The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Kentucky

KENTUCKY, an interior state of the American Union, and the second admitted under the federal constitution, between lat. 86° 30' and 39° 6' N., and lon. 82° 2' and 89° 40' W. It is bounded N. W. and N. by the Ohio river, which separates it from Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; E. by West Virginia and Virginia, from which it is separated by the Big Sandy river and the Cumberland mountains; S. by Tennessee, along a conventional line mostly on the parallel of 36° 35' N.; and W. by the Mississippi, separating it from Missouri; greatest length E. and W. 350 m., greatest breadth 178 m.; area, 37,680 sq. m., being 1.28 per cent. of the whole surface of the United States (excluding Alaska).

State Seal of Kentucky.

The state is divided into 116 counties, viz.: Adair, Allen, Anderson, Ballard, Barren, Bath, Bell, Boone, Bourbon, Boyd, Boyle, Bracken, Breathitt, Breckenridge, Bullitt, Butler, Caldwell, Calloway, Campbell, Carroll, Carter, Casey, Christian, Clarke, Clay, Clinton, Crittenden, Cumberland, Daviess, Edmonson, Elliott, Estill, Fayette, Fleming, Floyd, Franklin, Fulton, Gallatin, Garrard, Grant, Graves, Grayson, Green, Greenup, Hancock, Hardin, Harlan, Harrison, Hart, Henderson, Henry, Hickman, Hopkins, Jackson, Jefferson, Jessamine, Johnson, Kenton, Knox, Laurel, La Rue, Lawrence, Lee, Letcher, Lewis, Lincoln, Livingston, Logan, Lyon, McCracken, McLean, Madison, Magoffin, Marion, Marshall, Martin, Mason, Meade, Menifee, Mercer, Metcalfe, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Muhlenburg, Nelson, Nicholas, Ohio, Oldham, Owen, Owsley, Pendleton, Perry, Pike, Powell, Pulaski, Robertson, Rock Castle, Rowan, Russell, Scott, Shelby, Simpson, Spencer, Taylor, Todd, Trigg, Trimble, Union, Warren, Washington, Wayne, Webster, Whitley, Wolf, and Woodford. Louisville (pop. in 1870, 100,753) is the largest city and the commercial emporium of the state; Frankfort (5,396) is the capital; Lexington (14,801) is the most important inland city. Maysville (4,705), Covington (24,505) and Newport (15,087), on opposite sides of the mouth of Licking river, and facing Cincinnati, Ohio, Henderson (4,171), and Paducah (6,866) are the most important cities on the Ohio river, all of which are the termini of railroads from the interior. The other cities of the state, according to the census of 1870, are Franklin, with 1,808 inhabitants; Hopkinsville, 3,136; Owensboro, 3,437; and Paris, 2,655. Harrodsbnrg and Boonesborough are the oldest towns.—The population of the state at decennial periods has been as follows:

 U. S. CENSUS. White. Freecolored. Slave. Total. Rank. 1790 61,133 114 11,830 73,077 14 1800 179,871 741 40,343 220,595 9 1810 324,237 1,713 80,561 406,511 7 1820 434,644 2,941 126,732 564,317 6 1830 517,787 4,917 165,213 687,917 6 1840 590,253 7,317 182,258 779,828 6 1850 761,413 10,011 210,981 982,405 8 1860 919,484 10,684 225,483 1,155,684 9 1870 1,098,692 222,210 ...... 1,321,011 8

Of the total population in 1870, 665,675 were males and 655,336 females; 1,257,613 were native and 63,398 foreign-born. Of the colored, 177,499 were blacks and 44,711 mulattoes, and there were 108 Indians. Of the natives, 875,415 whites, 205,583 colored, and 83 Indians were born in the state, 12,877 in North Carolina, 19,533 in Ohio, 49,952 in Tennessee, and 44,102 in Virginia and West Virginia. The foreign-born comprised 30,318 born in Germany, 21,642 in Ireland, 4,173 in England, 2,052 in France, 1,147 in Switzerland, and 1,019 in Scotland. The density of population was 35.33 to a square mile. There were 232,797 families, with an average of 5.67 persons to each, and 224,969 dwellings, each containing an average of 5.87 persons. The increase in the aggregate population from 1860 to 1870 was 14.30 per cent., while there was a loss of 5.91 per cent. in the colored population. The number of male citizens 21 years old and upward was 282,305. There were 249,567 persons 10 years old and upward who were unable to read, and 332,176 could not write. Of the 201,077 white illiterates, 57,766 were from 10 to 15 years of age, 36,760 were from 15 to 21, and 106,551 were 21 years old and over, of whom 43,826 were males and 62,725 were females. There were 131,050 colored illiterates, of whom 24,958 were from 10 to 15 years old, 24,926 were from 15 to 21, and 81,166 were 21 and over, of whom 37,889 were males and 43,277 females. There were also 49 Indian illiterates. Among male adults the percentage of illiterates to the total number was 28.23; among female adults, 37.08. The number of paupers supported during the year ending June 30, 1870, was 2,059, at a cost of $160,717. Of the total number (1,784) receiving support June 1, 1870, 1,080 were white and 704 colored. The number of persons convicted of crime during the year was 603. Of the total number (1,067) in prison June 1, 1870, 624 were white and 443 colored. The state contained 978 blind, 723 deaf and dumb, 1,245 insane, and 1,141 idiotic. Of the total population 10 years of age and over (930,136), there were engaged in all occupations 414,593; in agriculture, 261,080, of whom 127,911 were agricultural laborers, and 131,598 farmers and planters; in professional and personal services, 84,024, including 1,080 clergymen, 41,368 domestic servants, 24,981 laborers not specified, 1,552 lawyers, 2,414 physicians and surgeons, 2,961 teachers not specified; in trade and transportation, 25,292; and in manufactures and mechanical and mining industries, 44,197. The total number of deaths from all causes in 1870 was 14,345; there were 2,500 deaths from consumption, the number of deaths from all causes to one from consumption being 5.7; the deaths from pneumonia numbered 1,514, there being 11.7 deaths from all causes to one from that disease; 334 deaths resulted from intermittent and remittent fever, 661 from enteric fever, and 880 from diarrhoea, dysentery, and enteritis.