The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Minnesota

MINNESOTA, one of the northwestern states of the American Union, the 19th admitted, and the 28th in rank according to population, situated between lat. 43° 30' and 49° 24' N., and lon. 89° 39' and 97° 5' W.; extreme length N. and S., 380 m.; breadth from 183 m. in the middle to 262 m. on the S. line and 337 m. near the N. line; area, 83,531 sq. m. It is bounded N. by British America, the dividing line being formed W. of the lake of the Woods by the 49th parallel, and E. of that lake by Rainy Lake river, Rainy and other lakes, and Pigeon river; E. by Lake Superior and Wisconsin, from which it is separated by a line drawn due S. from the first rapids in the St. Louis river to the St. Croix river, and by the St. Croix and Mississippi rivers; S. by Iowa; and W. by Dakota, from which it is divided by the Red river of the North, the Bois des Sioux river, Lake Traverse and Big Stone lake, and a line drawn directly S. from the outlet of the last named lake to the Iowa boundary.

State Seal of Minnesota.

The state is divided into 76 counties, viz.: Aitken, Anoka, Becker, Beltrami, Benton, Big Stone, Blue Earth, Brown, Carlton, Carver, Cass, Chippewa, Chisago, Clay, Cook, Cottonwood, Crow Wing, Dakota, Dodge, Douglas, Faribault, Fillmore, Freeborn, Goodhue, Grant, Hennepin, Houston, Isanti, Itasca, Jackson, Kanabec, Kandiyohi, Lac qui Parle, Lake, Le Sueur, Lincoln, Lyon, McLeod, Martin, Meeker, Mille Lacs, Morrison, Mower, Murray, Nicollet, Nobles, Olmsted, Otter Tail, Pembina, Pine, Polk, Pope, Ramsey, Redwood, Renville, Rice, Rock, St. Louis, Scott, Sherburne, Sibley, Stearns, Steele, Stevens, Swift, Todd, Traverse, Wabashaw, Wadena, Waseca, Washington, Watonwan, Wilkin, Winona, Wright, Yellow Medicine. St. Paul, the capital, near the E. border of the state, 400 m. N. W. of Chicago, had 20,030 inhabitants in 1870. The other cities, according to the census of 1870, were: Duluth, 3,131 inhabitants; Hastings, 3,458; Mankato, 3,482; Minneapolis, 13,066; Owatonna, 2,070; Red Wing, 4,260; Rochester, 3,953; St. Anthony, 5,013; St. Cloud, 2,161; and Winona, 7,192. Since the census St. Anthony has been annexed to Minneapolis.—The population of Minnesota was 6,077 in 1850, 172,023 in 1860, 250,099 (state census) in 1865, and 439,706 in 1870, including 438,257 white, 759 colored, and 690 Indians. The calculated population on June 1, 1873, was 552,459. Of the total population in 1870, 235,299 were males and 204,407 females, and 279,009 were of native and 160,697 of foreign birth. Of the natives, 125,491 were born in the state, 10,979 in Illinois, 9,939 in Maine, 39,507 in New York, 12,651 in Ohio, 11,966 in Pennsylvania, and 24,048 in Wisconsin. The foreign population comprised 16,698 born in British America, 1,910 in Denmark, 1,743 in France, 41,364 in Germany, 5,670 in England, 21,748 in Ireland, 2,194 in Scotland, 1,855 in Holland, 35,940 in Norway, 20,987 in Sweden, and 2,162 in Switzerland. The density of population was 5.26 to a square mile. There were 82,471 families with an average of 5.33 persons to each, and 81,140 dwellings with an average of 5.42 persons to each. The increase of population from 1860 to 1870 was 155.61 per cent., being a greater percentage of increase than that of any other state except Kansas. The number of male citizens 21 years old and upward was 75,274; of persons from 5 to 18 years of age, 142,665; attending school, 96,793. There were 12,747 persons 10 years of age and upward unable to read, and 24,413 unable to write; of the latter, 5,558 were of native and 18,855 of foreign birth; illiterates, 7.99 per cent. of the population 10 years old and over; number of illiterates 21 years of age and upward, 18,484, of whom 8,195 were males and 10,289 females. The number of paupers supported during the year ending June 1, 1870, was 684, at a cost of $66,167. Of the total number (392) receiving support June 1, 1870, 126 were natives and 266 foreigners. The number of persons convicted of crime during the year was 214; in prison at the end of the year, 129, including 73 natives and 56 foreigners. The state, contained 103 blind, 166 deaf and dumb, 302 insane, and 134 idiotic. Of the total population 10 years old and over (305,568), there were engaged in all occupations 132,657; in agriculture, 75,157, including 20,277 laborers and 54,623 farmers and planters; in professional and personal services, 28,330, of whom 620 were clergymen, 8,556 domestic servants, 13,037 laborers not specified, 449 lawyers, 402 physicians and surgeons, and 1,754 teachers not specified; in trade and transportation, 10,582; and in manufactures and mechanical and mining industries, 18,588. The total number of deaths from all causes was 3,526, being 0.802 per cent. of the population. There were 459 deaths from consumption, being 7.7 deaths from all causes to 1 from that disease; 177 from pneumonia, 19.9 from all causes to 1 from that disease; 112 from diarrhœa, 108 from cholera infantum, and 103 from whooping cough. The number of deaths reported by the state authorities in 1872 was 5,228, or 1.035 per cent. of the population. Of the whole number of deaths, 36.07 per cent. were from zymotic diseases, 13.50 constitutional, 18.61 local, 10.04 developmental, 4.72 violent deaths, and 17.04 unknown. The excess of births over deaths was 9,734. At the beginning of 1875 there were 5,973 Indians reported in Minnesota, who were settled on reservations in the central and northern parts of the state. They consisted of seven bands of Chippewas, with three agencies at White Earth, Leech lake, and Red lake. These Indians have schools and are for the most part occupied in agriculture.