The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Kaufmann, Constantin Petrovitch
KAUFMANN, Constantin Petrovitch, a Russian general, born in the Baltic provinces about 1817. He is of humble origin, but early acquired distinction as a military engineer, and served for some time as chief of staff in the Caucasus. At a later period he held a post in the ministry of war, and coöperated in the thorough reform of the army. In 1864 he was appointed governor general of the military division of Wilna, including Lithuania, Livonia, and Courland; and in 1867 of the newly established division of Turkistan, which post he continued to hold in 1874 with the rank of lieutenant general. The progress of Russia in central Asia is mainly due to his efforts. In 1873 he conducted the successful campaign in Khiva, which virtually placed that territory under Russian control by the treaty of peace which he signed with the khan on Aug. 25.