—The western part of Kentucky is nearly level, the broad plains being varied by gentle undulations. The southeast is broken by the Cumberland mountains and their offshoots. Narrow, deep, and gloomy valleys intervene between the ridges. None of the summits attain a greater altitude than 3,000 ft., and their mean elevation does not exceed 2,000 ft. The whole of this region is well wooded, especially the foot hills and valleys. N. and W. of the hilly region lies what may be called an upland, which extends from the Big Sandy river to lon. 86° W., and comprehends more than half the whole area of the state. Its surface is gently undulating, but it is intersected by numerous narrow and deep valleys in which the rivers run. Though this upland is sparingly provided with spring water, its soil is of the first quality and equal to any in the Union. It is included in the tract of blue limestone which extends from the Ohio river, between a point about 40 m. above Louisville and the eastern limits of Mason co., about 10 m. above Maysville, southwardly to the Cumberland river, and is known as the “blue grass region.” The W. portion of the state is divided between the “barrens” and a country which is partially hilly. The barrens, which occupy chiefly the tract between the Green and Cumberland rivers, in their natural state are generally destitute of trees, resembling in this respect the prairies N. of the Ohio river; but the level surface is diversified by low round-topped hills, called “oak knobs” on account of the trees which cover them. This tract was formerly considered the least fertile portion of the state, but the value of its red calcareous soils has greatly increased. The alluvial bottoms between these hills and the Ohio and its affluents are exceedingly rich. On the north and west the barrens are margined by a more broken and hilly country, which gradually passes to the low flats which skirt the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. This tract is superior in fertility to the barrens, but cannot be compared with the upland country.—Kentucky is amply provided with noble streams. The Mississippi forms its W. limit for 80 m. Along the N. W. and N. boundary runs the Ohio in a winding course for nearly 600 m., navigable throughout, and affording with its chief affluents water communication to all parts of the state. The Mississippi receives from Kentucky only a few inconsiderable tributaries. Of the streams which flow into the Ohio, the most eastern is the Big Sandy, which has its sources in Virginia and West Virginia; where it approaches Kentucky it turns nearly due N., and continues in that direction to its outlet, forming the boundary between Kentucky and West Virginia; it is navigable only for a short distance, owing to falls which occur where it issues from the mountain region. The Licking rises in Floyd co., flows with many windings in a N. W. direction for more than 200 m., and falls into the Ohio between Covington and Newport, opposite Cincinnati; in winter and spring it is navigable for about 70 m. The different branches of the Kentucky river rise in the Cumberland mountains, and form by their union a considerable stream, which flows first N. W., then S. W., and at last N. N. W.; its course is about 260 m., and though very rapid it may be navigated by steamboats 80 m. to a point 20 m. above Frankfort, and by small boats for 100 m. higher. Green river rises in the W. districts of the upland region, and flows W. for a great part of its course, to its junction with its chief affluent, the Big Barren, where it turns N. W. and finally N., joining the Ohio about 50 m. above the Cumberland; its length is about 300 m., and it is navigable for steamboats to Greensburg, 200 m., and for boats nearly to the heads of the stream. Navigation was obstructed by falls about 50 m. above its mouth, but a lock and dam at that point has obviated the difficulty. Cumberland river rises in the valley between the Cumberland and Laurel mountains; it traverses both the mountain and the upland regions, generally in a westerly direction, but on approaching the barrens it turns S. and enters Tennessee, where it makes a large bend and then reënters Kentucky with a N. W. course, and so continues to the Ohio, which it enters about 10 m. above the mouth of the Tennessee; it is nearly 600 m. long, and as its current is comparatively gentle it offers an easy navigation for sloops and steamboats as far up as Nashville, Tenn., 200 m. from its mouth, and at high water to Burkesville, Ky.; for boats of 15 tons it is navigable for 300 m., and for river boats much higher. The Tennessee flows only about 70 m. through Kentucky; it admits steamboats to Florence, Ala., 300 m. from its mouth.