—Lying nearly at the centre of the continent and occupying the most elevated plateau between the gulf of Mexico and Hudson bay, Minnesota forms the watershed of the three great river systems of North America: that of the Mississippi, which flows S. to the gulf of Mexico; that of the St. Lawrence, which, connected with the chain of northern lakes, has an easterly direction to the Atlantic ocean; and that of the Red river of the North, flowing N. to Winnepeg lake, which has its outlet in Hudson bay. A group of low sandhills in the N. E. part of the state, formed by huge deposits of drift overlying a local outcrop of the primary and metamorphic rocks, and called Hauteurs des Terres, forms the dividing ridge between the Mississippi and Lake Superior. The Heights of Land rise by scarcely perceptible slopes from the general level, in no instance higher than 1,680 ft. above the sea, which is not more than 600 ft. above the average elevation of the country. These hills are commonly flat at the top, varying in height from 85 to 100 ft. above the surrounding waters. The principal group of these drift hills is subdivided into several ramifications. A prominent spur extends southerly from the Itasca crest of the Mississippi for perhaps 150 m., known as the Leaf mountains and the Coteau du Grand Bois of Nicollet, and forms a low dividing ridge between the waters of the Mississippi and Red rivers. The crest of the dividing ridge between Lake Superior and the Mississippi is not more than 1,400 ft. high; and the highest of the trap summits north of the lake is but 1,475 ft. Generally the surface of Minnesota is an undulating plain, with an average elevation of nearly 1,000 ft. above the sea, and presents a succession of small rolling prairies or table lands, studded with lakes and groves, and alternating with belts of timber. Two thirds of the surface slopes S. E. with the waters of the Mississippi, the northern part of the state being nearly equally divided between the alluvial levels of the Red river valley on the northwest and the broken highlands of the northeast, which are mainly drained by the precipitous streams which flow into Lake Superior and the Rainy lake chain.—The Mississippi river rises in Lake Itasca in the extreme western elbow of the Heights of Land, and flows S. E., 797 m. of its course belonging to Minnesota, of which 134 forms the E. boundary; it is navigable about 540 m. within the state. The Minnesota traverses the lower part of the state in a S. E. and N. E. direction, and after a course through the state of 450 m. falls into the Mississippi at Fort Snelling, 5 m. above St. Paul; it is navigable about 300 m. The Red river of the North rises in Elbow lake, flows through several lakes, running in a S. W. direction, and then turning N. forms the W. boundary for 379 m.; it is navigable about 250 m. The St. Croix rises in Wisconsin, forms 129 m. of the E. boundary, and falls into the Mississippi; it is navigable for 53 m. In the N. E. part is the St. Louis river, which falls into Lake Superior, and is important as the first link in the chain of lakes and rivers of the St. Lawrence system; and in the S. W. are the head waters of the Des Moines, about 135 m. long, of which about 20 are navigable. All the rivers have numerous branches, which are not navigable. The navigable waters within the state have a total shore line of 2,746 m., and a water line of 1,532 m. Along the banks of the Mississippi and of some other rivers are high bluffs, forming one of the most interesting and characteristic features of the scenery. Minnesota is distinguished for the number and beauty of its lakes. They have been estimated as high as 10,000 in number, and are from 1 m. to 30 m. in diameter; and many of them have an area of from 100 to 400 sq. m. Their waters, generally sweet and clear, abound in fish. The largest are the lake of the Woods, Rainy, Namekin, Bois Blanc, Vermilion, Swan, Sandy, Winibigoshish, and Leech lakes, and Mille lacs in the north and northeast, Red lake in the northwest, Big Stone, Benton, Sauk, and Swan in the west and southwest.—Notwithstanding the great area covered by this state, its rock formations, so far as they have been explored, appear to be limited almost exclusively to the azoic and lower protozoic groups; and over the greater part of the state these are concealed beneath the diluvial deposits which make the superficial covering of the rolling prairies. The N. W. coast of Lake Superior is made up of metamorphic slates and sandstones, intermingled with grits of volcanic origin and other bedded traps and porphyries. These are intersected by frequent dikes of greenstone and basalt; and among them are occasional deposits of red clay, marl, and drift. Behind this group are traced westward, along the northern boundary of the state, formations of hornblende and argillaceous slates, succeeded by granitic and other metamorphic rocks. These groups extend S. W. into the central portions of the state. Along the southern boundary the Devonian formation is found in the extreme west; the Niagara limestone succeeds this toward the east, and next occurs the Galena limestone, and then the Trenton limestone and the upper or St. Peter's sandstone, which overlies the Potsdam sandstone. These sandstones crop out up the valley of the Mississippi, nearly as far as Fort Snelling, where the lower Silurian limestones, which on both sides of the river lie behind and over the sandstones, meet in the valley and form the bluffs of the rivers. They are traced up the Minnesota river, curving round and almost reaching the southern boundary of the state again, and cutting off the continuation of the higher groups further northward. Thus throughout the state there appears to be