The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Malte-Brun
MALTE-BRUN. I. A Danish geographer, whose actual name was Malthe Conrad Bruun, born at Thisted in Jutland, Aug. 12, 1775, died in Paris, Dec. 14, 1826. He studied in Copenhagen, devoting himself especially to literature and politics. He embraced republican principles, and in 1795 published a pamphlet enitled “Catechism of the Aristocrats,” for which he was prosecuted by the government and obliged to take refuge in Sweden. A poem on the death of Bernstorff which he published during his exile procured for him permission to return to Denmark. But another pamphlet against the aristocracy subjected him to a new prosecution, and he left his country, and finally took up his residence in Paris. In December, 1800, the Danish courts pronounced sentence of perpetual banishment against him, which was rescinded about the time of his death. In Paris he wrote largely for various journals, and in 1806 became one of the principal writers for the Journal des Débats. He at first opposed the consular government, but subsequently became a zealous imperialist, and after the fall of Napoleon an equally zealous monarchist, publishing in 1824 Traité de la légitimité considérée comme base du droit public de l'Europe chrétienne. In the mean time he devoted himself especially to geographical studies, and in 1803, in conjunction with Mentelle and Herbin, commenced the publication of Géographie mathématique, physique et politique, which was completed in 1807, comprising 16 volumes. In 1808 he established the periodical Annales des Voyages, which was discontinued in 1814, and resumed in 1819, with the collaboration of Eyriès, under the title, Nouvelles Annales des Voyages, and is still issued under charge of his son. He was one of the founders of the geographical society, of which he became secretary. He wrote a number of miscellaneous works, among which is a posthumous collection, Mélanges scientifiques et littéraires (3 vols., 1828). His most important work is Précis de géographie universelle (8 vols., 1810-'29, the last two volumes being by Huot). This has been several times republished, the last edition by Lavallée (6 vols., 1856-'7). It was translated into English, and an edition published at Boston, with notes and additions by James G. Percival (3 vols. 4to, 1828-'32), and one at Philadelphia (5 vols. 8vo, with atlas, 1832-7). II. Victor Adolphe, a French geographer, son of the preceding, born in Paris in 1816. After having been professor of history in several colleges, he devoted himself especially to geographical studies. He is secretary of the geographical society, and principal editor of the Nouvelles Annales des Voyages, and has published numerous works relating to geography. Among these are: Jeunes voyageurs en France (1840); Destinée de Sir John Franklin dévoilée (1860); Nouvelles acquisitions des Russes dans l'Asie orientale (1861); Les États-Unis et le Mexique (1862); Coup d'œil sur le Yucatan, and Sonora et ses mines (1864); Canal interocéanique du Darien (1865); Histoire de Marcoussis (1867); and Histoire géographique et statistique de l'Allemagne (4to, 1866-'8). He has also issued a revised edition of his father's geography (8 vols., 1852-'5), and, in conjunction with others, France illustrée (3 vols., 1855-'7).