—Kentucky lies wholly in the great region of stratified rocks of the west. These traverse the state in layers so nearly horizontal, that often over broad districts no dip is perceptible to the eye. Through the central portion of the state, from N. to S., the Silurian groups, which are here almost exclusively calcareous, thus overspread the surface for nearly 100 m. in width, and form the great central axis of the lowest rocks. At Louisville they disappear by reason of their very gentle westward dip, and pass beneath the limestones of the Devonian age, which here lie exposed in horizontal strata, forming the bed of the river and the reefs which occasion the falls at this place. They are succeeded by the carboniferous limestone; and still further W. the coal measures, commencing at Rome on the Ohio river, are traced almost to the mouth of this river. This is the southern end of the coal field of Illinois and Indiana, which extends S. nearly across the western portion of Kentucky. (See Coal.) In this portion occurs the Breckenridge coal, formerly extensively used in the manufacture of kerosene. To the east, about 100 m. from Louisville, the same repetition of the formations is encountered, as the Silurian rocks dip E. on this side of the axis; and the coal measures which occupy the whole eastern portion of the state are a part of the great Appalachian coal field which overspreads western Virginia and Pennsylvania. The limestones abound in fossil remains, and those of the falls at Louisville are especially famous for their remarkably fine coralline productions. The hydraulic limestone is found here, and largely used in the manufacture of cements. When the river is low the rocks in its bed appear like the coral reefs produced by living zoophytes, the softer portions being worn away, so that the hard calcareous corals stand out in relief precisely as if they were living. Fine selected specimens being placed in juxtaposition with others of recent growth, none but a zoölogist would be able to guess which were ancient and which modern. These limestones also abound in caves, some of which are among the most remarkable of these curiosities. Upon their walls are found incrustations of saltpetre, which in some instances have been profitably collected. The Mammoth cave, near Green river, in Edmonson co., is the largest in the world. It has been explored through winding passages more than 10 m. (See Mammoth Cave.) In some of the superficial depressions of the limestone are found the low swamps known as “licks,” frequented by deer and elk, and in ancient times by the buffalo, and in a still more distant epoch by the extinct species of elephant, horse, mastodon, megalonyx, &c., whose bones are occasionally found near the saline springs of these quagmires. One of the most remarkable of these localities is the Big Bone lick, 23 m. S. W. of Cincinnati. Lead ores have been worked to a small extent heretofore, but considerable efforts are now in progress for their development. Salt springs occur in many places among the sandstone rocks, and sulphur, saline, and chalybeate springs are numerous. On Goose creek in Clay co., and in Meade co., salt is largely manufactured from brine procured by boring. The “hanging rock” iron region comprises a portion of N. E. Kentucky and of S. Ohio; it is about 15 m. wide, and extends about 30 m. from the Ohio river into Kentucky, and about 50 m. N. into Ohio. The ores of this region are mostly brown hematite; they lie in strata which dip to the east with a slight deviation to the south. There are two clearly defined strata, the lower being from 10 to 30 in. thick and yielding block ore. Above this, at distances varying from 30 to 75 ft., lies the stratum known as the limestone ore, which is from 12 to 50 in. thick. These ores contain from 40 to 65 per cent. of iron, which is found to be remarkably well adapted for the manufacture of car wheels. Numerous iron furnaces are in operation in this region. Besides iron ores, large deposits of superior coal, fire clay, moulding sand, limestone, building stone of superior quality, potter's clay, and sand suitable for making glass are found. Extensive deposits of hydrated oxides of iron exist in the S. W. counties, bordering on the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers; and different ores of iron are found all through the coal fields and in the slate and subcarboniferous limestone regions.