no room for the carboniferous group. The lead-bearing rocks traced from the Iowa line are limited and of little importance. It is believed that the N. E. corner of the state will prove a valuable mineral field. Copper abounds in the mineral belt stretching along the N. shore of Lake Superior, and masses of the pure metal have been taken from Knife and Stuart rivers. Iron ore of good quality is found in considerable quantities around Portage and Pigeon rivers. Large deposits of peat exist in all parts of the state. In the Red river valley are extensive salt springs. Slate, limestone, sand for glass, and clay are also found. The existence of gold and silver on the shores of Vermilion lake has been shown. A geological and natural history survey of Minnesota is now (1875) in progress, under the direction of N. H. Winchell, state geologist, and S. F. Peckham, state chemist, professors in the state university, to which institution the survey has been intrusted by law. Up to 1875 a preliminary report and two reports of progress had been printed in the annual reports of the board of regents for 1873-'5.—The soil is fertile, two thirds of the surface being well adapted to the cultivation of all the cereals and roots of the temperate zone. It is composed generally of a dark, calcareous loam, abounding in organic and saline ingredients, and is retentive of moisture. The climate of Minnesota is pleasant. The winters are cold, but clear and dry, and the fall of snow is light; the summers are warm, with breezy nights, during which occur most of the rains; and the general purity of the air and salubrity of its climate recommend it for the residence of invalids. The following summary for 1874, reported by the United States signal bureau, is for St. Paul, lat. 44° 53', lon. 93° 5':  MONTH. THERMOMETER. Mean barometer. Total rainfall, inches. Prevailing wind. Maximum. Minimum. Mean. January 43.00 -23.00 13.85 30.073 0.49 Southeast. February 36.00 -18.00 14.40 30.082 1.07 Southeast. March 46.00 -5.00 23.66 30.030 2.24 Northwest. April 71.00 7.00 37.52 30.003 0.95 North. May 94.00 31.00 62.24 29.860 1.65 North. June 94.00 42.00 68.70 29.797 11.67 Southeast. July 99.00 53.00 74.72 29.842 1.94 Southeast. August 91.00 54.00 70.54 29.892 3.90 Southeast. September 92.00 37.00 60.95 29.908 5.76 Southeast. October 74.00 21.00 49.36 30.008 3.21 Northwest. November 72.00 -8.00 28.72 29.951 1.90 Southeast. December 48.00 -20.00 18.81 30.848 0.72 Northwest. ⁠Mean 71.67 14.25 43.62 30.490 35.50 Southeast. The country, especially above lat. 46°, is well timbered; pine forests extend far to the north, and birch, maple, aspen, ash, and elm abound. A large forest of hard-wood varieties, known as the Big Woods, and called Bois Franc by the early French settlers, extends over the central portion of the state W. of the Mississippi, and covers an area of about 4,000 sq. m. On the river bottoms are found basswood, elm, aspen, butternut, ash, birch, maple, linden, balsam fir, and some oaks; and in the swamps tamarack, cedar, and cypress. Among the wild animals are the elk, deer, antelope, bear, wolverene, otter, muskrat, mink, marten, raccoon, and wolf. Of birds, there are the golden and bald eagles, grouse, partridge, hawk, buzzard, owl, quail, plover, lark, and many smaller kinds. There are also the pelican, tern, sheldrake, teal, loon, wild geese, wild ducks, and other water fowl. The waters contain pike, pickerel, bass, whitefish, muskelonge, catfish, trout, and other varieties of fish.—Many natural objects of interest are found in the state. The Mississippi, studded with islands and bordered by high bluffs, presents a succession of picturesque scenes. Mountain island, with an elevation of 428 ft., Maiden's rock, celebrated in Indian tradition, on an expansion of the river called Lake Pepin, about 400 ft. high, and La Grange mountain on the same lake, are all notable. St. Anthony's falls, celebrated as much for their surrounding scenery as for the descent of the waters, which have a perpendicular fall of only 18 ft., are further up the river. A few miles beyond, between Minneapolis and Fort Snelling, are the Minnehaha falls, a romantic and beautiful cascade with a perpendicular pitch of 45 ft., flowing over a projecting rock which permits a passage underneath. Brown's falls, which have a perpendicular descent of 50 ft., and including the rapids of 100 ft., are W. of the Mississippi, on a narrow stream which is the outlet of several small lakes. There are also falls or rapids on the St. Croix, about half a mile below which is a noted pass through which the river has forced its way, called the Dalles of St. Croix, and others of less note on various streams. About 2 m. from St. Paul is Fountain cave, an excavation in the white sandstone, with an entrance about 15 ft. in diameter opening into a chamber 150 ft. long and 20 ft. wide. The cave has been explored for 1,000 ft., without the termination being reached.