The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Ohio

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OHIO, one of the central states of the American Union, the fourth admitted under the constitution, lying between lat. 38° 27' and 41° 57' N., and lon. 80° 34' and 84° 49' W.; greatest length from E. to W. 225 m., greatest breadth from N. to S. about 200 m.; area, 39,964 sq. m. It is bounded N. by Michigan and Lake Erie, E. by Pennsylvania and West Virginia, S. by West Virginia and Kentucky, and W. by Indiana. The Ohio river extends along half of its E. and the whole of its S. boundary, having a course along the borders of the state of 436 m. The lake shore of Ohio has an extent of 230 m., giving the state a whole navigable water frontier of 666 m.

AmCyc Ohio - seal.jpg

State Seal of Ohio.

Ohio is divided into 88 counties, viz.: Adams, Allen, Ashland, Ashtabula, Athens, Auglaize, Belmont, Brown, Butler, Carroll, Champaign, Clarke, Clermont, Clinton, Columbiana, Coshocton, Crawford, Cuyahoga, Darke, Defiance, Delaware, Erie, Fairfield, Fayette, Franklin, Fulton, Gallia, Geauga, Green, Guernsey, Hamilton, Hancock, Hardin, Harrison, Henry, Highland, Hocking, Holmes, Huron, Jackson, Jefferson, Knox, Lake, Lawrence, Licking, Logan, Lorain, Lucas, Madison, Mahoning, Marion, Medina, Meigs, Mercer, Miami, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Morrow, Muskingum, Noble, Ottawa, Paulding, Perry, Pickaway, Pike, Portage, Preble, Putnam, Richland, Ross, Sandusky, Scioto, Seneca, Shelby, Stark, Summit, Trumbull, Tuscarawas, Union, Van Wert, Vinton, Warren, Washington, Wayne, Williams, Wood, and Wyandot. Columbus, the capital (pop. in 1870, 31,274), is near the centre of the state; Cincinnati (pop. in 1870, 216,239) is the largest city. The other cities, with their population according to the census of 1870, are Akron, 10,006; Bellair, 4,033; Canton, 8,660; Chillicothe, 8,920; Circleville, 5,407; Cleveland, 92,829; Dayton, 30,473; Delaware, 5,641; Fremont, 5,455; Gallipolis, 3,711; Hamilton, 11,081; Ironton, 5,686; Lancaster, 4,725; Lima, 4,500; Mansfield, 8,029; Marietta, 5,218; Massillon, 5,185; Mount Vernon, 4,876; Newark, 6,698; Piqua, 5,967; Pomeroy, 5,824; Portsmouth, 10,592; Sandusky, 13,000; Springfield, 12,652; Steubenville, 8,107; Tiffin, 5,648; Toledo, 31,584; Urbana, 4,276; Warren, 3,457; Wooster, 5,419; Xenia, 6,377; Youngstown, 8,075; Zanesville, 10,011. The population of the state, and its rank in the Union according to the federal census, has been as follows:

 YEAR.  White.  Colored.  Total.  Rank. 

1800 45,028  337  45,365  18 
1810 228,861  1,899  230,760  13 
1820 576,572  4,723  581,295 
1830 928,329  9,574  937,903 
1840 1,502,122  17,345  1,519,467 
1850 1,955,050  25,279  1,980,329 
1860 2,302,808  36,673  2,339,511 
1870   2,601,946   63,213   2,665,260 