—The blue limestone region, which was originally covered with forests of large trees and a dense undergrowth of reeds, contains the richest soil in the state, and that part of it between the Ohio and the vicinity of Lexington is commonly called the “garden of Kentucky.” The barrens are thinly wooded with trees which have grown up almost wholly since the settlement of the state, but produce good pasturage, so that the average fertility of Kentucky may be considered equal to that of any other state in the Union. The climate is remarkably pleasant, but variable. The mean annual temperature is about 55° F.; in winter the thermometer frequently falls to 20° or 15°, and occasionally below zero, and in summer rises to 94° or 100°. Winter sometimes continues from late November to early April, but snow seldom lies long on the ground, and cattle and sheep are abroad throughout the coldest seasons. In spring and summer S. W. winds prevail, and the weather is delightful. The N. W. wind produces the greatest winter cold. Rain falls abundantly in winter and spring, but is sometimes scanty in summer and autumn, the weather in those seasons being characteristically dry and constant.—There are still extensive forests in Kentucky. In the mountain and upland region are found chiefly tulip trees, elm, oak, ash, hickory, walnut, cherry, &c.; those of the barrens are chiefly oaks, chestnuts, and elms. Among the most useful trees are the sugar maple, black and honey locust, wild cherry, and the several varieties of oak and walnut, which in the early settlement of the state furnished household staples of great value. The principal fruit trees are the apple and peach. Besides being a great grain-growing state, Kentucky produces more than half of the hemp grown in the Union, and four sevenths of the flax. In the S. W. districts, along the Tennessee, Cumberland, and Mississippi rivers, some cotton is raised; and the tobacco grown in these regions and in the rich soil further E. supplies a valuable material to the commerce of the state. As an agricultural state Kentucky holds a very high rank. Of the total production of hemp (12,746 tons) in the United States in 1870, as reported by the federal census, 7,777 tons were contributed by Kentucky; while of the entire yield of tobacco in the United States (262,735,341 lbs.) 105,305,869 lbs. were the product of this state. In the same year only five states produced more Indian corn, four more rye, two more honey, and three more wax, and only three contained more swine. According to the census of 1870, there were in the state 118,422 farms; of these, 38,939 contained between 20 and 50 acres, 29,731 between 50 and 100, 25,490 between 100 and 500, 616 between 500 and 1,000, and 164 contained 1,000 acres and over. The average size of farms was 158 acres. The total amount of land in farms was 18,660,106 acres, of which 8,103,850 were improved and 10,556,256 unimproved, 9,134,658 acres of the latter being woodland; the percentage of unimproved to total land in farms was 56.6. The cash value of farms was$311,238,916; farming implements and machinery, $8,572,896; total amount of wages paid during the year, including value of hoard,$10,709,382; total (estimated) value of all farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock, $87,477,374; of orchard products,$1,231,385; of produce of market gardens, $527,329; of forest products,$574,994; of home manufactures, $1,683,972; of all animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter,$24,121,861; of all live stock, $66,287,343. The chief agricultural productions were 38,532 bushels of spring and 5,690,172 of winter wheat, 1,108,933 of rye, 50,091,006 of Indian corn, 6,620,103 of oats, 238,486 of barley, 3,443 of buckwheat, 119,926 of peas and beans, 2,391,062 of Irish and 802,114 of sweet potatoes, 2,551 of clover and 35,896 of grass seed, 14,657 of flaxseed, 204,399 tons of hay, and 7,777 of hemp, 1,080 bales of cotton, 105,305,869 lbs. of tobacco, 2,234,450 of wool, 237,268 of flax, 11,874,978 of butter, 115,219 of cheese, 1,345,779 gallons of milk sold, 49,073 of maple and 1,740,453 of sorghum molasses, 62,360 of wine, 269,416 lbs. of maple sugar, 1,171,500 of honey, and 32,557 of wax. There were on farms 317,034 horses, 99,230 mules and asses, 247,615 milch cows, 69,719 working oxen, 382,993 other cattle, 936,765 sheep, and 1,838,227 swine. In 1870 16 states ranked higher than Kentucky in the total value of manufactured products. In distilled liquors, the state ranked first in the number of establishments, second in the amount of capital invested, and fourth in the value of products, as appears from the following statement:  STATES. No. of establishments. Capital. Products. Kentucky 141$2,670,700 $4,682,730 Illinois 45 2,513,000 7,883,751 Ohio 63 2,829,700 7,022,656 Pennsylvania 108 2,504,857 4,618,228 The manufacture of distilled liquors is almost wholly confined to whiskey, the amount of highwines made being very small. The total number of manufacturing establishments reported by the census was 5,390, using 1,147 steam engines of 31,928 horse power, and 459 water wheels of 7,640 horse power, and employing 30,636 hands, mostly male adults. The total amount of capital employed was$29,277,809; wages paid during the year, $9,444,524; materials consumed,$29,497,535; products, $54,625,809. The chief industries are shown by the following table:  INDUSTRIES. No. of establishments. Steam engines, horsepower. Hands employed. Capital. Wagespaid. Value of materials. Value ofproducts. Agricultural implements 44 270 624$633,025 $287,590$673,176 $1,384,917 Bagging 11 130 1,228 756,000 301,240 1,077,300 1,752,120 Blacksmithing 1,002 28 1,970 465,735 248,821 443,200 1,364,070 Boots and shoes 420 .... 