—Minnesota has made the most rapid progress in agriculture during the past few years. The most prominent staple is wheat, for the production of which the soil and climate are most favorable. Of the reported cultivated acreage in 1872, wheat occupied 61.14 per cent., the average yield per acre being 17.4 bushels; in 1873 the percentage of acreage had increased to 63.53. Next to wheat the most important crops are oats and corn, the percentage of acreage in 1872 being 17.97 of the former and 10.44 of the latter. The soil and climate are also highly favorable to wool growing. In 1860 Minnesota had 2,711,968 acres of land in farms, of which only 556,250 acres were improved, there being 18,181 farms with an average of 149 acres each. In 1870 there were 46,500 farms of an average of 139 acres each, the total acreage of farm lands being 2,322,102 improved and 4,161,726 unimproved, including 1,336,299 of woodland, the percentage of improved land to total in farms being 64.2. Of the total number of farms in 1870, 4,030 contained from 3 to 10 acres, 7,948 from 10 to 20, 18,099 from 20 to 50, 11,078 from 50 to 100, 5,039 from 100 to 500, 128 from 500 to 1,000, and 2 over 1,000. The cash value of farms was$97,847,422; of farming implements and machinery, $6,721,120; total amount of wages paid during the year, including the value of board,$4,459,201; total (estimated) value of all farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock, $33,446,400; orchard products,$15,818; produce of market gardens, $115,234; forest products,$311,528; home manufactures, $174,046; animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter,$3,076,650; all live stock, $20,118,841. The productions were 18,789,188 bushels of spring and 76,885 of winter wheat, 78,088 of rye, 4,743,117 of Indian corn, 10,678,261 of oats, 1,032,024 of barley, 52,438 of buckwheat, 46,601 of peas and beans, 1,943,063 of Irish and 1,594 of sweet potatoes, 3,045 of grass and 18,635 of flax seed, 695,053 tons of hay, 8,247 lbs. of tobacco, 401,185 of wool, 9,522,010 of butter, 233,977 of cheese, 222,065 of hops, 122,571 of flax, 210,467 of maple sugar, 92,606 of honey, 1,750 gallons of wine, 208,130 of milk sold, 38,735 of sorghum and 12,722 of maple molasses. Besides 9,667 horses and 54,862 neat cattle not on farms, there were 93,011 horses, 2,350 mules and asses, 121,467 milch cows, 43,176 working oxen, 145,736 other cattle, 132,343 sheep, and 148,473 swine. The agricultural statistics for 1872 were reported as follows by the state authorities: PRODUCTS. No. of acres planted. Amount produced. Average yield per acre. Wheat, bushels 1,267,309 22,059,375 17.40 Oats, bushels 372,478 12,550,788 33.69 Corn, bushels 216,455 7,142,245 32.99 Barley, bushels 56,785 1,495,495 26.33 Rye, bushels 11,365 182,730 16.07 Buckwheat, bushels 3,601 49,359 13.70 Beans, bushels 1,482 19,156 12.92 Flax, pounds of fibre  ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 12,161 2,903,079 ..... Flax, bushels of seed 71,752 ..... Potatoes, bushels 26,061 3,072,349 117.59 Sorghum, gallons of sirup 859 78,095 ..... Hops, pounds 93 114,429 ..... Hay, cultivated, tons 88,990 108,028 1.21 Hay, wild, tons ....... 7,414 ..... Maple sugar, pounds ....... 195,587 ..... Maple sirup, gallons ....... 17,394 ..... Honey, No. of hives of bees ....... 13,704 ..... Honey, pounds ....... 232,948 ..... Tobacco, pounds ....... 42,788 ..... Timothy seed, bushels ....... 15,228 ..... Clover seed, bushels ....... 2,348 ..... Apple trees, growing ....... 1,734,861 ..... Apple trees, in bearing ....... 87,451 ..... Apples, bushels raised ....... 39,663 ..... Strawberries, quarts ....... 277,716 ..... Wool, sheep sheared ....... 125,723 ..... Wool, pounds ....... 497,045 ..... Butter, pounds ....... 8,823,630 ..... Cheese, pounds ....... 772,630 ..... Cows, milked ....... 135,691 ..... In 1873 the number of acres under cultivation had increased to 2,332,672, of which 2,166,598 were sown with grain; number of farms, 58,373; there were 141,871 horses, 419,084 cattle, 4,005 mules and asses, 149,206 sheep, and 149,896 hogs.—As yet Minnesota does not hold a high rank as a manufacturing state, the people being more extensively engaged in agriculture. It has, however, a most important element for great industrial prosperity in the abundant water power afforded by its numerous streams. It has been estimated that about 100,000 horse power could be utilized during the day time throughout nearly the entire year, at the falls of St. Anthony; while the St. Croix falls are only second to them in hydraulic power. The total number of manufacturing establishments reported by the census of 1870 was 2,270, having 246 steam engines of 7,085 horse power and 434 water wheels of 13,054 horse power, and employing 11,290 hands, of whom 10,892 were males above 16, 259 females above 15, and 139 youth. The capital invested amounted to$11,993,729; wages, $4,052,837; value of materials,$13,842,902; of products, $23,110,700. The most important industries are represented in the following statement:  INDUSTRIES. Number of establishments. Number of hands. Capital. Value of products. Blacksmithing 310 630$255,511 $628,923 Boots and shoes 172 526 223,589 653,165 Carpenter'g and building 223 676 104,860 1,067,203 Carriages and wagons 102 444 358,168 549,568 Cars, freight and passenger 1 79 170,000 788,300 Cooperage 62 338 126,020 457,338 Grist mill products 216 790 2,900,015 7,534,575 Furniture 85 398 302,550 448,772 Liquors, malt 65 225 450,550 388,600 Lumber, planed 13 58 143,400 239,642 Lumber, sawed 207 2,952 3,311,140 4,299,162 Machinery, railroad repairing 4 456 253,021 788,074 Machinery, steam engines and boilers 8 233 220,000 336,482 Printing and publishing, newspaper 20 241 267,000 343,304 Saddlery and harness 93 269 165,475 354,259 Sash, doors, and blinds 27 254 263,133 357,616 Tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware 78 231 161,685 348,696 The vast pine forests of Minnesota constitute an important source of wealth. It is estimated that about one third of the state is timbered land. On the head waters of the various tributaries of the extreme upper Mississippi and St. Croix rivers is an extensive “pine region,” comprising an estimated area of 21,000 square miles. Vast pine forests are also found on the shore of Lake Superior, and on the Red river and its tributaries. The cutting and sawing of logs affords extensive employment for men and capital. In 1873, 164,743,150 ft. of logs were reported to have been scaled in the North Mississippi district, including 161,880,670 ft. at Minneapolis, while 33,000,000 ft. were estimated to have been sawed but not scaled. The total number of feet scaled in the St. Croix district was 147,618,147; sawed and not scaled, 8,338,976; sawed and scaled, 94,229. In the Duluth district the number of feet scaled amounted to 6,147,988. In the St. Croix district the manufactured lumber was reported at 74,063,976 ft., besides 19,200,000 shingles and 19,477,850 lath.