The total for 1860 includes 30 Indians, and that for 1870 30 Indians and 1 Chinaman. Of the total population in 1870, 1,337,550 were males and 1,327,710 females; 2,292,767 were of native and 372,493 of foreign birth. Of the natives, 1,842,313 were born in the state, 17,382 in Indiana, 26,230 in Kentucky, 23,292 in Maryland, 13,390 in Massachusetts, 13,239 in New Jersey, 67,594 in New York, 149,784 in Pennsylvania, and 62,936 in Virginia and West Virginia. Of the foreigners, 12,988 were born in British America, 36,561 in England, 82,674 in Ireland, 7,819 in Scotland, 12,939 in Wales, 182,897 in Germany, and 12,727 in Switzerland. The density of population was 66.69 persons to a square mile. There were 521,981 families with an average of 5.11 persons each, and 495,667 dwellings with an average of 5.38 to each. The increase of population from 1860 to 1870 was 13.92 per cent. There were 425,466 males and 420,505 females from 5 to 18 years of age, 501,750 males from 18 to 45, and 592,350 male citizens 21 years old and upward. The total number attending school was 645,639. There were 92,720 persons 10 years of age and over unable to read, and 173,172 unable to write. Of the latter, 134,102 were of native and 39,070 of foreign birth; 125,495 were 21 years old and over, including 41,439 white males and 68,449 white females, and 7,531 colored males and 8,076 colored females. During the year ending June 1, 1870, 6,383 paupers were supported at a cost of $566,280; and 2,860 native and 814 foreign paupers were receiving support, June 1, 1870. In 1874 there were 6,001 paupers supported by the state. The number of persons convicted of crime during the year ending June 1, 1870, was 2,560; 1,405 were in prison at that date. The number convicted in 1874 was 2,682. Of the total population 10 years old and over (1,953,374), there were engaged in all occupations 840,889; in agriculture, 397,024, including 191,063 laborers and 202,425 farmers and planters; in professional and personal services, 168,308, of whom 3,572 were clergymen, 53,599 domestic servants, 68,518 laborers not specified, 2,563 lawyers, 4,638 physicians and surgeons, and 12,084 teachers not specified; in trade and transportation, 78,547; and in manufactures, mechanical and mining industries, 197,010. According to the census of 1870, the total number of deaths in that year was 29,568, or 1.11 per cent. of the population. Consumption was the cause of 17.8 per cent. of all deaths, and pneumonia of 6.8 per cent., the number of deaths being 5,255 from the former and 1,997 from the latter disease. During the year ending March 31, 1873, there were reported 26,460 marriages, 58,977 births, and 27,112 deaths. Of the deaths 24,890 were from ordinary causes, 1,531 from epidemic or uncommon diseases, and 691 from violence and accident.—Though the topography of Ohio is marked by no striking features, its surface is pleasingly diversified. The general aspect is that of a plateau whose average elevation is 300 to 500 ft. above Lake Erie, which lies 565 ft. above the sea. The highest point in the state is in Logan co., 1,540 ft., and the lowest the shore of the Ohio near Cincinnati, 433 ft. above the sea. The numerous draining streams have deeply excavated and eroded this plateau, giving the surface an alternation of hills and valleys and a general rolling character. The most prominent feature in the topography is the great divide separating the drainage of Lake Erie from that of the Ohio. This passes diagonally across the state from Trumbull co. in the northeast to Mercer and Darke cos. in the west, with an average altitude of about 600 ft. above Lake Erie. From the summit of the watershed the surface slopes gradually northward to the lake and southward to the Ohio, and is more or less eroded by the draining streams. Many of these streams flow in valleys 200 to 300 ft. in depth, and the Ohio river occupies an excavated trough 500 to 600 ft. below the summits of the adjacent hills. The streams flowing southward to the Ohio are the longest and deepest, as the Mahoning, Muskingum, Hockhocking, Scioto, Little Miami, and Great Miami rivers. The Muskingum is made navigable by slackwater improvements to Dresden, a distance of 95 m. from its mouth. The shorter watershed on the N. side of the divide is drained by the Chagrin, Cuyahoga, Rocky, Black, Vermilion, Huron, Sandusky, Portage, and Maumee rivers, none of which are navigable for any distance from the lake. Bounded on its northern margin by Lake Erie, and on its southern by the navigable waters of the Ohio river, Ohio possesses water communication through the Erie canal and St. Lawrence river with the Atlantic ocean, and through the Mississippi with the gulf of Mexico. The outline of the lake shore, though but little interrupted, affords several harbors, as Ashtabula, Cleveland, Black river, Sandusky, and Toledo. The Ohio river, 130 ft. below Lake Erie at Cincinnati, and 100 ft. above at the crossing of the Ohio and Pennsylvania line, is navigable for light-draught vessels to Pittsburgh, excepting during dry seasons.—The soil of Ohio is universally fertile, though over more than one half of the state it is of foreign origin, being derived from the clays and gravels of the drift. The uplands are especially adapted to the growth of wheat, and for a long time Ohio was the largest grain-producing state. The southern slopes of the watershed are best fitted for the growth of grain, while the northern slopes are well suited for grazing and dairy lands; and the bottom lands of the larger rivers are among the richest corn-growing regions of the world. Though more wheat is produced in the S. W. part than in any other equal area in the state, it is more particularly the product of the Maumee region of the northwest and the Muskingum region of the southeast. The clay soils of the northeast, or Western Reserve, form the great dairy region of the west, and furnish 19,000,000 of the 20,000,000 lbs. of cheese made annually in the state. The bottom lands of the larger rivers, as those of the Miami, the Scioto, and Muskingum, are rich alluvial soils, and as well adapted to the growth of Indian corn as any portion of the middle states. The rocks underlying the area drained by the Miami are calcareous, and the soil produced from them is of great fertility, being in fact an extension of the famous blue-grass region of Kentucky. Grape culture has received careful attention in the valley of the Ohio and on the shores and islands of Lake Erie, and large quantities of wine are annually produced there. Heavy crops of apples, peaches, and other fruits are also gathered, especially in the Miami region and on the shores of the lake. Originally almost the entire area of the state was covered by forests of oak, chestnut, maple, &c., on the highlands, and elm, beeches, ash, &c., on the lowlands, though in the northwest there are prairies of limited extent. The wild animals, as the deer, wolf, bear, raccoon, and fox, which once abounded in the state, have almost entirely disappeared.