1,150 450,271 310,258 430,944 1,144,684 Carpentering and building 848 36 1,086 209,690 319,113 841,760 1,602,756 Carriages and wagons 325 22 1,250 577,405 439,076 440,170 1,339,909 Clothing (men's) 133 .... 801 462,132 227,998 568,758 1,068,258 Flouring and grist mill products 696 9,019 1,686 2,660,968 325,247 6,429,284 7,886,734 Furniture 90 346 967 750,355 412,872 545,472 1,463,971 Glass ware 3 19 436 370,000 233,631 150,350 447,000 Iron blooms 1 30 50 100,000 37,500 53,700 94,860 Iron, forged and rolled 6 1,450 876 1,125,000 532,283 1,367,064 2,464,928 Iron bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets 2 14 27 24,000 10,750 3,338 25,560 Iron pigs 19 2,370 1,565 2,979,000 417,948 1,223,034 2,182,482 Iron castings not specified 25 572 895 1,457,431 494,985 1,350,249 2,363,473 Iron stoves, heaters, and hollow ware 7 106 493 595,000 288,000 370,500 358,770 Leather, tanned 100 237 293 566,424 76,968 741,192 1,009,906 Leather, curried 82 40 155 157,916 41,848 556,305 683,668 Liquors, distilled 141 2,636 1,033 2,670,700 257,732 1,352,096 4,532,730 Liquors, malt 35 222 193 584,900 102,639 365,612 689,359 Lumber, planed 17 587 259 288,525 125,474 314,139 583,673 Lumber, sawed 562 9,443 2,497 1,724,686 482,683 1,805,591 3,662,086 Saddlery and harness 212 16 635 463,348 193,855 463,619 1,013,852 Tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware 127 88 531 550,710 275,081 465,740 1,051,026 Tobacco, chewing, smoking, and snuffing 32 174 900 662,691 212,752 826,155 1,647,669 Tobacco, cigars 70 .... 389 197,380 140,563 187,643 449,336 Wool carding and cloth dressing 89 855 198 117,347 17,023 311,009 415,401 Woollen goods 36 796 485 583,102 142,350 520,619 897,057 —Kentucky has little direct foreign commerce, but its domestic commerce is very extensive. The chief commercial places are Maysville, Covington, Louisville, Owensboro, Henderson, and Paducah, on the Ohio, Columbus on the Mississippi, and Lexington in the interior. The principal exports are hemp, flax, tobacco, horses, mules, hogs, cattle, bagging, and rope. There are two United States customs districts, of which Louisville and Paducah are the ports of entry. The total number of vessels registered, enrolled, and licensed in 1873 was 55, of 13,807 tons, at Louisville, and 15, of 2,878 tons, at Paducah. Of those at Louisville, 44 were steamers and 11 barges, while the entire number at Paducah were steamers. Boat building is carried on at both of these points; 24 boats were built in 1873, including 17 steamers at Louisville and 4 at Paducah. Internal improvements have been well attended to, and several of the large rivers have been rendered navigable for considerable distances above their natural heads of navigation; the works on the Kentucky and Green are the most important. The completion of the Louisville and Portland canal around the falls of the Ohio at Louisville enables boats 300 ft. long and 80 ft. wide to pass through nearly the whole year. As early as 1841 Kentucky had 28 m. of railway. The mileage had increased to 549 in 1861, 852 in 1869, and 1,123 in 1871. In 1873 the total number of miles of main track in the state was 1,228, and other roads were in process of construction and projected. The railways, with their termini and the number of miles in operation in 1873, were: CORPORATIONS. TERMINI. Miles in operation in the state in 1874. Miles between termini when different from preceding. Cincinnati Southern (in progress) Cincinnati and Chattanooga, Tenn. ... ... Eastern Kentucky Riverton and Grayson 23 ... Louisville, Paducah, and Southwestern Louisville and Paducah 230 ... Elizabethtown, Lexington, and Big Sandy Lexington and mouth of Big Sandy river 34 120 Kentucky Central Covington and Nicholasvilie 112 ... Louisville, Cincinnati, and Lexington Louisville and Lexington 94 ...  ⁠Branches ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ Lexington Junction to Newport 81 ... Anchorage to Shelbyville 19 ... Louisville, Nashville, and Great Southern Louisville and Nashville, Tenn. 139 185 Memphis division Memphis Junction to Memphis, Tenn 46 260  ⁠Branches ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\\\ \ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ Lebanon Junction to Livingston 110 ... Richmond Junction to Richmond 34 ... Bardstown Junction to Bardstown 17 ... Glasgow Junction to Glasgow 11 ... Marysville and Lexington Paris and Maysville 15 50 Mobile and Ohio Columbus and Mobile, Ala. 20 472 Nashville, Chattanooga, and St. Louis Hickman and Chattanooga, Tenn. 321 Owensboro and Russellville Owensboro to Tennessee state line 35 116 Paducah and Memphis Paducah and Memphis, Tenn. 50 165 St. Louis and Southeastern East St. Louis, Ill., and Nashville, Tenn. 108 316 Branch Shawneetown, Ill., to Madisonville 42 ... In 1873 there were 36 national banks in operation, with a paid-in capital of$8,263,700 and an outstanding circulation of $7,021,900. The entire bank circulation of the state was$7,637,900, being $5 78 per capita. The ratio of circulation to wealth was 1.3, and to the bank capital 84.4.