—Minnesota has unusual commercial advantages, having within its limits three great navigable water systems, which are connected with the railroad system of the state, and afford continuous channels of communication with Hudson bay, the Atlantic ocean, and the gulf of Mexico. The Mississippi is navigable to St. Paul about 225 days in the year. The completion of the Northern Pacific railroad, which has its E. terminus at Duluth, on Lake Superior, and is now (1875) in operation to Bismarck in Dakota, 450 m., will give the state direct communication with the Pacific. This road, which joins the lake and the Red river water systems, is to be connected with the other railroads of Minnesota and the Mississippi river by three lines of railroad at the eastern, central, and western portions of the state. The Lake Superior and Mississippi railroad joins St. Paul, at the head of navigation on the Mississippi river, and Duluth, at the head of Lake Superior; while the former city will have direct connection with the Northern Pacific railroad by the two divisions of the St. Paul and Pacific, which are now in process of construction, one extending from St. Anthony to Brainerd, and the other from St. Cloud to St. Vincent, on the N. W. border of the state, a distance of 315 m., crossing the Northern Pacific at Glyndon, 13 m. E. of the Red river. This road is now in operation from St. Cloud to Melrose, 35 m. From St. Vincent it is to be continued to Fort Garry in the province of Manitoba, 61 m. from the Minnesota border. The state also has connection with the Union Pacific railroad by means of the St. Paul and Sioux City and Sioux City and St. Paul railroads. Furthermore, the completion of the contemplated improvements in the Fox and Wisconsin rivers will give to Minnesota a continuous water channel from the Mississippi river to Lake Michigan. The commercial importance of Minnesota will be seen from the fact that the entire trade of its great water systems, and much of that of its railroads, will here break bulk. The state comprises the United States customs district of Duluth and that of Minnesota, of which the port of entry is Pembina on the Red river, at the northern border of the state; and St. Paul is a port of delivery. The imports at Duluth during the year ending June 30, 1874, amounted to$12,129, and the domestic exports to $13,819. In the Minnesota district the imports were$182,054; domestic exports, $690,066; foreign exports,$2,521. The chief articles of export were oats, flour, and lumber. The number and tonnage of vessels that entered and cleared in the foreign trade, together with those registered, enrolled, and licensed, were as follows:

 DISTRICTS. ENTERED. CLEARED. REGISTERED,&C. No. Tons. No. Tons. No. Tons. Duluth 55 19,166 53 19,240 7 1,332 Minnesota 40 4,410 40 4,403 93 8,048 ⁠Total 95 23,576 93 23,643 100 9,380

Of those enrolled in the Minnesota district, 54 were steamers and 39 unrigged vessels; and of those in the Duluth district, 6 of 1,282 tons were steamers. Besides the above, 259 vessels of 153,792 tons entered at Duluth in the coastwise trade, and 264 of 154,292 tons cleared. In 1873 5 steam vessels of 510 tons and 4 barges were built in the Minnesota district.—Since 1857, when congress made to Minnesota a grant of six sections per mile of the public lands to aid in the construction of railroads, which was increased to ten sections per mile in 1865, not less than 13,200,000 acres of land, or more than one fourth of the entire area of the state, has been granted to railroad corporations, either by the general government or the state. These grants comprise 11,250,000 acres by congress and 1,950,000 by the state; and 5,515,007 acres have already been conveyed to the companies. The railroad companies in the state organized under special charters are required to pay to the state, in lieu of all other taxes, 1 per cent. of their gross earnings for the first three years, 2 per cent. during the next seven years, and 3 per cent. thereafter. Other railroad companies can acquire the same privileges by complying with the provisions of the law. The gross earnings of the companies subject to this law in 1872 were reported at $5,399,578, on which the tax amounted to$106,876. The gross earnings during the year ending Sept. 1, 1873, were $5,536,104, including$1,385,272 from passengers and $3,811,603 from freight. The total expenses of all the companies amounted to$4,140,885. A commissioner is appointed by the state, whose duty is to report to the legislature annually concerning the finances, business, and general condition of every railroad company in the state. Minnesota had 31 m. of railroad in 1863, 298 in 1866, and 1,092 in 1870. In 1874 there were 1,833 m. of main track and branches, exclusive of side track, &c. The railroads completed in the state, and their termini, in 1874, with the capital stock issued, the latter items being reported by the state commissioner for the year ending Sept. 1, 1873, are as follows:

NAME OF CORPORATION. TERMINI. Miles
completed
in the
state
in 1874.
Total length
between termini
when different
from the
preceding.
Capital stock
issued as
reported by state
commissioners,
Sept. 1, 1873.
Acres of land
granted by
congress.