—The geological structure of Ohio exhibits no great breaks of the strata, and the sedimentary rocks which underlie the state show only a slight inclination from the horizontal. The chief disturbing element is the Cincinnati arch or anticlinal, which extends from the islands of Lake Erie to Cincinnati, and beyond into Kentucky and Tennessee. From this arch the strata dip westward to the Illinois coal field, and southeastward under the Alleghany coal basin. A study of the composition of this anticlinal shows that its elevation must have occurred at the close of the lower Silurian and previous to the commencement of the upper Silurian age, thus establishing the fact that the Illinois and Alleghany coal fields were separate and distinct basins during the deposition of their strata. The geological formations exposed in the state are the lower Silurian, upper Silurian, Devonian, carboniferous, and drift. The oldest rocks are those of the lower Silurian age which are exposed at and near Cincinnati, called the Cincinnati group, the equivalents of the Trenton and Hudson formations of New York. These are composed of beds of limestone and clay or marl, and in the richness and variety of their fossil remains are unequalled by any other known locality. Their maximum thickness exposed near Cincinnati is about 1,000 ft. Of the formations of the upper Silurian age, the Clinton and Niagara limestones lie around and thin out upon the lower Silurian area, and are exposed at different points on the crown of the Cincinnati arch toward the lake. The Salina group, the formation containing the salt at Syracuse, N. Y., appears at Sandusky, 30 to 40 ft. in thickness, where it carries valuable beds of gypsum, but thins out toward the southwest and soon disappears. The waterlime, which represents the Helderberg of New York, is very largely developed in the western part of the state and on the islands of Lake Erie. It flanks both sides of the Cincinnati arch, and its thickness near the lake is about 100 ft. The base of the Devonian system, the Oriskany, is recognizable in a few places as a saccharoidal sandstone, 3 to 10 ft. thick. The corniferous limestone, the chief element of the Devonian in Ohio, forms two belts of outcrop on opposite sides of the Cincinnati arch, one extending from Sandusky, where it is about 100 ft. thick, thinning put southward toward Columbus and disappearing in Pickaway co. The other belt crosses the N. W. corner of the state diagonally from Michigan near Toledo to the Indiana line near Van Wert. The surface rock of Kelley's island is also formed of corniferous limestone. It is largely quarried at Kelley's island, Sandusky, Columbus, and elsewhere for building stone and lime, and the state house at Columbus is built of it. The corniferous at Delaware and Sandusky also yields interesting fossil fish remains, such as macropetalichthys and onychodus. The Hamilton is exhibited in but few localities as a thin bed of marly limestone overlying the corniferous. The Huron or black shale, the equivalent of the Genesee and lower part of the Portage of New York, is a mass of black bituminous shale 300 ft. thick containing 10 to 20 per cent. of carbonaceous matter. It occupies the entire N. W. corner of the state and a belt 10 to 20 m. wide extending from the mouth of the Huron river on Lake Erie to the Ohio. It contains the remains of huge fossil fishes, dinichthys, and is the source of the oil and gas of Pennsylvania and parts of Ohio. The Erie shale, the upper member of the Devonian and the continuation of the Portage and Chemung of western New York, is a mass of argillaceous shale bordering the lake shore from the Pennsylvania line, where it is 1,000 ft. thick, to the Vermilion river, where it has thinned out and disappeared. Nearly the entire E. half of this state is underlaid by the members of the carboniferous system, which here form the N. W. border of the great Alleghany coal field. The base of this system is composed of the shales and sandstones of this Waverley group, which are the western continuation of the “vespertine” of Pennsylvania. The Berea grit, a sandstone stratum of the Waverley, is extensively quarried at Berea, Amherst, Independence, &c., in the N. part, and at Buena Vista in the S. part of the state, from which places it is largely exported for building purposes and grindstones. The S. E. third of the state is occupied by the coal measures, which are underlaid at places by the conglomerate, especially in the N. part, where it is locally 175 ft. thick; and also by the carboniferous limestone, which however is rarely over 20 ft. thick, and does not extend N. of the central part of the state. The coal measures are composed of strata of shale, sandstone, coal, limestone, and fire clay with iron ores, with a maximum thickness of 1,200 ft. These cover in Ohio an area estimated at 10,000 sq. m. They are divided into the lower coal measures, 400 ft. thick, the barren measures, 400 ft., and the upper coal measures, 300 to 600 ft. In the lower coal measures there are seven workable seams of coal of general extent, varying in thickness from 2½ to 13 ft. The lowest and one of the most important seams is coal No. 1, the Brier Hill, Massillon, and Jackson coal. This is an open-burning block coal, 2 to 6 ft. thick, and is used extensively in the iron manufacture in the Mahoning and Tuscarawas valleys, and in Jackson co. Coal No. 6 is one of the most extended and valuable seams in the state. It is of variable thickness, and in the Hocking valley at Straitsville, &c., attains a maximum thickness of 12 to 13 ft. It is generally a coking coal, but as best developed in the Hocking valley is an excellent open-burning coal. The barren coal measures are so called because of the absence from them of any extended workable coals, though locally seams occur of value. The upper coal measures contain three to four workable seams, the lowest and most important of which is the Pittsburgh coal, or coal No. 8. It occupies the district extending from Steubenville to McConnellsville and Pomeroy. It is a strong caking coal, but inferior in quality to the same seam as developed in S. W. Pennsylvania. The deposits of the drift or quaternary cover about two thirds of the area of Ohio, and extend from the lake southward to a line irregularly drawn from the N. line of Columbiana co. on the east to Dayton and the Indiana line on the southwest. They consist of heavy beds of clay (the Erie clay), sand, gravel, and bowlders, attaining sometimes a thickness of 200 ft., and giving character to the agriculture of large areas. The underlying rocks are often found planed, scored, and polished by glaciers. An interesting feature in the surface geology of Ohio is the buried river channels and deeply excavated troughs, now filled wholly or partially by sand, gravel, &c., many of which are occupied by rivers now flowing far above their old rocky bottoms. This points to a time at which the land was more elevated than at present, during which the river channels were excavated, and to a subsequent period during which the land was less elevated, and the channels were filled up; and it is considered that the area of the state has never been wholly submerged since the close of the carboniferous age.