—The present constitution of Kentucky was adopted in 1850. Every free male citizen 21 years of age, who has resided in the state two years, in the county one year, and in the precinct 60 days next preceding an election, is entitled to vote. The general election is fixed by law on the first Monday in August, and voting is viva voce, except in the election of representatives to congress, when it is by ballot. The legislature consists of a senate of 38 members, and a house of representatives of 100. Senators must be 30 years of age, and are chosen for four years, one half every second year. Representatives must be 24 years of age, and hold office two years. The sessions of the legislature are biennial, beginning on the first Monday of December in every odd year, and lasting not longer than 60 days unless by vote of two thirds of both houses. Members are paid$5 a day, and 15 cents a mile for travel. The governor is chosen for four years. He must be 35 years of age, a citizen of the United States, and have been resident in the state for six years. He is ineligible to the office for the four years succeeding his term. A majority vote in each house is sufficient to pass a bill over the governor's veto. The lieutenant governor, auditor, attorney general, register of land office, and superintendent of public instruction are also elected for four years. The lieutenant governor, with the same qualifications as the governor, is ex officio president of the senate. If a vacancy occurs in the office of governor during the last half of the term, the lieutenant governor, and failing him the speaker of the senate, acts as governor; but if during the first half of the term, then a new election is held. The treasurer is elected by the people every two years. The secretary of state is appointed by the governor, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, and holds office during the governor's term. The official salaries are: for the governor $5,000, secretary of state$1,500, auditor $2,500, register of land office$2,000, treasurer $2,400, and superintendent of public instruction$3,000. The secretary of state, auditor, and register of the land office also have certain fees. The pay of the lieutenant governor is $8 a day during attendance at the legislative session. The judiciary consists of the court of appeals, which has appellate jurisdiction only, circuit and county courts. The state is divided into four appellate judicial districts and 16 circuit court districts. Louisville has separate chancery and common pleas courts, and additional courts have been established in several districts. The court of appeals consists of a chief justice and three judges, a clerk, sergeant, and reporter. The judges have each$5,000 a year, and the attorney general $500 and fees. The Louisville chancery court consists of a chancellor (salary$3,000), a clerk, and a marshal (fees). The judges of circuit are paid $3,000, and attorneys$500 and fees. The judges of the Louisville courts are paid in addition $1,000 each by the city. All judges and other officers of courts are elected by the people. Judges of the court of appeals and the circuit courts must have had eight years' experience in law to be eligible to the bench. Kentucky is represented in congress by two senators and 10 representatives, and is therefore entitled to 12 votes in the electoral college. According to the federal census of 1870, the assessed value of real estate was$311,479,694, and of personal $98,064,600; total assessed value of property,$409,544,294; true value of real and personal estate, $604,318,552. The total taxation not national amounted to$5,730,118, including $2,254,413 state,$1,307,833 county, and $2,167,872 town, city, &c. The total receipts into the state treasury during the fiscal year were$2,107,149, the most important sources being: direct taxes, $1,491,775; corporations, banks, and insurance companies,$332,992; and licenses, $78,551. The total disbursements amounted to$1,824,892. The bonded debt of the state in 1872 was $966,394. In 1874 it was entirely free from debt except the amount due the school fund,$1,628,123 08, which is made by the constitution a permanent debt of which the interest only is to be paid. A direct tax of 45 cents on every $100 in value of real and personal property is annually collected for various purposes of state government, of which 20 cents goes to the school fund and the remainder to general purposes. Stock in banks and other moneyed corporations is taxed 50 cents on each share of$100. Railroads are taxed for the benefit of the state, on a valuation of $20,000 a mile, at the rate of 45 cents on every$100. The same rate of tax is also paid by toll bridge, mining, manufacturing, gaslight, street railroad, and waterworks corporations. Express, telegraph, and turnpike companies are also taxed.