The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Girard, Philippe de

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GIRARD, Philippe de, a French inventor, born near Avignon, Feb. 1, 1775, died in Paris, Aug. 26, 1845. In 1806 he exhibited an improvement in lamps, and in the same year made some improvement in the steam engine, producing a rotary motion without a walking beam. His principal invention was a machine for flax spinning, to which subsequently he applied steam, and for which he received the emperor's medal in 1810, and another medal from the national exposition of industry in 1844. He invented several other machines, and for many years was interested in extensive manufactories of linen in Poland and in Austria, as well as in France.