Chicago, Dubnque, and Minnesota  Dubuque, Ia., to La Crescent 24  118  $426,215 ........ Chicago Milwaukee and St. Paul .... ... 3,152,000 ........ Via La Crosse Milwaukee Wis., to St. Paul 130 324 ........ ........ Via Prairie du Chien Milwaukee Wis., to St. Paul 127 405 ........ ........  ⁠Branches ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ Mendota to Minneapolis ... ........ ........ Mason City, Ia., to Austin 10 40 ........ ........ Leased (Hastings and Dakota) Hastings to Glencoe 75 ... 750,000 500,000 Lake Superior and Mississippi St. Paul to Duluth 156 ... 5,125,000 430,854  ⁠Leased ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ Stillwater and St Paul Minneapolis and Duluth Minneapolis and St. Louis White Bear to Stillwater 13 ... 400,000 ........ White Bear to Minneapolis 14 ... 200,000 ........ Minneapolis to Sioux City Junction 28 ... 92,000 ........ Northern Pacific Duluth to Puget Sound 254 1,800 18,239,300 2,918,400 St. Paul and Pacific St. Paul to Breckenridge 217 ... 500,000 1,248,688 Branch St. Anthony to Brainerd 75 125 1,468,600 940,000 St. Vincent extension. St. Cloud to St. Vincent 35 315 ........ 2,000,000 St. Paul and Sioux City St. Paul to St. James 122 ... 1,851,500 850 000 St. Paul, Stillwater, and Taylor's Falls Near St. Paul to Stillwater 18 ... 277,500 ........ Sioux City and St. Paul Sioux City, Ia. to St James 66 148 1,515780 ........ Southern Minnesota Grand Crossing to Winnebago 168 ... 3,825,000 450,000 West Wisconsin St. Paul to Elroy, Wis 197 ........ ........ Winona and St. Peter Winona to Lake Kampeska, Dak. 288 326 400,000 710,000 1,833 —There were 32 national banks in operation in Minnesota, Nov. 1, 1874, with a paid-in capital of$4,448,700; total amount of circulation issued, $4,455,000; amount outstanding at that date,$3,393,501, the latter being $7 71 per capita. The ratio of circulation to the wealth of the state was 1.5 per cent.; to bank capital, 76.3 per cent. There were five savings banks, with deposits aggregating$843,498. The total number of fire and marine insurance companies transacting business in the state in 1873 was 45, including 2 Minnesota and 36 other American and 7 foreign companies. The number of life insurance companies was 35, of which only one was organized under the laws of the state.—The present constitution of Minnesota was adopted Oct. 13, 1857, and the government organized May 22, 1858. The qualifications for voters are, that they be males, 21 years of age, who are or have declared their intention of becoming citizens of the United States, and who have resided in the United States one year, and in the state four months next preceding. Indians and persons of mixed white and Indian blood, who have adopted the language, customs, and habits of civilization, are also allowed to vote in any district in which they have resided for the ten days next preceding. The legislature consists of 41 senators elected for two years, and 106 representatives elected for one year. They must be qualified voters and residents in the state one year, and in their respective districts six months next before the election. The election is held on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November of each year, and the legislature meets on the Tuesday after the first Monday in January. Its sessions are limited to 60 days. The executive department consists of a governor (salary $3,000), lieutenant governor, secretary of state ($1,800), treasurer ($3,500), attorney general ($1,000), all elected for two years, and an auditor ($2,500), elected for three years. The judiciary comprises a supreme court consisting of a chief and two associate justices (salary$3,000), nine district courts, and a probate court in each county, besides justices of the peace, who have jurisdiction where the amount in dispute does not exceed $100, and where the title to real estate is not involved. All judges are elected by the people, those of the supreme and district courts for seven years and the others for two years. The supreme court has power to issue all remedial writs, and appellate jurisdiction of judgments and orders of the district courts. The latter have original jurisdiction of all civil actions within their respective districts when the sum in controversy exceeds$100, all civil actions not within the jurisdiction of justices of the peace, and in equity; also appellate jurisdiction from courts of probate and justices of the peace. Besides the above named state officers, there is a commissioner of railroads and a commissioner of insurance. In 1872 a state board of health was established, consisting of seven physicians appointed by the governor from different sections of the state, who are required to make sanitary investigations, and collect and disseminate information concerning the causes of disease and the effects of localities, occupations, &c., on the general health. The public institutions are also made subject to their sanitary inspection, and they are required to report annually to the legislature. The state commissioner of statistics makes an annual report to the legislature, embodying the vital statistics of the state, agriculture, property, taxation, &c. The constitution provides for the taking of a state census in 1865 and every ten years thereafter. The property, real or personal, owned by a married woman at the time of her marriage, continues to be her separate property. During marriage she may use and enjoy property and the earnings of her industry free from the husband's control and from liability for his debts. She may contract, and sue and be sued, as if she were single, the husband not being liable for her debts or contracts either before or during coverture, except for necessaries furnished to the wife after marriage. In sales of real estate by a married woman, however, the husband must loin in the conveyance, unless he has deserted her for one year or she has cause of divorce against him. The causes of divorce are adultery, impotence, cruel and inhuman treatment, sentence to imprisonment in the state prison, wilful desertion for three years, habitual drunkenness for a year, and cruelty. A married woman may make a will without the consent of her husband. A homestead comprising not more than 80 acres of land in the country with the buildings, or one lot with the building thereon in any town, city, or village, is exempt from execution. The legal rate of interest is 7 per cent. in the absence of agreement; but any rate not exceeding 12 per cent., if agreed upon, will be valid. Registry of births and deaths is required to be made by the clerk of every city and town. Minnesota is represented in congress by three representatives and two senators, and has therefore five votes in the electoral college.—The acknowledged bonded debt of the state on Jan. 1, 1875, amounted to $480,000, which has been contracted since 1867 for the erection of buildings for state institutions. (For an account of the disputed indebtedness of the state see p. 611.) During the year ending Dec. 1, 1874, the entire revenue of the state amounted to$1,112,812, and the expenditures to $1,148,150. The chief items of the receipts and disbursements are represented in the following statement: RECEIPTS.  State taxes collected$575,164 Tax on gross receipts of railroad companies 129,907 Tax on gross receipts of insurance companies 25,505 Fees of insurance companies 4,345 Taxes of telegraph companies 673 State prison labor 9,634 Board of United States convicts 6,772 Sale of state bonds 20,000 Sale of school lands 63,196 Sale of timber on school lands 23,428 Sale of university lands and timber 11,070 Interest on permanent school fund 188,031 Interest on permanent university fund 10,555 Interest on state deposits 9,270 Interest on bonus railroad bonds 10,925 Internal improvement fund 17,413

DISBURSEMENTS.

