The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Massachusetts

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MASSACHUSETTS, one of the thirteen original states of the American Union, and one of the New England states, between lat. 41° 15' and 42° 53' N., and lon. 69° 56' and 73° 32' W.; extreme length N. E. and S. W., 160 m.; breadth from 47 to about 90 m.; estimated area, 7,800 sq. m. It is bounded N. by Vermont and New Hampshire, E. by the Atlantic ocean, S. by the Atlantic, Rhode Island, and Connecticut, and W. by New York. It is divided into 14 counties, viz.: Barnstable, Berkshire, Bristol, Dukes, Essex, Franklin, Hampden, Hampshire, Middlesex, Nantucket, Norfolk, Plymouth, Suffolk, and Worcester. Boston, the commercial centre and the largest city of New England, is the capital; in 1870 it contained 250,526 inhabitants, but by the annexation of Charlestown, Brighton, and West Roxbury, in 1873, its population was, according to assessors' returns, increased to about 360,000 in 1874. The other cities are Cambridge, which in 1870 had 39,634 inhabitants; Chelsea, 18,547; Fall River, 26,766; Fitchburg, 11,260; Gloucester, 15,389; Haverhill, 13,092; Holyoke, 10,733; Lawrence, 28,921; Lowell, 40,928; Lynn, 28,233; New Bedford, 21,320; Newburyport, 12,595; Newton, 12,825; Salem, 24,117; Somerville, 14,685; Springfield, 26,703; Taunton, 18,629; and Worcester, 41,105. The population and rank of the state in the Union, according to the national census, have been:

 YEARS.   Whites.   Colored.   Total.   Rank. 

1790 373,324  5,463  378,787 
1800 416,393  6,452  422,845 
1810 465,308  6,737  472,040 
1820 516,419  6,740  523,159 
1830 603,359  7,049  610,408 
1840 729,030  8,669  737,699 
1850 985,450  9,064  994,514 
1860 1,221,432  9,602  1,231,066 
1870  1,443,156   13,947   1,457,351 

AmCyc Massachusetts - State Seal.jpg

State Seal of Massachusetts.

Included in the total population of 1860 were 32 Indians, and in that of 1870 87 Chinese, 10 Japanese, and 151 Indians. Of the whole number of inhabitants in 1870, 703,779 were males and 753,572 females; 1,104,032 were native and 353,319 foreign born. Of the natives, 17,313 were born in Connecticut, 55,571 in Maine, 903,297 in Massachusetts, 47,773 in New Hampshire, 24,628 in New York, 14,356 in Rhode Island, and 22,110 in Vermont; 243,784 persons born in Massachusetts were living in other states. Of the foreign born, 65,055 were natives of British America, 13,072 of Germany, 34,099 of England, 216,120 of Ireland, and 9,003 of Scotland. The average density of population was 186.84 persons to a square mile, being greater than that of any other state. There were 305,534 families, with an average of 4.77 persons to each, and 236,473 dwellings, with an average of 6.16 persons to each. The increase of population from 1860 to 1870 was 18.15 per cent. The number of male citizens 21 years old and upward was 312,770. There were 74,935 persons 10 years of age and over unable to read, and 97,742 who could not write, of whom 89,830 were foreign born; 31,746 of the male adult population, or 7.97 per cent., and 53,940, or 12.27 per cent., of the female adults, were illiterate. The number of paupers supported during the year ending June 1, 1870, was 8,036, at a cost of $1,121,604; of the number (5,777) receiving support June 1, 1870, 5,396 were natives and 381 foreigners. There were 1,593 persons convicted of crime during the year; of the number (2,526) in prison June 1, 1870, 1,291 were of native and 1,235 of foreign birth. The state contained 761 blind, 538 deaf and dumb, 2,662 insane, and 778 idiotic. Of the total population 10 years of age and over (1,160,666), there were engaged in all occupations 579,844 persons; in agriculture 72,810, of whom 31,019 were laborers and 39,766 farmers and planters; in professional and personal services 131,291, including 2,040 clergymen, 45,770 domestic servants, 279 journalists, 50,564 laborers not specified, 1,270 lawyers, 2,047 physicians and surgeons, 7,220 teachers not specified, 847 teachers of music, and 506 professional musicians; in trade and transportation, 83,078; in manufactures, mechanical and mining industries, 292,665, of whom 5,774 were blacksmiths, 1,102 bookbinders, 48,255 boot and shoe makers, 23,506 carpenters and joiners, 39,195 cotton null operatives, besides 4,629 mill and factory operatives not specified, 5,311 fishermen and oystermen, 8,273 machinists, 7,887 painters and varnishers, 16,787 tailors and seamstresses, besides 7,649 milliners and dress and mantua makers, and 19,863 woollen mill operatives. The total number of deaths during the year was 25,859, being 1.77 per cent. of the entire population. Chief among the causes of mortality were consumption, from which 5,157 persons died, and pneumonia, 1,696; the number of deaths from all causes to 1 from consumption being 5, and 15.2 to 1 from pneumonia. There were 1,685 deaths from cholera infantum, 1,142 from enteric fever, 911 from scarlet fever, 280 from diphtheria, and 1,114 from diarrhœa, dysentery, and enteritis.—From the west for about 100 m. Massachusetts has the regular form of a parallelogram about 50 m. wide; thence it spreads out N. E. and S. E. on two sides of Massachusetts bay, terminating S. E. in the long peninsula of Cape Cod, which, describing to the north and slightly to the west a segment of a circle, encloses Cape Cod bay. It also includes several islands, of which Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket are the largest. Besides the two mentioned, there are Buzzard's bay on the S. coast, 30 m. long, with an average width of 7 m., and Plymouth bay, a small inlet communicating on the east with Cape Cod bay. The Elizabeth islands are a group of 16 off Cape Cod. (See Elizabeth Islands.) The state has many excellent harbors, the best of which are at Boston and New Bedford. No large and navigable rivers, excepting the Merrimack, find their outlet on the coast. The Housatonic river, which rises in the W. part of the state, and the Connecticut, flow S. through Connecticut into Long Island sound; the Merrimack, which is navigable for sloops to Haverhill, 18 m. from its mouth, flows through the N. E. corner, and supplies immense water power to Lowell, Lawrence, and other manufacturing centres. The falls in the Connecticut afford valuable water power. The other principal streams are the Nashua, Taunton, Concord, Blackstone, and Charles. It contains several small lakes.—The surface of the state is greatly diversified. The extreme west is mountainous, having two ranges of the Green mountains, the Taghkannic or Taconic and Hoosac ridges, which run nearly parallel to each other and into Connecticut. Saddle mountain in the N. W. corner is 3,600 ft. high, and Mt. Washington in the S. W. corner 2,624 ft. Further E. is the beautiful and fertile valley of the Connecticut. In this section are several elevations, detached members of the White mountain system, the highest peaks of which are Mt. Tom (about 1,300 ft.) on the W., and Mt. Holyoke (1,120 ft.) near Northampton, on the E. bank of the Connecticut river, and Wachusett mountain (2,018 ft.) K of the middle of the state. The east and northeast are hilly and broken, and the southeast generally low and sandy. Massachusetts is eminently a region of metamorphic rocks. Those in the E. part of the state especially are largely overspread with the sands, gravel, and bowlders of the drift formation; and the long point of land making the S. E. extremity of the state (see Cape Cod) is so covered with these loose materials, that the rocky beds beneath are entirely concealed. Syenite and granite prevail along the coast, and extensive quarries of these rocks are worked at Quincy, Cape Ann, and other points. Around Boston is a formation of coarse conglomerates and argillaceous slates of obscure age on account of the metamorphic action to which they have been subjected. At Braintree, near Quincy, the slates contain trilobites, but generally no fossils have been met with in these rocks. The fossils would seem to refer the slates to the lower Silurian period. These obscure formations are traced in an irregular belt toward Providence, and near the Rhode Island line they are connected with coal-bearing strata, referable, it is supposed, to the true carboniferous epoch. In many localities in Bristol and Plymouth counties these strata contain beds of anthracite, some of which, as at Mansfield, have been worked for many years; but they are of little or no value, the coal always being much crushed, and the beds very irregular in their production. Gneiss and talcose and mica slates in broad belts traverse the state from N. to S. from the E. portion to the waters of the Housatonic in Berkshire. Among these rocks are interspersed a few beds of metamorphic limestone, but no minerals or ores of value. Along the Connecticut river valley, in the triassic or new red sandstone formation, known as the Connecticut valley area, are found very extensive fossil footprints, which from their resemblance to the feet of birds are first called ornithichnites; but they have since been found by Prof. Edward Hitchcock, who gave the name, to be not only the tracks of birds but of other animals. Some of them indicate that they were made by animals of gigantic size. (See Fossil Footprints.) Trap rocks are associated with it, and near the contact of the sandstone and trap, or of the sandstone and the gneiss, are found veins of metallic ores, as of lead, copper, and zinc, none of which, however, have repaid the money spent in their exploration. The principal localities of these ores are at Southampton, Leverett, Montague, Whately, and a few other towns. The high lands which traverse the state from N. to S., dividing the waters that flow into the Connecticut from those of the Housatonic, and called the Hoosac mountains, are chiefly of gneiss and mica slate. In Middlefield a belt of talcose slate, continued further N. in the mica slate region, reaches the gneiss; and here are developed in near proximity beds of limestone, steatite, and serpentine. The towns along the Housatonic and on the same range extending to the N. border of the state are in the region of the altered Silurian sandstones and calcareous formations. This is the most important mineral district of the state, numerous beds of iron ore having been worked for many years, and the quartz rocks affording in their disintegrated beds bodies of glass sand of unusual purity. In 1874 deposits specially rich in silver, and containing also lead and gold, were discovered in Essex co., near Newburyport, where mining operations have been begun.—In the valleys, particularly of the Housatonic and Connecticut, the soil is rich and productive, but a large portion of the more elevated lands and the long sandy coast do not repay the husbandman. The climate near the coast is very variable, with prevailing E. winds, especially in spring. The mean annual temperature is about 48°; spring, 43°; summer, 71°; autumn, 51°; winter, 21°. The annual rainfall is about 55 inches. In the interior it is more equable, and in the mountainous districts very severe in winter.—Of the total area of the state, somewhat less than one half is improved. According to the census of 1870, there were 26,500 farms, of which 1,129 contained between 3 and 10 acres each, 2,532 between 10 and 20, 8,381 between 20 and 50, 8,727 between 50 and 100, 5,643 between 100 and 500, and 40 between 500 and 1,000. The number of acres of improved land on farms was 1,736,221; woodland, 706,714; other unimproved, 287,348. The cash value of farms was $116,432,784; of farming implements and machinery, $5,000,879; total amount of wages paid during the year, including value of board, $5,821,032; total estimated value of all farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock, $32,192,378; of orchard products, $989,854; of produce of market gardens, $1,980,821; of forest products, $1,616,818; of home manufactures, $79,378; of animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter, $4,324,658; of all live stock on farms, $17,049,228. The chief productions were, 17,574 bushels of spring and 17,074 of winter wheat, 239,227 of rye, 1,397,807 of Indian corn, 797,664 of oats, 133,071 of barley, 58,049 of buckwheat, 24,690 of peas and beans, 3,026,363 of potatoes, 597,455 tons of hay, 7,312,885 lbs. of tobacco, 306,659 of wool, 6,559,161 of butter, 2,245,873 of cheese, 61,910 of hops, 399,800 of maple sugar, 25,299 of honey, and 15,284,057 gallons of milk sold. Besides 45,227 horses and 52,263 neat cattle not on farms, there were 41,039 horses, 114,771 milch cows, 24,430 working oxen, 78,851 other cattle, 78,560 sheep, and 49,178 swine.—As a manufacturing state, Massachusetts ranks with the first in the Union. The amount of capital invested in manufactures, and the value of the annual products, are greater in New York and Pennsylvania; but in proportion to the population the industries of Massachusetts are more extensive than those of either of the states named. In 1850 the capital invested in manufactures amounted to $88,940,292, and the annual products to $157,743,994; in 1860 the former had increased to $132,792,327 and the latter to $255,545,922. In 1870 the amount of capital invested was $231,677,862, and the value of annual products $553,912,568; the materials used were valued at $334,413,982, while the wages paid amounted to $118,051,886. There were 13,212 establishments using 2,396 steam engines of 78,502 horse power and 3,157 water wheels of 105,854 horse power, and employing 279,380 hands, of whom 179,032 were males above 16, 86,229 females above 15, and 14,119 youth. The aldermen and selectmen of the various cities and towns are required by law to ascertain and return decennially to the state secretary the industrial statistics of the commonwealth. The value of the products of all industries as thus returned amounted to $124,000,000 in 1845, $295,000,000 in 1855, and $577,000,000 in 1865; showing an increase during the last named decade in the value of industrial products of 72 per cent., while the population during the same period increased only 3 per cent. The leading products returned for the year ending May 1, 1865, were:

PRODUCTS. Value. Capital.  Hands. 

Boots and shoes  $52,915,248   $10,067,474  55,160 
Calico and delaine 25,258,708  4,222,000  4,208 
Clothing 17,748,894  4,634,440  24,722 
Cotton 54,436,881  33,293,986  23,678 
Hay 13,195,274  .........  ...... 
Horses, oxen, and cows. 19,154,790  .........  ...... 
Mackerel and cod fishery 4,832,218  3,757,761  11,518 
Printing and newspapers 5,358,148  1,919,400  2,409 
Rolled and slit iron and nails  8,836,502  2,827,300  3,194 
Tanning and currying 15,821,712  4,994,933  3,847 
Whale fishery 6,618,670  5,879,862  3,496 
Woollen goods 48,430,671  14,785,830  18,433 

In the manufacture of boots and shoes, cordage and twine, cotton goods, cutlery, chairs, lasts, straw goods, and woollen goods, as well as textiles in general, and bleaching and dyeing, Massachusetts ranks above all other states. The extent of these industries in this state, as compared with the United States, in 1870, is indicated in the following statement:


Capital. Products. Capital. Products.

Bleaching and dyeing  $1,063,650   $22,252,000   $5,006,950   $58,571,493
Boot and shoe findings  372,030  2,161,431  858,560  3,389,091
Boots and shoes 19,559,738  88,399,583  48,994,366  181,644,090
Cordage and twine 666,900  2,886,848  3,530,470  8,979,382
Cotton goods  42,153,175   59,493,153   133,238,797   177,489,739
Cutlery 1,135,400  1,617,904  2,246,830  2,882,803
Chairs 2,636,650  3,971,522  7,643,884  10,567,104
Lasts 146,000  313,768  830,800  665,703
Paper 7,723,628  12,696,491  35,780,514  50,842,445
Sails 111,400  503,385  583,290  2,255,446
Straw goods 1,361,400  4,869,514  2,119,350  7,282,086
Textiles, including cotton goods, flax and linen goods, 
carpets, woollen goods, and worsted goods
 72,548,475   112,763,211   265,084,095   380,913,815
Woollen goods 20,622,400  39,489,242  97,173,482  151,298,196

While Massachusetts holds the first rank in respect to the industries named, the state is specially noted for the extent of its manufactures of boots and shoes and cotton and woollen goods. Here are the great centres of these industries in the United States. Of the boot and shoe establishments, 1,123 were each producing annually more than $5,000. In these were employed 7,042 sewing and 636 pegging machines and 51,167 hands. The products embraced 10,129,910 pairs of boots and 29,164,594 pairs of shoes. Nearly one third of the capital invested in the manufacture of cotton goods in the United States was employed in Massachusetts. The machines in use embraced 55,343 looms and 1,255,552 frame and 1,363,989 mule spindles. The cotton consumed amounted to 130,654,040 lbs.; the products included 22,123,147 yards of sheetings, shirtings, and twilled goods, 12,434,858 of lawns and fine muslins, 229,613,105 of print cloths, 2,108,952 lbs. of yarn not woven, 2,595,358 dozens of spool thread, 33,712,996 yards of warps, 3,773,664 lbs. of bats, wicking, and wadding, 6,864,954 yards of flannel, 13,690,000 of ginghams and checks, and 407,527 lbs. of thread. The value of all products increased from $21,394,401 in 1850 to $38,004,255 in 1860, and $59,493,153 in 1870. In the woollen mills were 1,367 cards, with a daily capacity for 159,484 lbs. of carded wool, 4,469 broad and 3,374 narrow looms, and 470,785 spindles; 37,146,190 lbs. of domestic wool were consumed, besides 2,813,449 of cotton and 5,994,110 of shoddy. The products embraced 403,785 pairs of blankets, 21,819,879 yards of cloths, cassimeres, and doeskins, 285,000 of felted cloth, 22,321,684 of flannels, 7,701,880 of satinets, 585,435 shawls, 808,920 yards of tweeds and twills, and 1,235,161 lbs. of yarn. The leading industries of the state, as reported by the census of 1870, are shown in the following table:

 Capital.   Wages.  Value of
Value of

Agricultural implements 37  221  964  477  $499,400  $243,112  $487,460  $1,033,590
Blacksmithing 651  57  109  1,852  715,667  650,058  565,587  1,932,448
Bleaching and dyeing 32  1,753  187  1,387  1,063,650  608,348  20,623,653  22,252,429
Bookbinding 65  94  ....  1,078  492,300  478,310  588,070  1,446,073
Boot and shoe findings 170  190  1,612  372,030  450,358  1,204,420  2,161,431
Boots and shoes 2,392  2,266  94  54,831  19,559,738  27,265,283  61,363,406  88,399,583
Bread, crackers, and other bakery products  144  220  ....  1,087  758,650  552,215  2,128,676  3,130,172
Brick 107  823  44  2,901  2,435,310  765,168  978,508  2,251,984
Carpentering and building 901  468  112  5,825  1,880,202  3,484,104  6,308,115  12,429,739
Carpets, other than rag 303  100  2,200  3,250,000  832,954  3,256,628  4,487,525
Carriages and wagons 326  119  181  2,914  1,729,091  1,486,959  1,326,968  4,038,656
Cars, freight and passenger 280  ....  866  1,245,000  636,760  1,486,929  2,408,827
Clothing, men's 446  82  ....  9,878  5,096,764  3,815,742  11,913,317  20,212,407
Clothing, women's 116  ...  ....  959  190,820  248,268  889,731  1,512,613
Cordage and twine 32  1,069  208  988  666,900  395,273  1,961,410  2,886,848
Cotton goods, not specified 159   16,700   30,398  41,446   42,148,175   12,912,523   35,462,617   56,257,580
Cotton goods, batting and wadding 90  120  125  96,500  47,228  302,585  384,030
Cotton goods, comfortables ....  5,000  1,500  15,000  28,000
Cotton goods, thread, twine, and yarn 27  502  1,817  2,016  2,582,700  651,674  1,705,484  3,009,543
Cutlery 12  322  532  1,140  1,135,400  601,247  1,001,891  6,215,325
Drugs and chemicals 22  235  ....  8,993  4,287,871  2,291,370  357,238  1,617,904
Fisheries, exclusive of the whale fisheries 237  ...  ....  354  1,280,800  190,545  1,152,780  1,800,399
Flouring and grist mill products 316  1,810  9,013  855  2,171,314  271,248  8,768,926  9,720,374
Furniture, not specified 243  1,275  675  4,044  3,372,225  2,243,980  3,146,828  7,397,626
Furniture, chairs 76  893  1,899  5,683  2,636,650  1,291,371  1,681,006  3,971,522
Glass, cut 21  ....  104  50,500  51,400  70,000  171,000
Glass, ware 11  164  ....  1,570  1,203,000  669,520  531,634  1,571,000
Glass, window 60  110  494  883,560  257,200  127,300  800,000
Hardware 119  591  703  1,757  1,903,050  929,738  891,665  2,515,429
Hats and caps 50  529  ....  3,290  855,600  985,304  1,846,566  3,416,191
Hoop skirts and corsets 13  21  ....  664  197,800  170,561  349,225  710,772
Hosiery 32  408  718  2,415  1,570,500  848,864  1,515,326  3,218,481
India rubber and elastic goods 16  698  255  1,405  1,920,600  580,723  1,554,006  3,183,218
Iron, forged and rolled 29  5,463  715  2,590  2,760,125  1,327,675  4,538,866  6,699,907
Iron, nails and spikes, cut and wrought 49  1,767  1,459  2,458  2,600,850  1,059,230  4,082,775  5,986,144
Iron, pipe, wrought 230  25  335  385,000  219,500  976,218  1,407,000
Iron, castings not specified 101  955  650  2,749  2,496,900  1,640,402  2,574,320  5,265,154
Iron, stoves and hollow ware 18  315  114  965  940,500  646,401  555,675  1,781,548
Jewelry, not specified 59  186  62  1,642  972,500  786,650  825,523  2,342,025
Lasts 20  226  12  208  146,000  135,960  68,617  313,768
Leather, tanned 138  1,584  478  1,424  3,130,850  756,467  8,025,578  9,984,497
Leather, curried 196  1,350  85  3,194  3,163,076  1,812,052  14,969,920  19,211,330
Leather, morocco, tanned and curried 40  299  16  744  998,900  450,200  2,315,800  3,158,020
Lumber, planed 67  2,143  218  1,156  1,686,600  753,381  3,783,501  3,155,370
Lumber, sawed 638  2,019  13,900  2,258  2,031,879  558,055  2,023,488  3,496,320
Machinery, not specified 200  1,731  1,274  3,626  4,105,600  2,116,494  2,570,666  6,733,102
Machinery, cotton and woollen 95  823  872  2,816  2,940,750  1,575,917  2,258,392  4,821,314
Machinery, railroad repairing 205  ....  1,101  708,500  635,835  812,825  1,898,894
Machinery, steam engines and boilers 42  603  57  1,357  1,843,000  878,901  1,335,073  2,973,432
Marble and stone work 49  438  10  1,365  993,500  820,111  879,838  2,178,450
Molasses and sugar refined 900  ....  460  2,200,000  226,848  6,944,395  7,665,485
Musical instruments, organs and materials 17  124  ....  745  698,000  581,556  319,050  1,374,614
Musical instruments, pianos 21  320  23  994  2,075,711  949,133  675,759  2,581,565
Oil, fish 85  ....  152  482,000  57,133  1,970,232  2,578,176
Oil, linseed 215  ....  69  200,000  47,500  914,000  1,003,610
Paper, not specified 17  188  1,177  364  558,100  144,903  555,139  1,052,784
Paper, printing 25  364  3,544  1,173  1,858,700  549,190  3,052,971  4,319,924
Paper, wrapping 23  410  1,548  416  914,500  181,752  769,769  1.289,178
Paper, writing 30  170  3,054  2,602  4,387,828  979,000  8,638,470  6,025,595
Printing, cotton and woollen goods 11  1,806  1,165  2,996  2,894,653  1,110,055  15,420,530  17,325,150
Printing and publishing, not specified 18  64  ....  435  520,400  268,533  308,611  1,702,740
Printing and publishing, book 60  ....  311  268,000  177,456  372,860  1,205,000
Printing and publishing, newspaper 52  328  ....  1,135  2,545,400  991,530  1,433,835  4,005,425
Printing and publishing, job 89  141  ....  1,092  1,634,650  515,916  420,544  1,477,811
Ship building, repairing, and ship materials  98  387  ....  1,166  1,192,350  727,473  902,845  2,070,201
Shovels and spades 470  390  654  371,100  376,000  1,080,144  1,820,526
Stone 58  189  ....  137  662,750  790,195  132,444  1,294,148
Straw goods 39  237  35  11,441  1,361,400  1,411,350  2,503,070  4,869,514
Tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware 300  84  ....  1,584  1,284,900  766,485  1,384,095  2,785,674
Upholstery 77  ..  ....  901  978,655  461,909  1,234,157  2,424,457
Watches 55  ....  758  980,000  610,024  175,909  1,281,160
Wire 1,100  343  910  1,418,500  555,837  1,238,822  2,354,672
Woollen goods 182  5,421  12,230  20,541  20,622,400  7,296,752  24,866,118  39,489,242
Worsted goods 35  730  2,579  5,275  2,839,500  1,678,462  5,663,048  8,280,541

Not included in the above statement for 1870 are the statistics of mining and quarrying, in which the capital invested amounted to $944,250, and the annual products to $1,493,522; and those of fisheries, with $4,287,871 capital and $6,215,325 annual products. The stone quarried, including large quantities of Quincy granite, was valued at $1,294,148.—For commercial purposes, the state is divided into 11 customs districts, of which the ports of entry are given in the following statements. The imports and exports for the year ending June 30, 1874, were as follows:

PORTS OF ENTRY. Imports. Domestic

Boston  $52,212,405   $28,335,627   $2,275,028
Fall River 34,974  ...........  ...........
Gloucester 94,007  1,400  109
Marblehead 11,725  ...........  ...........
New Bedford 95,971  30,369  233
Newburyport 227,353  39,076  3,663
Plymouth 128  34  ...........
Salem and Beverly 60,717  49,009  1,744

Total $52,787,280  $28,455,515  $2,280,772

The movement of foreign shipping at the various ports, and the numher of vessels registered, enrolled, and licensed, were as follows:


No. Tons. No. Tons. No. Tons.

Barnstable 16  1,428  20  1,786  483  50,909
Boston  2,717   730,769   2,652   659,102  883  274,941
Edgartown ....  ......  ....  .......  16  1,135
Fall River 16  1,956  575  147  27,291
Gloucester 121  22,710  95  14,777  491  28,663
Marblehead 33  3,011  39  4,284  62  2,636
Nantucket ....  ......  ....  .......  778
New Bedford 53  12,572  37  7,818  233  47,371
Newburyp't 19  2,580  34  7,837  67  12,865
Plymouth 102  102  89  3,940
Salem and Beverly  84  8,468  100  11,767  85  7,844

Total 3,066  783,541  2,982  708,048  2,563  458,873

Those that entered and cleared as well as those registered were mostly sailing vessels. The number of vessels engaged in the coastwise trade was as follows:



No. Tons. No. Tons.

Barnstable 24  2,966  405
Boston 1,271  1,150,169  1,741  1,286,866
Edgartown 28  2,085  11  1,717
Fall River 486  886,647  330  813,006
Gloucester 70  5,957  36  8,836
Marblehead 10  1,128  778
Nantucket 392  147
New Bedford 135  47,360  36  8,785
Newburyport 528  59,728  491  65,756
Plymouth 516  122
Salem and Beverly  98  10,448  41  5,461

Total  2,655   2,167,886   2,700   2,191,829

Besides the above, 105 vessels of 3,677 tons engaged in the general fisheries entered at Newburyport, and 116 of 3,922 tons cleared. For more than a century the fisheries of Massachusetts have constituted one of its leading industries. (See Fisheries.) The most important centres of this industry are Gloucester, which far surpasses any other port of the country in the magnitude of its cod and mackerel fisheries, and New Bedford, which is the leading market in the United States for the produce of the whale. The entire products of the American whale fisheries for the year ending June 30, 1874, amounted to $2,291,896, including sperm oil valued at $1,250,987, other whale oil $775,919, and whalebone $264,990. Nearly all of these were from Massachusetts, where were employed in the whale fisheries about 170 vessels belonging to Barnstable, Edgartown, New Bedford, and Salem and Beverly. Of the 2,099 vessels employed in the cod and mackerel fisheries in the United States, 1,026 of 49,578 tons belonged to Massachusetts. According to the census of 1870, more than half of the products of fisheries in the United States, exclusive of the whale fisheries, were the result of Massachusetts industry. The capital invested in this business was $4,287,871, and the number of persons employed was 8,993. Among the products, which were valued at $6,215,325, were 451,125 quintals of cod, 1,651 tons of halibut, 188,567 barrels of mackerel, $486,596 worth of miscellaneous fish, and 305,049 gallons of oil, valued at $302,790. Ship building is carried on in most of the customs districts; in 1874 there were 77 vessels built, of 31,499 tons, including 5 steamers, of 689 tons. About two thirds of these were built in Boston, Charlestown, and Newburyport.—The first railroad in Massachusetts was opened for use in 1835, since which time an average of about 50 m. has been annually constructed. On Sept. 30, 1874, the entire mileage belonging to Massachusetts companies was 2,418, exclusive of 657 m. of sidings and 626 m. of double track; the length of main track and branches within the commonwealth was 1,782 m., and of double track and sidings 917 m. About 29 per cent, of the main lines are laid with steel rails. Nominally there are 60 corporations, but the railroads of the state are controlled by 31 distinct boards of direction. The average cost of roads has been $56,883 62 a mile, in addition to the cost of equipment, $7,701 a mile. The entire amount directly invested in the railroads reporting to the state is $165,624,136, including $117,066,798 of stock and $48,557,338 of debt. The total earnings returned for the year amounted to $34,632,483, of which about 49 per cent. were from passengers and 46 per cent. from freight. The number of passengers carried was 42,480,494. The whole number of accidents was 279, of which 127 resulted in death; nearly one third were caused by walking on the tracks. The average of casualties for a series of years from causes not attributable to the carelessness of the person injured has been 1 to each 1,400,000 passengers carried; but in 1874 it was only 1 to each 5,300,000. The railroads are under the general supervision of a board of three commissioners, who are appointed by the governor, and are required to report annually upon the condition of the roads and corporations, the causes of accidents, &c. The lines completed at the beginning of 1875 are represented in the following table, omitting those less than 5 m. long:

 paid in. 
 Cost of road, 
 &c., proportion 
for Mass.