—The superintendent of public instruction is required to set forth in his annual report the condition of the institutions for the blind, the deaf and dumb, and the feeble-minded. The asylum for the education of the blind in Louisville, opened in 1842, is intended to afford board and tuition free of charge to the blind of the state between the ages of 7 and 17 years. Not only the totally blind, but those whose eyesight is so defective that they cannot see to read, may be received and educated at the expense of the state. Besides the ordinary branches, instruction is given in industrial pursuits. In 1873 there were 5 teachers and 59 pupils. The institution for deaf mutes in Danville, organized in 1823, is open to all persons of this class in the state, without charge for board or tuition. Pupils supported by the state are expected to remain five years. The average number of pupils in 1873 was 78, instructors 5; number of pupils received since the opening of the institution was 590, of whom 344 were males and 246 females. Provision is made by the state for the education of feeble-minded persons in the institution for this class in Frankfort, which has been in existence since 1860. It is designed for the education of imbecile children, and not as an asylum for hopeless idiots. Those unable to pay may be educated free of charge. The whole number of pupils in 1874 was 104. The state penitentiary in Frankfort, in 1874, had 650 convicts. In 1873 the legislature passed an act vesting the management of each of the charitable institutions of the state, except that for the deaf and dumb, in a board of nine commissioners, who are appointed by the governor and senate, and must be residents of the county where the institution is situated. It was also provided that the asylum for the insane at Lexington should be known as the first Kentucky lunatic asylum, that at Hopkinsville as the second Kentucky lunatic asylum, the institution for the education of feeble-minded children as the third Kentucky lunatic asylum, and the state house of reform for juvenile delinquents at Anchorage as the fourth Kentucky lunatic asylum. The two institutions first named are to be devoted to the treatment of “lunatics afflicted with acute mania,” and the other two to cases of “chronic mania or epilepsy.”—Under the new school law of 1873, the general educational interests of the state are intrusted to a board of education, comprising the superintendent of public instruction, secretary of state, and attorney general, together with two professional teachers to be elected by them. The more immediate supervision of the schools is vested in the superintendent of public instruction (who is elected by the people for four years, and receives an annual salary of $3,000), a commissioner of common schools in each county, and a trustee for each school district; only teachers who have obtained certificates are employed. The annual revenue of the common school fund comprises the interest at the rate of 6 per cent. per annum on the state school bond of$1,327,000, the dividends on 735 shares of the stock of the bank of Kentucky, the annual tax of 20 cents on each $100 in value of the property of the state, and certain fines and forfeitures. This income is distributed each year among the counties and districts according to the number of white children between the ages of 6 and 20 years. The amount available in 1873 was nearly$1,000,000. The pro rata amount to each child during the year ending Juno 30, 1874, was $1 60, and$2 20 for the preceding year. The entire income of the school fund is devoted to educating white children. The legislature of 1873-'4 passed an act establishing a system of common school education for colored children, to be under the supervision of the superintendent of public instruction and the state board of education. The funds for its support are derived chiefly from the annual revenue tax of 25 cents, and 20 cents in addition on each $100 in value of the taxable property owned or held by colored persons, which tax shall be applied to no other purpose whatever; a capitation tax of$1 on each male colored person above the age of 21 years; and all the fines, penalties, and forfeitures imposed upon and collected from colored persons due the state, except the amount thereof allowed by law to attorneys for the commonwealth. The act in effect appropriates all taxes levied on colored people or their property to the education of colored children. The total taxable property of the colored people of the state in 1873 was $3,569,040, and the number of male colored persons over 21 years of age was 45,604. The number of colored children of school age reported to the auditor in 1873 was 41,289. In 1873 the whole number of persons of school age in the state was 416,763, and the number of schools 5,381. The state teachers' association meets annually, and teachers' institutes are held at intervals during the year. According to the census of 1870, the total number of white children in the state between the ages of 5 and 18 years was 454,539, and of colored 78,720. Of the latter, only 7,702 were attending school. There were 5,149 educational institutions, public and private, with an aggregate of 6,346 teachers, of whom 3,972 were males and 2,374 females, and 245,139 pupils, of whom 125,734 were males and 119,405 females. The total income of all these institutions was$2,538,429, of which $393,015 was derived from endowment,$674,992 from taxation and public funds, and $1,470,422 from tuition and other sources. There were 4,727 public schools, with 