—The principal mineral products of Ohio are coal, iron, clays, gypsum, peat, salt, petroleum, lime, hydraulic cement, marl, and building stone. Coal is the great mineral staple of the state. The distribution and quality of the Ohio coals have been already noticed. The iron ores of the lower coal measures in the Hanging Rock region, in Lawrence, Jackson, and Scioto cos., are of great value, and sustain an iron manufacture of large extent. Blackband ore is found in one or two localities in N. E. Ohio, associated with coals No. 1 and No. 4; but the most important deposit overlies coal No. 7, at the base of the barren measures, in Tuscarawas and Stark cos., where it attains a maximum thickness of 16 ft. It is there of considerable economic value, and is used in the manufacture of iron at Massillon, Dover, and Port Washington. The ores chiefly used in the extensive iron manufactures of Ohio, which ranks second among the iron-producing states, are obtained from the Lake Superior region, whence they are shipped to and distributed from Cleveland. Several varieties of fire clay underlie the coal seams, and at certain horizons clays are obtained which are valuable in the manufactures of pottery, fire brick, &c.; as those under coal No. 3 and coal No. 5, which are largely used on the upper Ohio and elsewhere in the E. part of the state. The products manufactured from these clays reach an annual value of over $1,000,000. Some of the finest building stones found in the country are obtained from the sandstones of the Waverley group at Amherst and Berea in northern Ohio, and from Waverley and Buena Vista in the S. part of the state. From all these localities large quantities of freestone, as well as flagging and grindstones, are exported to other states. The corniferous limestone has already been mentioned; and the sandstones of the coal measures also yield good building stone. Large quantities of white limestone have been taken from the great quarries in Montgomery and adjacent counties. Gypsum is mined from the Salina group at Sandusky, and is used both for architectural purposes and as a dressing for land. Salt is produced in many localities, as at Pomeroy in Meigs co., in Athens, Morgan, and Tuscarawas cos., derived mainly from the rocks of the Waverley group. Oil is obtained in small quantities from Mecca, Trumbull co., Grafton, Lorain co., and Liverpool, Medina co., from the Waverley; and more abundantly in southern Ohio on Duck creek, Noble co., from the coal measures, though its source is in the deeper strata of the Devonian. Lime of excellent quality is made from the Niagara and corniferous limestones in many localities in the western half of the state. Hydraulic cement is made in Belmont, Lucas, and Auglaize cos. At Barnesville in the former county 12,337 barrels were made in 1873, of a quality equal to any produced in this country.—The climate is pleasant and healthful. There are great and rapid changes in temperature, but the constantly varying winds prevent long continued extremes. In 1874 the mean temperature for the year was 49.76° at Cleveland, lat. 41° 30', and 55.24° at Cincinnati, lat. 39° 6'; the amount of rainfall was 38.43 inches at the former and 33.38 inches at the latter city.—Ohio holds a very high rank as an agricultural state. Its broad area of fertile valleys and undulating and table lands, its extensive hills, so favorable for raising sheep and other stock on a large scale, its great shipping facilities on the northern and southern borders, and its network of railroads, afford unusual advantages for this industry. According to the federal census of 1870, Ohio ranked first among the states in the production of wool, flax, flax seed, and maple molasses; next to Illinois and New York in the extent of improved land in farms and in the total value of farm productions; to New York in the cash value of farms and the value of orchard and forest products; to Illinois in the amount of wheat produced and the value of animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter; to Pennsylvania in the production of clover seed; to Illinois and Iowa in Indian corn; to Vermont and New York in maple sugar; and to Indiana in sorghum molasses. According to returns made by the state authorities in 1874, Ohio ranked fifth among the states in the production of wheat and oats, third in Indian corn, and sixth in barley. In regard to the production of wheat, Ohio may be divided into three districts stretching across the state from E. to W. In 1873 the average yield per acre was 14.02 bushels in the northern, 12.61 in the central, and 10.36 in the southern district. More than a fifth of the entire wool clip of the country in 1870 was produced in Ohio, which contained more than a sixth of all the sheep in the United States. In 1874 there were more sheep reported in California than in Ohio, but their value was less. Of the 27,133,034 lbs. of flax produced in the United States in 1870, 17,880,624 lbs. were the product of Ohio. As a dairy state Ohio with New York and Pennsylvania is in the first rank. In 1870 each of the latter states contained more milch cows and produced more butter than Ohio; but in the amount of cheese produced and the quantity of milk sold Ohio ranked next to New York. The leading dairy counties are in the N. E. part of the state, known as the Western Reserve, the most important being Lorain, Trumbull, Ashtabula, Geauga, Portage, Medina, Cuyahoga, Summit, and Ashland. During the 14 years ending with 1873 the average annual production of butter was 37,613,639 lbs., and of cheese 23,981,990 lbs. According to the federal census of 1870, the state contained in farms 14,469,133 acres of improved land, 6,883,575 of woodland, and 359,712 of other unimproved land. The total number of farms was 195,953, containing an average of 111 acres each; 7,028 contained from 3 to 10 acres, 13,794 from 10 to 20, 55,286 from 20 to 50, 71,066 from 50 to 100, 48,072 from 100 to 500, 454 from 500 to 1,000, and 69 had over 1,000 acres. The cash value of farms was $1,054,465,226; of farming implements and machinery $25,692,787; total amount of wages paid during the year, including value of board, $16,480,778; total estimated value of all farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock, $198,256,907; orchard products, $5,843,679; produce of market gardens, $1,289,272; forest products, $2,719,140; home manufactures, $1,371,409; animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter, $40,498,375; value of all live stock, $120,300,528. In 1873 the assessors returned 18,575,239 acres of taxable lands, including 8,535,917 cultivated, 4,855,425 in pasture, 4,085,969 woodland, and 541,022 other land unproductive. It was believed, however, that the actual amount was about 36 per cent. more than that reported. The chief crops, as returned by the federal census of 1870 and by the state authorities for the three following years, were as follows:

PRODUCTS. 1870. 1871. 1872. 1873.

No. of
per acre.
No. of
per acre.
No. of
per acre.

Wheat, bush. 27,882,159  22,274,378  1,667,659  13.27  18,087,664  1,611,217  11.22  21,974,385  1,742,756  12.61 
Indian corn, bush. 67,501,144  98,363,060  2,682,165  86.67  103,053,234  2,520,253  40.89  84,049,328  2,400,295  35.07 
Rye, bush. 846,890  428,014  37,207  11.50  295,843  25,166  11.75  291,829  27,927  10.45 
Oats, bush. 25,347,549  32,696,127  1,000,122  82.69  25,825,742  971,494  26.58  20,501,904  791,927  25.37 
Barley, bush. 1,715,221  1,941,240  81,252  28.89  1,528,266  72,483  21.08  1,074,906  49,872  21.55 
Buckwheat, bush. 180,341  177,938  14,972  11.88  266,807  34,882  7.65  213,074  21,002  10.14 
Potatoes, Irish, bush. 11,192,814  8,755,198  100,630  87       7,832,297  105,896  73.96  5,966,316  78,199  76.55 
Potatoes, sweet, bush. 230,295  207,676  2,693  77       215,023  3,026  71       170,370  2,701  63.07 
Hay, tons 2,289,565  1,928,221  1,831,975  1.05  1,763,950  l,815,558  1.02  1,870,212  1,966,315  1.05 
Grass and clover seed, bush.  151,166  384,974  ........  .....  308,903  ........  .....  205,944  ........  ..... 
Flax, lbs. 17,880,624  24,477,361 
.....  9,060,588 
.....  5,070,788 
Flaxseed, bush. 631,894  738,384  .....  457,379  .....  167,510  ..... 
Tobacco, lbs. 18,741,973  36,177,630  28,862  12.53  34,900,996  46,227  7.55  39,572,558  43,850  9.02 

