzuat alulum (“The Key of Happiness and the Guiding Beacon in the Objects of the Sciences”), by Mola Ahmed ben Mustapha, commonly called Tash Köpri-Sade. It was translated into Turkish by the son of the author, Kemal ed-Din Mohammed (died about 1623). It divides the sciences into seven classes, rhetoric, eloquence, dialectics, theoretical philosophy, practical philosophy, theoretical positive science, and practical positive science. Tash Köpri-Sade reckoned in all 307 sciences, which his son extended in the Turkish version to 500. A general alphabetically arranged cyclopædia was prepared by Hadji Khalfa (died in 1658). This voluminous writer on the bibliography, geography, and history of the Moslems collected many separate and rare treatises into one body under the title of Keshf at-thanun en esma il-kutub velfunun (“The Knowledge of Books and Sciences”). In his introduction he treated of the nature, object, and classification of the sciences; of the history and literature of the sciences in oriental countries; of several special questions concerning the history of learning; and of the Arabic language and literature. The whole of this introduction is translated in Von Hammer's Encyklopädische Uebersicht der Wissenschaften des Orients (Leipsic, 1804). These two immense collections were preceded by several cyclopædias more or less complete. The first who among the Arabians made a cyclopædic scheme of the sciences was the celebrated physician known to Europeans as Avicenna (died about 1037). Of his treatise on the nature of the sciences and the method of teaching we are able to judge only from the high commendations of Tash Köpri-Sade, the greatest oriental cyclopædist, who acknowledges obligations to no other of his predecessors. . The oldest proper cyclopædia among the Arabians was the Hadaiko'l-envar fi hakaik il-esrar (“Garden Flowers, or True Mysteries”), by Takhi ed-Din Mohammed ben Omar er-Rasi (died A. D. 1209), which embraces 60 sciences. About a century later appeared the cyclopædia Miftah olulum (“Key of Sciences”), by Serad-shed-din es-Sakaki (died about 1280). This work enjoyed an unrivalled reputation for a century and a half, and more than 100 commentaries were written on it, and even a larger number of epitomes were made. Among the latter was an excellent elaboration of the rhetorical division by Shems ed-Din Mohammed, celebrated as the “preacher of Damascus” (died about 1338). Under Mohammed II., the conqueror of Constantinople, several cyclopædias of large compass were produced. One of these was a learned work on 14 sciences, by an Egyptian named Jelal ed-Din Abderrahman Essoyuti, parts of which were reduced to verse by several scholars. A great cyclopædia in Persian is the Nefais olfunum fi arais il-uyun (“Treasures of Knowledge to adorn the Eyes”), which embraces 120 sciences. It is in two parts, the first treating of the pre-Islamitic sciences in five books, the second of the Islamitic sciences in nine books. The Elfevaid elkhakanie el-Ahmed khanie (“Useful Results,” &c.), by Mohammed Emin ben Sadr esh-Shirvani, is a famous cyclopædia, prepared for the sultan Ahmed I. It treats of 53 sciences in five parts, which, like the parts of an army, are entitled “The Van” (sciences and their order), “The Right Wing” (philological sciences), “The Left Wing” (philosophical sciences), “The Rear” (the ethics of monarchs), and “The Centre” (the sciences of law). The Chinese and Japanese also have great cyclopædias. Almost the whole contemporary learning is contained in the Ku kin ssé wen lui tsiu (“Ancient-Modern four Collections”), by Chu-ho-fu (1246). The Yung lŏ ta teēn, a great cyclopædia compiled by nearly 2,200 writers, was finished about 1407 in 22,877 volumes. Similar Chinese works in the 17th century attained immense magnitude. The San tsai tu, in 130 volumes, treating of the three great powers, heaven, earth, and man, was published in Japanese near the beginning of the present century, and there is a copy of it, both in Japanese and Chinese, in the royal library of Paris.