 Legislative $69,310 Executive 48,564 Judicial 45,694 Public printing 49,366 Support of state prison 34,857 Support of reform school 30,000 Support of soldiers' orphans 20,017 Support of deaf, dumb, and blind 26,000 Support of hospital for insane 84,500 Support of normal schools 26,250 Support of state university 30,000 Erection of public buildings 188,099 Interest on state bonds 31,255 School fund apportioned 194,654 Purchase of bonds for invested funds 168,757 Appropriations from internal improvement fund 14,513 Frontier relief 31,970 Interest coupons, bonus railroad bonds 10,562 Support of agricultural societies 3,000 Geological survey 2,000 Teachers' institutes and training schools 2,710 State historical society 2,980 The total equalized valuation of taxable property was$39,264,740 in 1861, $45,184,063 in 1865,$87,133,673 in 1870, $112,035,561 in 1873, and$217,427,211 in 1874. The great increase of the last year is due largely to a new tax law requiring property to be assessed at its cash value. The total for 1874 includes 13,741,404 acres of land, exclusive of town and city lots, valued with buildings at $113,410,620; town and city real estate,$58,994,793; personal property, $45,021,798. Besides this, 90,533 persons had each$100 of property exempt, or $9,053,300. The total taxes levied on this equalized valuation amounted to$4,102,835, including $507,369 for state purposes,$1,331,772 for common schools (a two-mill tax yielding $433,193 and a special tax of$898,579), and $1,085,967 for county and$1,177,727 for town and city purposes. The rate of the state tax was 2.33 mills. Of the amount raised, $329,790 was for general revenue,$101,474 for state institutions, $50,737 for interest on the state debt, and$25,368 for the sinking fund. In 1873 a state tax of five mills was levied, producing $561,459. All lands belonging to railroads are subject to taxation whenever sold or their sale is agreed upon. The number of acres of public lands surveyed up to Aug. 1, 1873, was 34,659,751, of which 10,990,795 had not yet been disposed of. The land not yet surveyed is in the northern part of the state.—The hospital for the insane at St. Peter will accommodate when completed 450 patients. The whole number under treatment in 1874 was 497, of whom 219 were women; number at the close of the year, 381; daily average, 341. Of those discharged during the year, 56 were recovered, 32 improved, and 4 unimproved; there were 24 deaths. The current expenses amounted to$83,017. The institution for the education of the deaf and dumb and the blind, opened in 1863, is beautifully situated at Faribault, and is free to all deaf and dumb and blind persons in the state between the ages of 10 and 25 years. In 1874 104 deaf and dumb and 22 blind students were in attendance, and there were reported in the state 71 persons of the former and 18 of the latter class who were not in any institution. Seven teachers are employed in the deaf-mute and three in the blind department. The complete course of study embraces seven years, and comprises, besides the usual subjects, instruction in industrial branches. Articulation and lip reading are taught to about 10 per cent. of the deaf mutes. The expenses for 1874 amounted to $30,818. The soldiers' orphans' home, at Winona, at the close of 1873 had 85 pupils, of whom 38 were girls. The total expenditures in that year amounted to$17,431. Unlike institutions of this class in other states, except that in Pennsylvania, the home is a private incorporated association, having an agreement with the state for the support upon specified conditions of soldiers' orphans who are destitute. Only those between the ages of 4 and 16 years are admitted, and they are discharged at the age of 18 or younger. There is no school connected with the institution, but the inmates receive instruction in the state normal school. The state prison is at Stillwater, and will have when completed a capacity for 300 convicts. United States military and civil convicts are confined here. In 1874 the average number of prisoners was 112, and the number remaining at the close of the year 134. The entire earnings of the prison amounted to $19,261, including$11,723 for convict labor and $6,499 for boarding United States military convicts. The cost of the prison after deducting the earnings was$17,618, or $158 27 for each convict. The labor of the prisoners is let out by contract. The reform school at St. Paul, opened in 1868, is intended for incorrigible and criminal boys and girls under the age of 16 years. At the beginning of 1874 there were in the institution 107 boys and 13 girls, all of whom were receiving instruction in the ordinary branches and industrial pursuits. Provision has been made for the establishment of an asylum for inebriates.—The permanent school fund is derived from the proceeds of the school lands, which comprise every 16th and 36th section, constituting one eighteenth of the entire public domain. It is estimated that these lands will amount to 2,900,000 acres. At the beginning of 1875, 450,357 acres had been sold, from which and the sales of timber a productive fund of$3,030,127 had been realized. The income of this fund amounted to $189,826 in 1874, which was distributed among the counties in proportion to the school population. The total distribution ($192,264) was based on the school population of 1873, 196,065, making the per capita apportionment 98 cents. The principal of this fund is protected by the constitution against diminution; and it is estimated that when the remainder of the school lands are sold the permanent school fund will exceed $15,000,000. The state superintendent of education is appointed by the governor, with the consent of the senate, for two years, and receives an annual salary of$2,500. County superintendents are appointed by the county commissioners. The most important statistics for the year ending Sept. 30, 1874, are given in the following statement:

 Number of persons between 5 and 21 years old 210,194 Number of persons between 15 and 21 57,650 Number of persons attending school 128,902 Number of school districts 3,266 Number of school districts reporting 3,114 Number of winter schools 2,769 ⁠Average length in months 3.55 ⁠Total attendance 99,842 ⁠Average attendance 71,362 Number of summer schools 2,713 ⁠Average length in months 3.11 ⁠Total attendance 81,781 ⁠Average attendance 55,243 Number of teachers in all schools (male 1,834, female 3,648) 5,582 Average monthly wages of teachers, male $41 46 Average monthly wages of teachers, female$28 91 Number of school houses 2,758 Value of school houses $2,238,700 Amount received from school fund, including 2-mill tax, fines, &c.$362,708 Amount apportioned from permanent school fund $192,264 Amount received from taxes voted by districts$839,390 Amount expended for school purposes, total $1,155,542 Amount expended for teachers' wages$678,606 Amount expended for school houses $323,601 According to the federal census of 1870, the total number of educational institutions in Minnesota was 2,479, having 2,886 teachers, of whom 1,907 were females, and 107,264 pupils. The total income of all was$1,011,769, of which $2,000 was from endowment,$903,101 from taxation and public funds, and $106,668 from tuition and other sources. There were 2,424 public schools with 2,758 teachers and 103,408 pupils, 4 colleges with 31 teachers and 524 students, 3 academies having 10 teachers and 133 pupils, and 23 private schools with 28 teachers and 959 pupils. In 1874, 487 pupils were instructed in academies, 582 in colleges, and 2,980 in private schools, making with those in the common and normal schools a total of 133,854. Minnesota has three state normal schools: at Winona, opened in 1860; Mankato, 1868; and St. Cloud, 1869. The number of instructors and pupils in these during the year ending Nov. 30, 1874, together with the annual appropriation made by the legislature, was as follows:  NORMAL SCHOOLS. Instructors. PUPILS. Appropriations. Model department. Normal department. Total. Winona 11 261 255 516$12,000 Mankato 5 46 171 217 10,000 St. Cloud 6 48 122 170 6,000 ⁠Total 22 355 548 903 $28,000 For the further training of teachers, the superintendent of public instruction is required to hold annually in the thinly settled counties as many state teachers' institutes as practicable, each to continue in session at least one week. In 1874 six training schools of four weeks each and five institutes of one week each were held in 11 counties, and were attended by 1,024 teachers. The expense,$2,710, was borne by the state. These institutes are regarded as an important feature of the public school system. Applicants for position as teachers, if not graduates of a normal school, are required to obtain a graded certificate, which is granted on examination by county superintendents.—The state university is described in the article Minnesota, University of. Carleton college (Congregational), at Northfield, was organized in 1866, and has an English preparatory and a collegiate course, which are open to students of both sexes. In 1873-'4 it had 10 instructors and 171 pupils, of whom 7 were in the college and 165 in the preparatory department; 64 were females. St. John's college is an important Roman Catholic school at St. Joseph's, organized in 1856, and having in 1873-'4 22 instructors and 26 students in the ecclesiastical and 97 in the classical and commercial course. Macalester college (Presbyterian) at Minneapolis was opened in 1874. Besides the theological department of St. John's college, instruction in theology is afforded by Augsburg seminary (Evangelical Lutheran) at Minneapolis, which was founded in 1869, and in 1873 had 5 instructors and 63 students. The only institution exclusively for the higher education of women which reported to the United States bureau of education in 1873 was St. Mary's Hall at Faribault (Protestant Episcopal), which in 1873-'4 had 14 instructors and 114 pupils. There are, however, seminaries for the secondary instruction of girls at Hastings, Minneapolis, and St. Paul. There are also several well conducted academies open to boys and girls in St. Paul, Red Wing, Caledonia, and other places. There are from 15 to 20 excellent high schools in the state, in which students may be prepared to enter the state university. Several private schools afford instruction in the Norwegian and Swedish languages. There are business colleges in St. Paul and Minneapolis.—According to the census of 1870, there were in the state 26,763 libraries, with an aggregate of 2,174,744 volumes; 23,761 with 1,596,113 volumes were private, and 3,002 with 578,631 volumes were other than private, including the state library of 10,000 volumes, and 23 circulating libraries containing 16,601 volumes. Besides the state library, the most important ones are that of the university of Minnesota, which contains about 10,000 volumes; St. Paul library, 6,000; the Minneapolis Athenæum, 4,000; and that of the state historical society at St. Paul, which has 5,643 bound and 8,730 unbound volumes. The whole number of newspapers and periodicals was 95, having an aggregate circulation of 110,778 copies, and issuing annually 9,543,656. There were 6 daily, with a circulation of 14,800; 5 tri-weekly, 4,200; 79 weekly, 79,978; and 5 monthly, 11,800. In 1874 the number reported was 128, including 7 daily, 4 tri-weekly, 112 weekly, and 5 monthly. The total number of religious organizations in 1870 was 677, having 582 edifices, with 158,266 sittings and property valued at $2,401,750. The denominations were represented as follows:  DENOMINATIONS. Organizations. Edifices. Sittings. Property. Baptist, regular 80 43 11,135$140,400 Baptist, other 14 7 1,300 19,100 Christian 6 6 1,550 7,450 Congregational 57 39 11,400 143,200 Episcopal, Protestant 64 54 14,595 400,500 Evangelical Associa'n 20 16 3,875 24,100 Lutheran 135 97 23,325 222,150 Methodist 225 106 26,890 337,550 Moravian 6 5 1,400 8,500 New Jerusalem 1 1 200 2,200 Presbyterian, regular 75 59 16,756 273,000 Presbyterian, other 1 1 200 2,000 Reformed church (late German Reformed) 2 2 400 45,000 Roman Catholic 154 135 42,370 755,000 Second Advent 7 1 150 2,100 United Brethren in Christ 5 2 500 1,000 Universalist 18 6 1,720 55,000