The counties having the greatest extent of cultivated land are Richland, Seneca, Wayne, Darke, Fairfield, and Montgomery, the total number of acres under crops in these six counties being 999,925. Other agricultural productions have been reported as follows:

Federal census.
1871. 1872. 1873.

Wool, lbs. 20,539,643   16,139,331   17,586,209   17,175,465 
Hops, lbs. 101,236  .........  .........  ......... 
Butter, lbs. 50,266,372  44,994,152  45,413,066  43,533,865 
Cheese, lbs. 24,153,876  32,394,152  34,403,857  36,668,530 
Milk, gallons sold 22,275,344  .........  .........  ......... 
Maple sugar, lbs. 3,469,128  1,832,396  2,690,011  2,150,072 
Maple molasses, galls. 352,612  271,113  536,320  376,348 
Sorghum sugar, lbs. ..........  25,505  34,599  36,846 
Sorghum molasses, galls.  2,023,427  1,817,042  968,130  692,314 
Honey, lbs. 763,124  .........  .........  ......... 
Wax, lbs. 22,488  .........  .........  ......... 
Orchards, acres
 State returns 
for 1870.
383,647  391,550  385,829 
Apples, bush. 10,437,437  21,632,475  11,343,431 
Peaches, bush. 860,530  405,619  94,516 
Pears, bush. 126,982  153,968  80,033 
Vineyards, acres 11,219  15,111  19,660 
Grapes, lbs. 19,292,980  10,016,427  6,607,653 
Wine, galls. 1,031,923  425,923  208,289 

The number of domestic animals reported by the federal census of 1870, and the number and value returned for taxation in 1874, were as follows:

ANIMALS. 1870. 1874.