From To  Total.   In Mass. 

Berkshire  Sheffield  W. Stockbridge 22  22  $600,000  $606,000
Boston and Albany  Boston  Albany, N. Y. 201  162  19,864,100   22,254,339
Branches Grand Junction
 Cottage Farm  East Boston ........  ........
 South Framingham   Milford 12  12  ........  ........
Boston, Barre, and Gardner  Worcester  Winchendon 36  36  863,901  1,237,688
Boston, Clinton, and Fitchburg  Fitchburg  South Framingham  41  41  872,600  2,855,564
Boston, Hartford and Erie  Boston  Willimantic, Conn. 85  51   20,000,000  8,275,861
Woonsocket division  Brookline  Woonsocket, R. I. 33  32  ........  ........
Southbridge division  E. Thompson, Conn.   Southbridge 17  10  ........  ........
Boston and Lowell  Boston  Lowell 26  26  3,200,000  5,554,785
Lexington and Arlington  Medford  Lexington ........  ........
Boston and Maine  Boston  Portland, Me. 116  36  6,921,274  3,815,604
Boston and Providence  Boston  Providence, R. I.   44  38  4,000,000  4,534,060
West Roxbury  Forest Hills Station  Dedham ........  ........
India Point  Seekonk  Providence, R. I. ........  ........
Cheshire  South Ashburnham  Bellows Falls, Vt. 58  11  2,153,300  574,432
Connecticut River  Springfield  South Vernon, Vt. 50  50  2,100,000  2,684,220
Danvers  Wakefield Junction  Danvers ........  ........
Duxbury and Cohasset  Cohasset  Kingston 20  20  390,000  452,378
Eastern  Boston  State line 41  41  4,997,600  14,192,653
Saugus  Revere  Lynn ........  ........
Marblehead  Swampscott  Marblehead ........  ........
Lawrence  Salem  Lawrence 19  19  ........  ........
Gloucester  Beverly  Gloucester 17  17  ........  ........
Essex  Wenham  Essex ........  ........
South Reading  Peabody  Wakefield ........  ........
Fall River, Warren, and Providence  Fall River  Providence, R.I. 150,000  210,155
Fitchburg  Boston  Fitchburg 50  50  4,000,000  4,559,000
Watertown Branch  North Cambridge  Waltham ........  ........
Lancaster, Sterling, and Marlboro  South Acton  Marlboro 12  12  ........  ........
Peterboro and Shirley  Ayer Junction  Mason Village, Vt.  23  14  ........  ........
Framingham and Lowell  South Framingham  Lowell 26  26  511,796  1,326,921
Hanover Branch  North Abington  South Hanover 123,950  251,889
Holyoke and Westfield  Westfield  Holyoke 10  10  260,000  462,238
Hopkinton  Milford  Ashland 11  11  ........  ........
Lowell and Andover  Lowell  Ballardvale 487,280  386,680
Lowell and Lawrence  Lowell  Lawrence 12  12  200,000  363,153
Manchester and Lawrence  Manchester, N. H.  Lawrence 26  1,000,000  ........
Mansfield and Framingham  South Framingham  Mansfield 21  21  301,580  850,974
Martha's Vineyard  Oak Bluffs  Katama 40,000  67,277
Middlesex Central  Lexington  Concord ........  ........
Monadnock  Winchendon  Peterboro, N. H. 16  197,864  49,881
Nashua, Acton, and Boston  North Acton  Nashua, N. H. 20  15  262,000  531,992
Nashua and Lowell  Lowell  Nashua, N. H. 14  800,000  764,974
New Bedford  New Bedford  Mansfield 82  82  1,678,500  2,250,780
Fairhaven  Fairhaven  Wareham 15  15  ........  ........
Taunton Junction  Taunton  Attleboro ........  ........
 Bradford  Newburyport 27  27  ........  ........
 Georgetown  Danvers ..  ..  ........  ........
New Haven and Northampton  New Haven, Conn.  Williamsburg 84  32  2,460,000  1,526,772
New London Northern  New London, Conn.   Miller's Falls 100  44  1,500,000  895,692
New York, New Haven, and Hartford   New York, N. Y.  Springfield 123  15,500,000  687,674
Norwich and Worcester  Worcester  Norwich, Conn. 59  17  2,604,400  1,142,550
Old Colony
217  200  6,687,300  11,100,126
Bridgewater  South Abington  Bridgewater ........  ........
Middleboro and Taunton  Middleboro  Taunton ........  ........
Woods' Hole  Cohasset Narrows  Woods' Hole 17  17  ........  ........
Hyannis  Yarmouth  Hyannis ........  ........
Pittsfield and North Adams  Pittsfield  North Adams 19  19  450,000  450,000
Providence and Worcester  Providence, R. I.    Worcester 43  25  2,000,000  1,558,604
Salem and Lowell  Tewksbury Junction   Peabody 17  17  243,305  481,468
South Shore  Braintree  Cohasset 11  11  259,865  626,592
Springfield, Athol, and Northeastern  Springfield  Athol 48  48  809,760  1,462,668
Stockbridge and Pittsfield  Stockbridge  Pittsfield 22  22  448,700  451,250
Stony Brook  North Chelmsford  Ayer 13  13  300,000  300,093
Troy and Greenfield
 Greenfield  Hoosac Tunnel 30  30  ........  ........
 North Adams  State line ........  ........
Vermont and Massachusetts  Fitchburg  Greenfield 56  56  2,860,000  3,307,941
Brattleboro  Miller's Falls  Brattleboro, Vt. 21  11  ........  ........
Ware River  Palmer  Winchendon 49  49  750,000  1,066,407
Worcester and Nashua  Worcester  Nashua, N. H. 46  39  1,789,700  2,109,629

The transportation facilities will be greatly improved by the completion in 1875 of the tunnel through the Hoosac mountain in the N. W. part of the state. This tunnel, which will have cost the state not less than $14,000,000, including interest, is, next to the Mt. Cenis tunnel, the longest in the world, being about 4¾ m. in length. (See Tunnel.) The 30 street railway corporations in the state have 210 m. of track, including branches and sidings; their capital stock is $5,538,125, exclusive of debt amounting to $2,573,741; the average cost per mile of road and equipment was $32,701; and the number of passengers carried in 1874 was 50,058,979.—The number of national banks in operation Nov. 1, 1874, was 220; paid-in capital, $93,039,350; circulation outstanding, $59,051,019; circulation per head, $40 52; ratio of circulation to wealth, 2.0 per cent.; to capital, 63.05 per cent. Fifty-one of these banks, with a capital of $50,400,000, and an outstanding circulation of $25,294,272, were in Boston. There were 179 savings banks, with 702,099 depositors, and deposits amounting to $217,452,120. The average rate of dividends was 616 per cent. There were also 4 loan and trust companies, with $1,700,000 capital, and deposits aggregating $6,924,270. On Jan. 1, 1874, there were 127 fire and marine insurance companies transacting business in the state, with a paid-up capital of $52,197,870 and net assets aggregating $86,981,245. The premiums received on risks in 1873 aggregated $84,017,278, while the paid losses amounted to $61,524,120, showing a ratio of paid losses to premium receipts of 73.23.—The executive department of the government consists of a governor, whose annual salary is $5,000; a lieutenant governor, who receives $1,500 for attendance during the regular session of the legislature and $10 a day for extra sessions; a secretary of the commonwealth, $3,500; treasurer and receiver general, $5,000; auditor, $3,500; attorney general, $5,000; and an executive council of eight, each of whom receives $750 for the regular annual session of their board, $5 a day for any subsequent session, and 20 cents a mile for travel. These officers are elected annually by the people. The legislative department consists of 40 senators and 240 representatives elected annually. Their pay is $750 for the regular annual session, and 20 cents a mile for travel. The president of the senate and the speaker of the house of representatives receive each $1,500 for the session. The judiciary comprises a supreme judicial court, consisting of a chief justice, salary $6,500, and six justices, who receive $6,000 per annum each. This has exclusive cognizance of all capital crimes, exclusive chancery jurisdiction so far as chancery powers are given by statute, and concurrent original jurisdiction of all civil cases where the amount in dispute exceeds $4,000 in Suffolk, and $1,000 in other counties. The superior court has criminal jurisdiction in all except capital cases, exclusive original jurisdiction of complaints for the flowing of land, and original jurisdiction of all civil actions except those confided to the supreme and police courts. Actions cannot be commenced in this court unless the debt or damages exceed $20. The court has a chief justice, salary $5,300, and nine justices, $5,000 each. The legislature in 1858 united the courts of probate and the court of insolvency. For probate and insolvency purposes, frequent courts are held at different places by the judges in the several counties. A judge and a register of probate and insolvency are elected by the voters of each county. In the large cities there are municipal courts for civil and police purposes. All the judges are appointed by the governor for an unlimited time. The election for state officers and members of the legislature is held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, and the legislature meets on the first Wednesday of January. Voters are required to be 21 years old, to have resided a year in the state and six months in the town, to pay a poll tax, and to be able to read. Massachusetts has two senators and 11 representatives in congress, and consequently has 13 votes in the electoral college. For several years past the sale of spirituous and intoxicating liquors to be used as a beverage has been prohibited under penalties ranging from $10 fine and 10 days' imprisonment to $50 fine and six months' imprisonment. Ale, porter, strong beer, lager beer, and all wines, as well as distilled spirits, are considered intoxicating. The lawful sale of intoxicating liquors to be used in the arts, or for medicinal, chemical, or mechanical purposes, is vested in a commissioner appointed by the governor. In 1871 permission was given to towns to authorize the sale of ale, porter, strong beer, or lager beer; but in 1873 this law was repealed. For executing the liquor law and general criminal laws a state police was maintained, consisting in 1874 of 100 men, at a cost of $145,000. This force was abolished by a law which was passed Feb. 13, 1875, and went into force March 1, and provision was made for the establishment of a state detective force of 31 men, to be appointed by the governor and council. The state board of health, appointed by the governor, makes regulations concerning the slaughter of swine, and may restrain persons or corporations from carrying on noxious or offensive trades.—The funded debt of the commonwealth, Jan. 1, 1875, amounted to $29,465,204, and was classified as follows: railroad loans, $14,971,016; war loans, $12,936,188; ordinary loans, $1,558,000. Nearly the entire indebtedness of the state is provided for by established sinking funds. The revenue during the year ending Jan. 1, 1875, was $7,009,313; the expenditures were $7,183,247, of which $6,150,391 were ordinary and $1,032,856 special and exceptional. The chief sources of revenue were:

State tax $2,000,000
Corporation tax 1,299,050
Savings bank tax 1,550,501
National bank tax 1,132,036
Massachusetts hospital life insurance company 89,129
Insurance taxes and licenses 263,552
Gas, coal, and mining companies 9,893
Troy and Greenfield railroad, rents and interest 32,333
Interest on deposits and taxes 116,808
Commissions 7,875
Hawkers and peddlers 44,567
Corporation fees 9,695
Railroad commissioners 22,683
State police 18,156
State prison 107,209
Reform school 22,798
Industrial school 7,000
Confiscated liquors 19,793
New York and New England railroad company  89,038
Alien estates 4,065
Premium on exchange and loans 25,343
Harbor improvements 16,059

The entire taxable property of the state on May 1, 1874, amounted to $2,164,398,548, of which $1,289,308,763 was real estate, $542,292,402 personal estate, $30,569,512 bank stock not included in the valuation of cities and towns, $217,452,120 deposits in savings banks, and $84,775,750 property of corporations above real estate and machinery taxed in cities and towns. The number of polls was 414,800, on whom the tax amounted to $875,486. The total municipal taxation for state, county, city, and town purposes, including highway tax, amounted to $28,700,605. During the decade ending with 1874 the taxable property of the commonwealth increased to the extent of $1,032,678,594. The yearly valuation and the annual increase during this period were as follows:

 YEARS.   Property returned 
by local assessors.
Deposits in
 savings banks. 
Corporate excess
 above real estate 
and machinery.
 Total.   Increase. 

1865 $991,841,901 00   $59,936,482 52   $79,941,570 77   $1,131,719,954 29   $66,287,834 77
1866  1,081,316,001 00  67,732,264 31  88,015,184 91  1,237,063,450 22  105,343,495 93
1867 1,165,893,413 00  80,431,583 71  85,522,968 02  1,331,847,964 73  94,784,514 51
1868 1,220,498,939 00  94,838,336 54  92,826,758 60  1,407,664,034 14  75,816,069 41
1869 1,341,069,403 00  112,119,016 64  95,167,745 25  1,548,356,164 89  140,692,130 75
1870 1,417,127,376 00  135,745,097 54  92,063,976 00  1,644,936,449 54  96,580,284 65
1871 1,496,678,258 00  163,704,077 54  101,208,665 00  1,761,591,000 54  116,654,551 00
1872 1,696,599,969 00  184,797,313 92  104,757,278 03  1,986,154,560 95  224,563,560 41
1873, including bank shares 1,794,216,110 69  202,195,343 70  90,938,561 07  2,087,350,015 46  101,195,454 51
1874, including bank shares  1,862,170,677 57  217,452,120 84  84,775,750 50  2,164,398,548 91  77,048,533 45

All business corporations are taxed for their real estate and machinery in the place where situated, and their capital stock is taxed by the state at its value over and above the local assessment, the proceeds being distributed to the cities and towns wherein stockholders reside. The property exempted from taxation is valued at $55,088,592, distributed as follows: religious societies, $30,455,075; literary, $13,886,791; charitable and benevolent, $7,726,031; scientific, $2,064,200; agricultural, $956,495. The amount exempted in Boston is $18,713,100, of which $10,650,700 is for churches.—The provisions made by the state for the care of the defective and dependent are liberal and systematic. The charitable and correctional institutions are in charge of separate and independent boards of trustees or inspectors, appointed by the governor and council. They are, however, under the general supervision of the board of state charities, comprising seven members, who collect and publish statistical information concerning them, and recommend to the legislature such action as may seem expedient. On Sept. 30, 1874, the wards of the commonwealth, or persons entirely at its charge, exclusive of prisoners, were 3,626; and adding the blind, the deaf mutes, idiots, and others over whom the state exercises some supervision, the total was 4,103. Including the cost of maintaining the county and city prisons, and of supporting and relieving towns' poor, which is not directly borne by the state, more than $2,000,000 was paid in 1874 for purposes of charity, reform, or correction; and this amount does not include $470,000 of state aid to soldiers. The ordinary appropriations for public charitable and correctional institutions amounted to $568,500, besides $270,000 for charitable purposes outside of institutions, half the latter sum being exceptional. Included in the former sum was $95,000 for the insane, $260,500 for the almshouse, workhouse, and juvenile reformatories, $120,000 for the state prison, $30,000 for deaf mutes, $8,500 for the eye and ear infirmary, $30,000 for the blind, and $20,000 for idiots. The total income of the state from these institutions was about $110,000. The institutions, besides the state prison, owned and managed by the state, with the most important statistics for 1874, were as follows:

 INSTITUTIONS.   Established.   Whole No. 
 of inmates 
in 1874.
 Receipts.  Ordinary

Worcester lunatic hospital 1833 842  476  $320,006  $107,534
Taunton lunatic hospit'l 1854 858  480  183,625  96,218
Northampton lunatic hospital  1858 621  469  99,906  89,876
Tewksbury almshouse 1854 3,022  881  96,858  88,199
Monson primary school 1854 715  480  47,209  45,601
Bridgewater workhouse 1854 798  403  49,310  46,432
Westborough reform school 1848 456  323  89,587  53,065
Lancaster industrial school 1856 140  93  33,934  21,035

Total .... 7,452  3,606   $920,435   $547,960

Of the total receipts, $343,828 was from appropriations for current expenses, while $282,000 was granted for new buildings. The entire expenditures amounted to $885,647. Each of the above named institutions has a farm, the smallest containing 134 and the largest 375 acres. In 1874 they reported a valuation of $2,400,911 on real estate and $608,949 on personal. The institutions at Westborough and Lancaster are reformatories, the former for boys and the latter for girls; admission to both is by sentence of the courts, and for the term of minority. The establishments at Monson and Bridgewater were originally almshouses; the legislation of 1866 converted the one into a primary school and the other into a workhouse; and the almshouse department of each was abolished in 1872. The school at Monson is for children of poverty, boys and girls; admission is granted by the board of state charities. Several hundred children are annually released from these institutions on probation or indenture, and are regularly visited by the state visiting agents. The general duties of this agency are to look after offending and neglected children, and to promote their welfare. The number of children in families outside the state institutions and subject to supervision Sept. 30, 1874, was about 1,400. The following institutions, not under state control, were also aided by the state in 1874, and received state beneficiaries:

 INSTITUTIONS.   Established.   Appropriation.   Whole number 
of inmates.

The Massachusetts charitable eye and ear infirmary, Boston  1824 $8,500  6,652  ... 
The Massachusetts school for idiots, South Boston 1848 20,000  143  92 
Massachusetts asylum for the blind, South Boston 1829 30,000  205  81 
The American asylum for deaf and dumb, Hartford, Conn. 1816
....  85 
The Clarke institution for deaf mutes, Northampton 1867 57  49 
The Boston school for deaf mutes, Boston 1869 ....  55 
Massachusetts infant asylum, Brookline 1867 4,500  ....  51 
Aid of discharged prisoners .... 4,500  ....  427 
Relief of disabled soldiers, Boston .... 3,000  ....  ... 