5,351 teachers and 218,240 pupils; the income amounted to$1,150,461, of which $24,885 was from endowment,$604,905 from taxation and public funds, and $520,661 from tuition and other sources. The number of colleges was 42, having 223 teachers and 5,864 pupils; and there were 95 academies, with 286 teachers and 6,224 pupils, and 195 private schools, with 302 teachers and 7,948 pupils. Kentucky has (1874) no state normal school, but efforts have been made for the establishment of one. Normal instruction, however, is afforded by several colleges. The Kentucky university, established in 1858, embraces a college of arts, the agricultural and mechanical college, the college of the Bible, a commercial college, and a college of law. Each college is under the immediate government of its own faculty and presiding officer. The general supervision of the university is committed to the regent, who is chosen from the curators. In 1865 the agricultural and mechanical college, established by means of the congressional land grant, was made a part of the university, and the citizens of Lexington having given$100,000 for the purchase of an experimental and model farm and the erection of buildings for the agricultural college, the university was removed to that city. The tract of land occupied by the agricultural college contains 433 acres, and embraces Ashland, once the home of Henry Clay. The endowment and real estate of the university amount to about $800,000. Students are employed in industrial pursuits at a good rate of compensation. The Kentucky military institute in Frankfort, organized in 1846, is under the direction of a board of visitors appointed by the governor. Among the most prominent educational institutions are Berea college, at Berea, at which students are received without regard to sex or color; Bethel college (Baptist), at Russellville; Cecilian college (Roman Catholic), at Elizabethtown; Centre college (Presbyterian), at Danville; Eminence college, at Eminence, open to both sexes; Georgetown college (Baptist), at Georgetown; and St. Mary's college (Roman Catholic), at St. Mary's Station. The leading institutions for the education of women are Daughters' college (Christian), at Harrodsburg; Georgetown female seminary (Baptist); Lebanon female college; Logan female college (Methodist Episcopal), at Russellville; Hocker female college (Christian); Lexington Baptist female college, St. Catherine's academy (Roman Catholic), and Christchurch seminary (Episcopal), at Lexington. Instruction in theology is afforded by St. Joseph's seminary (Roman Catholic), at Bardstown, Western Baptist theological institute at Georgetown, college of the Bible, Kentucky university, and the theological departments of Georgetown and Bethel college; in medicine, by the medical department of the university of Louisville and by the Louisville medical college.—According to the census of 1870, there were 89 newspapers and periodicals published in the state, having an aggregate circulation of 197,130, and issuing 18,270,160 copies annually. There were 6 daily, with a circulation of 31,000; 4 tri-weekly, circulation 3,500; 4 semi-weekly, circulation, 4,100; 68 weekly, circulation 137,930; and 7 monthly, with a circulation of 19,700. In 1873 the publications were 9 daily, 6 of which issued also weekly editions, 1 tri-weekly, 4 semi-weekly, 80 weekly, and 9 monthly. The total number of libraries in 1870 was 5,546, containing 1,909,230 volumes; 4,374, with 1,590, 245 volumes, were private, and 1,172, with 318,985 volumes, were other than private, including two state libraries, with 9,200 volumes; 10 town, city, &c., with 13,436; 218 court and law, with 61,590; 18 school, college, &c., with 20,675; 717 Sunday school, with 160,377; and 207 church, with 53,707. The principal libraries in 1874 were that of the Kentucky university at Lexington, which had 10,000 volumes; the Lexington library company's, 18,300; the state library in Frankfort, 7,000; Danville theological seminary, 7,000; public library of Kentucky, at Louisville, 31,250; St. Joseph's college and seminary in Bardstown, 5,000; Centre college in Danville, 5,000; Georgetown college, 5,000; Episcopal theological library 2,000; and Louisville library association, 5,690. The museum of natural history of Kentucky university contains more than 40,000 specimens, and the museum attached to the public library of Kentucky contains over 100,000, which, however, are only partially classified. The total number of religious organizations was 2,969, having 2,696 edifices, with 878,039 sittings, and property valued at$9,824,465. The leading denominations were as follows:

 DENOMINATIONS. Organizations. Edifices. Sittings. Property. Baptist 1,004 962 288,936 \$2,023,975 Christian 490 436 141,585 1,046,075 Episcopal, Protestant 38 35 15,800 570,300 Evangelical Association 5 5 3,000 150,000 Jewish 8 8 1,500 134,000 Lutheran 7 7 1,650 16,000 Methodist 978 818 244,918 1,854,565 Presbyterian, regular 289 270 97,150 1,275,400 Presbyterian, other 17 15 3,600 17,000 Roman Catholic 130 125 72,550 2,604,900 Shaker 2 2 1,600 28,000 Unitarian 1 1 1000 3000 Universalist 2 2 400 5,500 Unknown (union) 3 15 4,650 28,750