The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Minneapolis
MINNEAPOLIS, a city and the county seat of Hennepin co., Minnesota, on both sides of the Mississippi river, here spanned by four bridges, at the falls of St. Anthony, 14 m. above St. Paul by the course of the stream, and 8 m. in a direct line W. N. W. of that city; pop. (within its present limits) in 1860, 5,822; in 1870, 18,079, of whom 6,013 were foreigners; in 1874, estimated by local authorities at 32,000. It is built on a broad natural esplanade overlooking the falls and the river, which is bordered at various points by picturesque bluffs. The surrounding country is remarkable for its beauty. Numerous lakes, particularly to the west, dot the landscape. The chief of these are Cedar, Calhoun, and Harriet, S. W. of the city. The celebrated Minnehaha falls, 3 m. below, attract large numbers of visitors. A cemetery association which was organized in 1871 has selected 128 acres between Lakes Calhoun and Harriet as the site for a cemetery. These grounds are covered with groves of young trees, and command fine views of the lakes. The city is regularly laid out, with avenues running E. and W. and streets crossing them N. and S. They are generally 80 ft. wide, with 20 ft. sidewalks, and two rows of trees on each side. There are many substantial business blocks and elegant residences. The court house, city hall, two principal hotels, academy of music, opera house, and Athenæum are noticeable structures. The city is supplied with water by powerful works, the streets are lighted with gas, and a system of sewerage is in process of construction. The Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul railroad has its terminus here. The St. Paul and Pacific, and the Lake Superior and Mississippi railroads, with the Minneapolis and St. Louis line, connect the city with the Northern Pacific railroad, with Duluth, and with St. Paul and the diverging lines. A line of steamers in summer runs from above the falls to St. Cloud on the upper Mississippi.—The wholesale trade of Minneapolis is important and constantly increasing. There are four large groceries, doing a business of from $4,000,000 to $5,000,000 a year, several hardware and iron houses, and three large dry-goods stores. The total commercial business in 1873 amounted to $14,301,700; in 1871 it was $10,530,000. There were five national banks and six private and savings banks in 1873, with an aggregate capital of $1,025,000, and loans, discounts, and exchange to the amount of $14,682,400. The amount of freight forwarded by rail in 1873 was 392,480,329 lbs.; received, 203,942,760 lbs.; being an increase over 1872 in receipts and shipments of 80,062,550 lbs. The falls of St. Anthony, having a perpendicular descent of 18 ft. and a total descent of 50 ft. within the space of a mile, afford abundant water power for manufacturing. The two principal items of manufacture are lumber and flour. There are 18 lumber mills, with an aggregate capital of $1,110,000; hands employed in 1873, 2,062; feet of lumber manufactured, 189,909,782; shingles, 114,554,250; lath, 32,843,150; pickets, 546,373; total value of products, $3,850,000. At the close of 1873 there were 18 flouring mills, with 150 run of stone and a daily capacity of 7,370 barrels, and others in course of erection which would increase the stone to 184 run and the capacity to 9,200 barrels a day. One of the mills, with 40 run of stone, is the largest in the country. The number of bushels of grain ground in 1873 was 3,545,000; barrels of flour produced, 646,000; pounds of feed, 57,050,000; total value of products, $4,842,920. At the two grain elevators 1,687,423 bushels of wheat were handled in 1873. A third elevator, larger than either of the others, is in course of construction. There are extensive works for the manufacture of engines, boilers, water wheels, ploughs, harvesters, &c.; several manufactories of sash, doors, and blinds, four of furniture and desks, seven of barrels, seven of boots and shoes, five of saddlery and harness, two of bricks, two of soap, nine of carriages and wagons, one. of linseed oil; several breweries, two paper mills, a cotton mill, and a woollen mill. There is also a pork-packing establishment, and the Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul railroad has here extensive machine and repair shops. The number of hands employed in manufacturing in 1873 was 5,320; value of all products, $15,879,680; amount of capital invested, $16,000,000. The number of hands employed in 1867 was 1,841; value of products, $4,460,358. The amount expended in the city in building and improvements in 1873 was $1,729,700; taxable value of property, May 1, 1874, $26,947,969.—Minneapolis is divided into ten wards, and is governed by a mayor and a board of aldermen of two members from each ward. It has a municipal court and an efficient police force and fire department. It is the seat of the state university, which occupies large buildings on the E. side of the river. (See Minnesota, University of.) Augsburg theological seminary (Evangelical Lutheran) was organized in 1869 by Scandinavians. In 1873-'4 it had 5 professors and instructors, 63 students, and a library of 1,100 volumes. There are also an academy, a female seminary, and a business college. The Methodists are erecting (1875) a large edifice near the city for Hamline university, soon to be organized. The public schools embrace the various grades from primary to high school. There are ten school buildings of brick and stone. The number of departments in 1873 was 35; teachers, 37; pupils enrolled, 2,298; average attendance, 1,866. The Athenæum library contains 4,000 volumes. There are two daily and nine weekly (two Norwegian and one German) newspapers, and two semi-monthly (one Norwegian) periodicals. The number of churches is 48, viz.: 5 Baptist (1 African and 1 Swedish), 1 Christian, 5 Congregational, 4 Episcopal (besides 2 missions), 1 Freewill Baptist, 1 Friends', 7 Lutheran (3 German Evangelical, 3 Norwegian, and 1 Swedish Evangelical), 11 Methodist (1 African, 2 German, and 1 Scandinavian), 4 Presbyterian, 4 Roman Catholic, 1 Swedenborgian, 1 Unitarian, and 3 Universalist.—Minneapolis was first settled in 1849, and originally embraced only that portion of the city on the W. bank of the Mississippi. It was incorporated in 1867, and in 1872 the city of St. Anthony on the E. bank of the river (incorporated in 1856) was consolidated with it.