Total amount appropriated .... $100,500  ....  840 

Massachusetts has provided most liberally for its insane inhabitants. In addition to the asylum in Worcester, which has a capacity for 400 patients, that in Taunton, 500, and that in Northampton, 325, the Tewksbury almshouse has accommodations for 300 chronic harmless insane, and a new asylum capable of receiving 450 is in process of construction at Danvers. Moreover, the McLean asylum in Somerville, which is chiefly supported by private benefactions, will accommodate about 200 patients, the city asylum in Boston about 200, and the county asylum in Ipswich about 70; making the entire capacity for this class not less than 2,450. The number of insane in the state in 1874 was reported at 3,843, of whom 2,625 were under the care of hospitals or overseers of the poor, Sept. 30. The whole number in the various hospitals of the state during the year was 3,380; average number, 2,167; discharged, recovered, 248; improved, 395; not improved, 279; died, 241. Of the number (2,217) remaining Sept. 30, 1874, 821 were supported by the state, 886 by towns, and 510 by individuals. The Massachusetts general hospital in Boston, founded in 1811, affords medical and surgical treatment free to those unable to pay for it. It is supported by the income of its invested funds, to which the state contributed $75,000, and the gifts of individuals. It receives from 1,500 to 2,000 house patients annually, of whom more than half are treated free of charge, and its average of out patients exceeds 1,000 per month. The state prison in Charlestown, in charge of a warden appointed by the governor, is conducted on the congregate plan, the convicts being separated at meals and at night, but associated at labor during the day. Disciplinary punishments are the withdrawal of privileges, with solitary confinement in a dark cell. Many of the convicts are taught trades, and a portion of them are instructed in day schools. All are required to attend religious exercises, and have the privilege of a library. The labor of the convicts is let to contractors, and for some years the prison was a source of profit to the state. The income of the institution in 1874 was $81,098, including $77,068 earned by the convicts; the total expenses were $123,673. The number of convicts ranged from 586 to 685, the daily average being 647. The site has been selected in Concord for a new state prison, on the completion of which, according to the original plan, the one in Charlestown will be discontinued. In the several counties of the state, under the management of officers elected by the people, there are 19 jails and 15 houses of correction, though there are but 21 different establishments, as in many cases the jail and house of correction are under one roof. In 1873 the legislature authorized the building of a reformatory prison for women, to be erected within two years, and to it when completed most of the female convicts will be sentenced. Men and women convicted of certain minor offences are sent to the workhouse at Bridgewater, while juvenile offenders are confined in the reformatories at Westborough and Lancaster. An agency for aiding discharged convicts is provided by the state, which appropriated $3,000 for this purpose in 1874; and there is a temporary asylum for discharged female prisoners at Dedham, supported by gifts and the income of investments, for the benefit of which the state has lately made an annual appropriation of $1,500. There are also houses of reformation in Boston and Lowell, besides the industrial school at Lawrence, the Plummer farm school at Salem, and truant schools in Worcester, Springfield, and Cambridge; and there are many private organizations for charitable purposes. The whole number confined in state, county, and city prisons in 1874 was 17,856; average number, 3,483. The entire cost of these was $581,643, while their earnings amounted to $195,212. The county and municipal prisons are to a limited extent under the supervision of a board of prison commissioners appointed by the governor. During 1874, 4,888 paupers were entirely supported by the state, at a cost of $268,096; the average number was 2,229. Besides these, there was an average of 4,057 paupers supported by towns, at a cost of $643,440. Including those partially supported by the state and by towns, the entire cost of pauperism was $1,412,780, of which $403,000 was borne by the state. The almshouse in Tewksbury is now the only state establishment for paupers.—The system of public schools in Massachusetts has attained a very high degree of excellence. Every person having under his control a child between the ages of 8 and 14 years is required to send it to school at least 20 weeks annually, under penalty of a fine not exceeding $50. Cities and towns must provide truant schools and appoint truant officers, who shall cause the confinement for instruction of habitual truants between the ages of 7 and 15 years. Moreover, there are laws prohibiting the employment of children in manufactories to the neglect of their education. Two agents are employed in visiting the schools of the state for inspection and improvement. In many of the cities and towns text books are furnished free to the pupils in the public schools. The schools are supported by local taxation. The board of education, consisting of 10 members, including the governor and lieutenant governor, has no direct control over the common schools, but exercises an important influence indirectly. It appoints a secretary, who acts as state superintendent, receiving an annual salary of $3,400, which includes expenses. Most of the cities and towns elect superintendents. The most important information concerning the public schools of the commonwealth for 1873-'4 is given in the following statement:

Number of public schools 5,435
Persons between 5 and 15, May 1, 1873 292,481
Pupils of all ages in public schools 297,025
Pupils under 5 years of age 2,522
Pupils over 15 years 24,687
Average attendance 210,248
Ratio of average attendance
to whole number between 5 and 15 72
Number of male teachers 1,078
Number of female teachers 7,637
Number of teachers who have attended normal schools 1,674
Average length of public schools 8 mos. and 8 days.
Average monthly wages of male teachers,
including high school teachers $94 33
Average monthly wages of female teachers $34 34
Raised by taxation for public schools $4,253,211
Income of funds appropriated for public schools
at option of towns $47,316
Voluntary contributions for school purposes $11,162
Income of local school funds $98,960
Income of state school fund $88,032
Salaries of school superintendents $58,322
Ordinary expenditures $4,533,553
Expended for school houses, building and repairing  $1,646,670
Number of high schools 208
Number attending evening schools 10,194
Number attending state charitable and
reformatory schools 1,219
Number of incorporated academies 69
Average number of pupils 4,663
Amount paid for tuition $234,149
Number of private schools and academies 402
Estimated average attendance 13,144
Estimated amount of tuition paid $479,395
Total amount paid to maintain public schools, and
for instruction of children in reformatory 
institutions and almshouses $6,180,848
For each person in the state
between 5 and 15 years of age $21 13

Including the attendance upon academies and private schools (17,800), evening schools (10,194), and charitable and reform schools (1,219), the entire attendance, exclusive of higher institutions of learning, was 326,245; and the entire amount paid for popular education is stated at $7,080,000. Evening schools were supported in 33 cities and towns, at a cost of $52,238. According to the census of 1870, Massachusetts contained 5,726 schools, with 1,428 male and 6,133 female teachers, and 169,337 pupils. The total income of all educational institutions was $4,817,939, of which $383,146 was from endowment, $3,183,794 from taxation and public funds, and $1,250,999 from tuition and other sources. The income of the colleges was $408,126; academies, $285,325; private schools, $533,690. While the number of illiterates over 10 years of age is very large in proportion to the entire population, being .067 per cent., exceeding that of any other New England state except Rhode Island, and that of New York, Pennsylvania, or Ohio, the ratio of native illiterates is smaller than in any of these states except New Hampshire. The statistics of illiteracy previously given show that of 97,742 illiterates 89,830 were of foreign birth, and 85,676 were over 21 years of age. The greatest percentage of illiteracy is found in the manufacturing districts. An important feature has been introduced into the system of education, in accordance with the act of the legislature passed in 1870, which makes industrial drawing a part of the instruction to be given in all public schools, while every city and town of not less than 10,000 inhabitants (23 in number) is required to support free evening drawing schools. The plan of the state director of art education comprehends a 13 years' course of instruction in drawing in the public schools, viz.: three in the primary, six in the grammar, and four in the high schools. Specimens of the drawings made by the pupils are shown in annual public exhibitions. For training teachers of drawing, a state normal art school was opened in Boston in 1873, the legislature having appropriated for this purpose $7,500. The pupils, Jan. 1, 1875, included 58 males and 130 females, and came from 43 cities and towns. Instruction is given by lectures and recitations, with practice; the course, when fully organized, will comprise elementary drawing, painting, sculpture, and architectural and engineering drawing. This is the first institution of the kind established in the United States, and is free to those intending to become teachers of drawing in the Massachusetts schools. The most liberal provision is made by Massachusetts for training teachers. Besides the normal school of art there are five state normal schools under the direction of the board of education. No charge for tuition is made to those who become teachers in the public schools of the commonwealth; others are required to pay $30 a year; and $1,000 is annually appropriated by the state to each school to aid indigent pupils of the former class. The regular course of study occupies two years. One of these institutions is the oldest normal school in the United States, having been established at Lexington in 1839, removed to West Newton in 1844, and to Framingham in 1853. It is exclusively for females, as is also the normal school in Salem. The school in Worcester was opened in September, 1874. The following are the statistics of these schools for the year ending Dec. 1, 1874:

 WHERE SITUATED.   Established.  No. of
No. of
Cost of

Framingham 1839 11  152   $11,033 31
Westfield 1839 204  13,500 00
Bridgewater 1840 10  200  12,998 18
Salem 1854 12  277  12,077 10
Worcester 1874 69  4,816 23

Total .... 47  902   $54,424 82

To those above named may be added the girls' high and normal school and the training school in Boston. Teachers' institutes are held under the direction of the secretary of the state board of education, for which the state appropriates $4,000 annually. The sessions are from three to five days each, and from six to ten are held annually. Nearly 2,000 normal school graduates are teaching in the public schools of the commonwealth. The state agricultural college in Amherst, established with the aid of the national endowment, was opened in 1866; it has an extensive farm, well supplied with thoroughbred animals, and with the buildings and apparatus necessary for imparting a thorough industrial education. The course of study occupies four years, on the completion of which the degree of bachelor of science is conferred. There are agricultural, botanical, and veterinary departments. Applicants for admission must be 15 years of age and pass an examination. The tuition fee is $50 a year. The ordinary annual expenses of the institution are about $30,000, while the regular income is about $25,000, including $10,000 from tuition and room rent and $15,000 from the permanent cash fund of $233,333. In 1874-'5 it had 11 instructors and 121 students, a library of 1,500 volumes, and extensive collections in natural history.—Of the leading institutions of learning not under the patronage of the state, Amherst college, Harvard university, and Williams college are described under their respective titles, while Boston college and Boston university are mentioned in the article on that city. The colleges and professional schools of the state are represented in the following statement for 1874-'5, the number of instructors and pupils in the colleges including also those in the professional departments:

TITLE.  Where situated.   Denomination.  When
Number of
 Number of 

Amherst college  Amherst  Congregational 1821 22  331
Boston college  Boston  Roman Catholic 1863 155
Boston university  Boston  Methodist 1869 90  439
College of the Holy Cross  Worcester  Roman Catholic 1843 14  165
Harvard university  Cambridge  Non-sectarian 1638 114  1,196
Tufts college  Medford  Universalist 1855 17  83
Williams college  Williamstown  Congregational 1793 13  160
Andover theological seminary  Andover  Congregational 1807 11  67
Boston university school of theology  Boston  Methodist Episcopal  1847 11  89
Divinity school of Harvard university  Cambridge  Unitarian 1816 20
Episcopal theological school  Cambridge  Episcopal 1867 13
New Church theological school (1873-'4)  Waltham  New Jerusalem 1866 ..
Newton theological institution  Newton  Baptist 1826 72
Tufts college divinity school  Medford  Universalist 1867 27
Boston university school of law  Boston 1872 12  121
Law school of Harvard university  Cambridge 1817 139
Boston dental college  Boston  Dental 1868 10  25
Boston university school of medicine  Boston  Homœopathic 1873 32  130
Dental school of Harvard university  Boston  Dental 1867 15  38
Massachusetts college of pharmacy (1873-'4)   Boston  Pharmaceutic 1823 83
Medical school of Harvard university  Boston  Regular 1782 29  192

The number of instructors and pupils above given for the Boston university do not include those in the preparatory departments in East Greenwich academy and the New England conservatory of music in Boston. The school of medicine of this university receives pupils of both sexes. The institute of technology in Boston, which is fully described in the articles Boston and Education (vol. vi., p. 431), is one of the most complete institutions of the kind in the United States. The charge for tuition is $200 per annum. In 1874-'5 it had 34 instructors and 283 pupils. The Worcester county free institute of industrial science was organized in Worcester in 1868, for practical education in the arts, agriculture, manufactures, mercantile business, &c. It was founded in 1865 by John Boynton, who gave for the purpose $100,000; $200,000 was also contributed by Stephen Salisbury, and a large sum was given by Ichabod Washburn. No charge is made for tuition to residents of Worcester county, and but a small charge to others. In 1869 a grant of $50,000 was made by the state, in consideration of which the institution will receive 20 pupils annually for the entire course of three years, free of charge. In 1874-'5 it had 10 instructors, 99 pupils, and productive funds amounting to $367,000. Besides these institutions and the agricultural college, special instruction in science is afforded by the Lawrence scientific school and the mining school of Harvard university; in agriculture and horticulture by the Bussey institute, connected with the same institution; and in natural history by the museum of comparative zoölogy in Cambridge and the Anderson school of natural history on Penikese island. (See Harvard University, and Elizabeth Islands.) The university of modern languages at Newburyport has been organized for the purpose of affording to students, without regard to age, sex, or nationality, instruction in European and Asiatic languages, and also modern sciences, by teachers native of the respective countries. The English department is intended for foreign students desiring to learn that language. The endowment fund (1875) exceeds $300,000, which it is intended to increase to $1,000,000, and the buildings for domestic and school purposes are in process of construction. The oriental department is to be first opened. The leading institutions for the superior instruction of females are Abbott academy, Andover; Bradford academy, Bradford; Gannett institute, Boston; Lasell female seminary, Auburndale; Maplewood institute for young ladies, Pittsfield; Mount Holyoke female seminary, South Hadley; Notre Dame academy, Boston Highlands; the Oread institute for young ladies, Worcester; Wheaton female seminary, Norton; Wellesley college, Needham; and Smith college, Northampton.—There are not fewer than 150 libraries other than private in Massachusetts containing more than 1,000 volumes each, and about 50 containing 10,000 or more. The largest are that of Amherst college, about 29,000; Andover theological seminary, 32,000; Boston Athenæum, 103,000; mercantile, 20,000; public, 260,500; state, 34,000; Harvard university, 200,000; free public library, New Bedford, 30,000; Essex institute and Athenæum, Salem, 43,000; city library association, Springfield, 36,000; museum of natural history, Springfield, 28,000; American antiquarian society, Worcester, 55,000; and the public library of Worcester, 35,500. According to the census of 1870, the whole number of libraries was 3,169, with an aggregate of 3,017,813 volumes. Of these, 1,625, with 1,007,204 volumes, were private, and 1,544, with 2,010,609 volumes, other than private, including the state library of 35,000 volumes; 95 town, city, &c., 475,853; 18 court and law, 27,708; 20 school, college, &c., 253,127; 1,042 Sabbath school, 539,609; 164 church, 85,956; 11 of historical, literary, and scientific societies, 186,800; 6 of benevolent and secret associations, 63,000; and 186 circulating, 347,556. The whole number of newspapers and periodicals was 259, having an aggregate circulation of 1,692,124, and issuing annually 129,691,266 copies. There were 21 daily, with a circulation of 231,625; 1 tri-weekly, 800; 16 semi-weekly, 41,484; 153 weekly, 899,465; 11 semi-monthly, 45,200; 48 monthly, 462,150; 9 quarterly, 11,400; and 1 annual, 3,000. In 1874 the total number was reported at 321, including 26 daily, 1 tri-weekly, 10 semi-weekly, 212 weekly, 4 bi-weekly, 2 semi-monthly, 55 month- ly, and 1 bi-monthly. The total number of religious organizations was 1,848, having 1,764 edifices, with 882,317 sittings, and property valued at $24,488,285. The denominations were represented as follows:

DENOMINATIONS.  Organizations.   Edifices.   Sittings.   Property. 

Baptist, regular  271   280   132,805   $3,194,298 
Baptist, other 15  15  6,230  136,700 
Christian 31  31  9,675  128,440 
Congregational 500  502  269,314  6,298,327 
Episcopal, Protestant 107  99  46,245  2,304,435 
Friends 29  29  7,950  91,680 
Jewish 1,500  33,000 
Lutheran 450  20,000 
Methodist 297  290  117,325  2,904,100 
New Jerusalem 15  12  3,800  199,800 
Presbyterian, regular 13  10  5,700  257,325 
Reformed church in the
United States 
(late Ger. Reformed)  950  24,000 
Roman Catholic 196  162  130,415  3,581,095 
Second Advent 15  12  3,400  53,540 
Shaker 1,550  13,600 
Spiritualist 19  400  1,400 
Unitarian 180  179  98,306  3,470,575 
United Brethren in Christ  100  500 
Universalist 97  87  35,627  1,613,000 
Unknown (union) 42  44  10,575  167,470 

—The first settlement in Massachusetts was made on the Elizabeth islands in 1602 by Bartholomew Gosnold and 32 English colonists; but it was soon abandoned. Other expeditions visited the coast for the purpose of getting possession of the country, but with unimportant results. On Sept. 6, 1620 (O. S.), about 100 English who had sought religious liberty in Holland, having embarked from Delft Haven, set sail from Plymouth, England, in the Mayflower, of 180 tons, for the purpose of settling in America. They had made terms with the Virginia company, which had received from the crown important privileges in America. They reached Cape Cod Nov. 9, and anchored in the roadstead of the present Provincetown. Before landing they drew up and subscribed a solemn compact or constitution, by the terms of which they were to be ruled; and immediately after John Carver was elected governor for one year. An exploring party spent some days in searching for a favorable place to begin the settlement, and they at last landed at Plymouth, Dec. 11 (O. S.). Here the severity of the weather, exposure, and bad food brought on sickness, which reduced their number nearly one half in about four months. Three months after landing they made a treaty of amity with the Indian chief Massasoit and his people, with whom they long remained friends. With other chiefs and tribes they had occasional disputes and skirmishes, but they were soon freed from serious molestation. In these matters Capt. Miles Standish achieved great reputation. In the spring the Mayflower departed, and shortly after Carver died, and was succeeded by William Bradford, with Isaac Allerton as his assistant. Until 1623, when they had a plentiful harvest, the colony endured many privations, and were often near famishing. In that year some changes were made in the system of labor, and the plan of common property was abandoned. During this time the colony received accessions from abroad, and other settlements were attempted. A new patent was obtained in 1622 by Mr. Weston of London, formerly connected with the Plymouth colonists, under which he despatched an expedition to settle for him a plantation in Massachusetts bay. They were hospitably received at Plymouth, and commenced a plantation at Wessagusset, now Weymouth. All efforts to obtain a patent from the crown were unavailing, and the Plymouth colonists were thus obliged to carry on their government without the royal sanction. They quietly assumed all the necessary powers and discharged all the functions of the state. A governor, with a council at first of five and afterward of seven assistants, and a legislature consisting at first of the “whole body of the male inhabitants,” made and administered the laws by which the state was ruled. In 1628 an expedition commanded by John Endicott reached Salem, having been organized by an English company which had obtained a grant of territory lying between the Atlantic and the Pacific, and extending 3 m. S. of the river Charles and Massachusetts bay and 3 m. N. of every part of the river Merrimack. Endicott's safe arrival excited renewed interest, new associates joined, and a royal patent was at last obtained for the company of the Massachusetts Bay. The charter established a corporation, and the associates were constituted a body politic. Its officers were a governor, deputy, and 18 assistants, to be annually elected. A general assembly of the freemen, to be held four times a year or oftener if required, was intrusted with legislative powers. The question of religious liberty was avoided in the instrument, but the making of laws contrary to those of England was strictly forbidden. In 1629 a re-enforcement was despatched, consisting of 300 men, 80 women, and 26 children, with victuals, arms, tools, cattle, and goats; and in the same year it was determined to transfer the government and patent of the company from London to New England. The old officers resigned, and new officers were appointed from among those who intended to emigrate, John Winthrop being made governor. A new emigration was thus promoted, and soon the colony received an accession of about 1,000 persons, who had been conveyed in 17 vessels. Sites for settlements were promptly selected; and the names of Charlestown, Boston, Watertown, Dorchester, Roxbury, Salem, Mystic, Saugus (Lynn), and others, occur in the history of this period. This colony suffered great hardships. Many died, and others returned disheartened to England. The Massachusetts company continued to receive additions from England, and in the exercise of their political and religious privileges manifested a jealous and vigilant interest. Intolerance led to the banishment of Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson in the early years of the settlement, as it did later to the persecution of the Quakers. Issues were made between the magistrates and people on the construction of the charter in reference to legislation and representation, the mode of voting was changed from the show of hands to the ballot, and a law against arbitrary taxation was passed; while from 1634 to 1644 a dispute continued concerning the relative powers of the assistants and deputies. The Massachusetts colonists for four years after their settlement had been left to bear their burdens and work out their own way without the interference of England. But the increasing emigration from the latter country, and a suspicion on the part of the crown that the colony desired to be independent, led to an attempt to annul the charter, and the appointment of a special commission for its government, at the head of which was Archbishop Laud. The colony received an order, which they evaded, to deliver up their charter, and at a meeting of the general court measures were taken for the fortification of Boston harbor, Charlestown, and Dorchester, and arrangements made for drilling troops. The political agitations of the mother country preserved the colony from the dangers which threatened her from that quarter. A disturbance with the Pequots led to the Pequot war (1637), the brunt of which was borne by the settlers in Connecticut. On the restoration of the Stuarts new troubles threatened Massachusetts. Its protest against the injustice of being subject to the laws of parliament, acquiesced in by the long parliament, was disregarded by the judges under the restoration, and it was declared to be under the legislative supremacy of parliament without restriction. The colony had addressed the king on his return, praying for the continuance of civil and religious liberties; and Leverett, the agent in London, was urged to support their application. Much controversy ensued, and at length in 1662 a commission sent to England obtained a confirmation of the charter from the king, and a conditional promise of an amnesty for all offences during the late troubles; but the king maintained his right to interfere in the domestic concerns of the colony, demanded the repeal of all laws derogatory to his authority, the taking of the oath of allegiance, the administration of justice in his name, the complete toleration of the church of England, and a concession of the elective franchise to every inhabitant possessing a competent estate. These demands were strongly opposed by one portion of the community, while the other was willing to yield for the sake of quiet. Commissioners charged to investigate the affairs of the colony arrived in 1664. Massachusetts published an order prohibiting complaints to them, and a remonstrance was addressed to the king. After an unsuccessful attempt to carry put the purposes of their mission, the commissioners went into Maine, and were subsequently recalled. Massachusetts was reproved by the king, while Bellingham, the governor, Hawthorne, and two or three others were commanded to appear in England, but refused. The prosperity of the colonies received a severe check in the war with the Indians, called King Philip's war, which commenced in 1675, and on the part of the savages was one of desperation. During this war, which lasted till the latter part of 1676, and was terminated by the death of Philip, 12 or 13 towns were destroyed, more than 600 of the colonists perished in the field, and about 600 houses were burned. Of the men 1 in 20 had fallen, and of the families 1 in 20 was houseless, while the expenses reached the enormous sum for that day of $500,000. Though the war had been conducted without assistance from England, it had hardly ceased when an emissary from that country, Edward Randolph, arrived. His pretensions were disallowed, and he returned to excite further hostility against Massachusetts. A committee of the privy council, at the suit of Mason and Gorges, subsequently denied her right of jurisdiction over Maine and New Hampshire, which thus became separated; but the title to Maine was purchased and retained by Massachusetts until 1820. Notwithstanding many concessions, the colony failed to effect a reconciliation with the king. In 1684 the high court of chancery in England gave judgment for the crown against the governor and company of Massachusetts, and their charter was declared forfeited. Joseph Dudley was appointed president of Massachusetts, the general court was dissolved, and the new commission superseded the government under the charter. On Dec. 20, 1686, Dudley was superseded by Sir Edmund Andros. The new governor and his council, in the most arbitrary and illegal manner, proceeded to make laws and levy taxes; and this tyrannous rule was submitted to, not without protest and opposition, for more than two years. In April, 1689, reports having been received of the flight of James and the accession of William and Mary, on a rumor of an intended massacre by the governor's guards, the men of Boston, aided by others from the country, rose in arms, imprisoned Andros and others who were obnoxious, and reinstated the old magistrates. Next day crowds from the country came pouring in; the people took the castle and the frigate Rose, and occupied the fortifications; town meetings were held, representatives chosen, and the general court was restored. The same spirit prevailed at Plymouth; Clark, the agent of Andros, was imprisoned, and Hinckley, the former governor, reinstated. Massachusetts took part in 1690 in the intercolonial war between the possessions of France and England. A fleet under Sir William Phips captured and plundered Port Royal. An expedition to Canada failed, and the colony, being unable to pay the troops, issued treasury notes, the first paper money seen in the colonies. A new charter was given in 1692, by which Plymouth was united to Massachusetts. At this period Massachusetts contained a population of about 40,000. It was divided into the counties of Suffolk, Essex, Middlesex, and Hampshire, and comprised 55 towns. Plymouth, with a population of about 7,000, was divided into the counties of Plymouth, Bristol, and Barnstable, and comprised 17 towns. Under the new charter, the governor, lieutenant governor, and secretary were appointed by the king. No act of the legislature was to be valid without the consent of the governor, and he had other important negative as well as positive powers. Sir William Phips was appointed first governor. At about this period occurred the witchcraft delusion. (See Salem.) In l703-'4 the province suffered from the French and Indians, who attacked and burned Deerfield, which had been rebuilt since King Philip's war. In 1722 war was resumed with the Indians, and continued until the latter part of 1725, when the troubles with them were terminated. War having been declared between England and France in 1744, the colonial possessions were at once involved. Massachusetts contributed largely to the expedition which captured Louisburg in 1745, and exerted her best energies in the plans for the conquest of Canada and other military operations until the conclusion of peace in 1748. In a few years war again commenced, and the province once more gave her sons and her wealth to the cause of the parent country. The passage of the stamp act aroused the wildest excitement, and its repeal the following year was welcomed with the most extravagant demonstrations of joy. Further plans for revenue were then proposed by the home government, which also refused to withdraw its troops. The arrival of the Romney man-of-war renewed the excitement, and Massachusetts issued another circular letter to the colonies which the ministry in vain commanded them to rescind. The Boston massacre in 1770, the destruction of the tea in 1773, the port bill in 1774, are notable incidents preceding the revolution. The province was well represented in the general congress, and the men of Massachusetts were alive to every act of aggression. They took possession of the arsenal at Charlestown, and prepared for the approaching struggle. The assembly adjourned to Concord, and organized as a provincial congress. At Lexington and Concord Massachusetts made the final appeal to arms. Throughout the revolutionary war Massachusetts sustained her former reputation for patriotism and public spirit, and the details of her history at this period will be found in the accounts of those places within her borders which are of historical interest. The population of Massachusetts has been estimated at 200,000 in 1750; 220,000, exclusive of slaves, in 1755; 241,000, including 5,200 slaves, in 1763; and 852,000 in 1775. In 1780 a constitution was framed for the state, which was submitted to the vote of the people and adopted. It is still the supreme law of the state, though several times amended. By a clause in the bill of rights prefixed to it, slavery was soon decided to have been abolished. John Hancock was elected first governor. Six years later, in 1786, civil disturbances commenced in the centre and west of the state, caused by the poverty and distress of a great portion of the people, and the heavy taxes necessary to pay the state debt. An insurrection known as Shays's rebellion from the name of its principal leader, Daniel Shays, broke out, and was not suppressed without bloodshed. The federal constitution was ratified by a state convention, which met in Boston, Jan. 9, 1788, and gave its assent by a vote of 187 to 168. After the formation of the government Massachusetts adhered generally to the federal party, and was foremost among the states opposed to the war with England in 1812, though she furnished great numbers of seamen to the navy. In 1814 she sent delegates to the convention of the New England states which met at Hartford to confer upon the subject of grievances, and to take such measures for relief as were “not repugnant to their obligations as members of the Union.” Of that convention George Cabot of Massachusetts was president. In 1820 a convention to revise the constitution proposed various amendments, nine of which were ratified by the popular vote. In the same year the district of Maine was separated from Massachusetts, with the consent of the latter, and erected into a state. In 1857 amendments of the constitution were made, by which the district system of choosing representatives and senators to the state legislature was adopted, in place of the apportionment by towns and counties. During the civil war Massachusetts furnished to the army and navy 159,165 troops, or 131,116 reduced to the three years' standard, the latter being a surplus of 13,492 over all calls by the general government. The losses included 3,749 killed in action, 9,086 who died from wounds or disease, 15,645 discharged for disability contracted in service, and 5,866 not accounted for, of which at least one half were probably deaths. The total expenditures by the state on account of the war were $30,162,200. Since the close of the war a militia force of about 6,000 men has been maintained, at an average annual expense of $175,000.