Number. Value.

Horses 704,664  729,303   $45,932,368 
Mules and asses  16,065  25,345  1,778,181 
Cattle ........  1,673,864  27,917,537 
Milch cows 654,390  ........  ........ 
Working oxen 23,606  ........  ........ 
Other cattle 843,425  ........  ........ 
Sheep  4,928,635   4,333,868  10,452,067 
Swine 1,728,968  1,915,220  6,152,875 

—Ohio possesses great natural advantages as a manufacturing state, and holds a very high rank in this respect. According to the federal census of 1870, it ranked after New York, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts in the amount of capital employed in manufactures and the value of products; first in the value of wooden ware; next to Illinois in agricultural implements and distilled liquors; to New York in cooperage, linseed oil, and factory cheese; to Pennsylvania in iron ore and coal oil; to New York and Pennsylvania in iron castings, forged and rolled iron, sash, doors, and blinds, soap and candles, tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, and malt; to Illinois and Missouri in bituminous coal and pork packed; and to California and Missouri in vinous liquors. It also ranked among the first in malt liquors, machinery, mining, and leather. The total number of manufacturing establishments of all kinds was 22,773, having 4,586 steam engines of 129,577 horse power, and 2,157 water wheels of 44,746 horse power, and employing 137,202 hands, of whom 119,680 were males above 16 years of age, 11,575 females above 15, and 5,941 youths. The capital employed amounted to $141,923,964; wages, $49,066,488; materials, $157,131,697; products, $269,713,610. The leading industries are represented in the following table:

Capital. Wages. Value of
Value of

Agricultural implements 219  3,581  283  5,124   $7,570,320   $2,841,518   $5,240,550   $11,907,366 
Blacksmithing 2,406  45  ....  4,270  1,089,692  518,222  938,602  8,099,476 
Boots and shoes 2,358  48  ....  6,738  2,058,067  1,747,310  2,834,261  6,559,946 
Bread, crackers, and other bakery products 279  250  ....  975  495,522  284,532  1,288,604  2,202,818 
Brick 331  516  2,409  633,660  462,758  294,420  1,252,857 
Carpentering and building 1,613  300  ....  4,924  1,036,777  1,481,134  3,277,849  6,805,653 
Carriages and wagons 1,221  231  28  5,094  2,964,783  1,671,070  1,537,164  5,049,580 
Cars, freight and passenger 11  467  ....  1,462  1,355,970  917,565  1,365,679  2,555,855 
Cheese 195  317  40  759  474,970  116,635  1,875,711  2,287,804 
Clothing, men's 773  ....  ....   10,632  4,696,727  2,486,329  7,496,501  12,367,440 
Coal oil, rectified 25  385  ....  270  757,000  157,359  4,496,163  5,388,473 
Cooperage 658  963  50  3,206  1,108,957  1,105,530  1,729,417  3,554,171 
Flouring and grist-mill products 1,396   18,834   26,564  3,932  11,334,952  965,724  26,498,777  31,692,210 
Furniture, not specified 558  2,299  193  4,996  5,004,465  2,106,971  1,734,459  5,794,376 
Furniture, chairs 55  575  48  1,275  610,600  382,071  419,106  998,209 
Hubs and wagon materials 58  1,693  145  1,301  1,303,450  548,647  665,190  1,712,208 
Iron, rolled and forged 38  11,186  100  4,670  6,636,659  2,791,560  8,435,585  13,033,169 
Iron, nails and spikes, cut and wrought 10  1,477  ....  370  841,241  198,140  1,807,402  2,097,848 
Iron, pigs 65  10,158  ....  4,582  7,437,826  2,035,520  7,056,405  10,956,938 
Iron, castings, not specified 215  2,858  453  3,073  5,656,879  1,757,300  8,569,086  7,318,102 
Iron, castings, stoves, heaters, and hol. ware 53  968  32  1,987  2,616,750  1,100,866  1,195,424  3,221,298 
Leather, tanned 495  1,622  94  1,265  2,171,108  379,178  2,768,493  3,714,232 
Leather, curried 387  210  ....  796  1,057,733  251,413  2,933,218  3,522,100 
Liquors, distilled 63  2,710  205  735  2,829,700  369,987  4,371,289  7,022,656 
Liquors, malt 199  1,257  1,305  5,337,272  748,540  2,711,270  5,753,666 
Liquors, vinous 38  .....  ....  124  369,900  25,300  179,775  309,375 
Lumber, planed 142  2,883  95  1,095  1,212,902  491,263  1,599,615  2,519,745 
Lumber, sawed 2,228  36,693  9,690  8,225  6,188,179  1,534,759  4,913,328  10,102,780 
Machinery, not specified 142  1,750  528  2,254  3,395,885  1,244,973  1,880,596  4,198,912 
Machinery, railroad repairing 13  732  ....  1,862  2,447,284  1,117,110  1,130,339  2,248,149 
Machinery, steam engines and boilers 72  1,265  20  2,311  2,826,120  1,301,649  2,656,409  4,801,341 
Malt 84  189  30  166  965,228  75,301  943,813  1,129,696 
Marble and stone, work not specified 79  1,010  70  927  1,085,125  410,396  439,674  1,112,072 
Marble and stone, monuments and tombstones  118  172  ....  677  661,445  278,590  502,865  1,108,961 
Meat, packed pork 58  106  ....  830  3,792,490  341,964  9,370,626  10,655,950 
Oil, animal 11  108  ....  148  501,000  71,822  1,553,186  1,702,843 
Oil, linseed 23  366  277  202  1,090,967  76,590  1,537,290  1,840,000 
Paper, printing 17  1,288  819  785  1,604,800  306,273  1,511,148  2,219,880 
Paper, wrapping 20  383  965  368  876,000  144,776  792,664  1,224,253 
Patent medicines and compounds 17  16  ....  134  417,400  63,780  269,442  1,004,200 
Printing and publishing, not specified 43  425  ....  1,433  1,763,400  948,521  953,444  2,896,720 
Saddlery and harness 787  ....  ....  1,999  832,328  419,097  992,922  2,074,268 
Salt 40  849  40  437  1,085,904  161,420  362,922  773,492 
Sash, doors, and blinds 142  3,423  250  2,078  2,428,523  949,374  1,730,236  3,416,998 
Soap and candles 42  267  ....  407  1,035,150  166,518  2,337,625  2,976,544 
Stone and earthen ware 170  482  19  1,244  751,700  417,508  250,070  970,749 
Tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware 652  77  ....  2,313  1,598,433  711,421  1,458,534  3,214,285 
Tobacco, chewing, smoking, and snuffing 85  206  19  1,042  570,930  269,700  1,469,626  2,380,583 
Tobacco, cigars 406  ....  2,499  826,369  769,937  973,174  2,666,183 
Woollen goods 191  2,689  1,873  2,169  2,962,169  554,630  1,895,622  3,187,815 

Besides the above, there were 535 establishments engaged in mining, having 121 steam engines of 4,143 horse power, and employing 11,241 hands, about one half of whom are employed under ground. The capital invested amounted to $9,017,197, and the annual products to $7,751,544. Among the latter were 2,527,285 tons of bituminous coal, valued at $5,482,952; 316,529 of iron ore, $960,984; petroleum, $228,488; and stone, $1,079,120. According to returns by the state authorities, 55,316,666 bushels of coal were mined in 1871, 110,438,754 in 1872, and 87,794,240 in 1873. The counties in which the largest amounts were produced in the last named year were Stark, 10,002,642 bushels; Perry, 9,979,056; Trumbull, 8,217,248; Athens, 7,803,637; Columbiana, 6,728,570; Meigs, 5,757,203; Summit, 5,395,444; and Wayne, 5,189,018. There were 336,758 tons of iron ore mined in 1872, and 332,972 in 1873, more than half being the product of Lawrence and Jackson cos. The production of pig iron was reported by the American iron and steel association at 399,743 tons in 1872, and 406,029 in 1873, which was about one seventh of the entire product of the United States. The number of stacks in 1873 was 988. In 1873 the assessors reported 44 rolling mills, including 15 manufacturing rails, 4 Bessemer steel rails, and 7 other kinds of steel. The reported production of salt was 4,154,187 bushels; petroleum, 1,315,660 gallons; lime, 488,331 barrels; water cement, 12,377 barrels; stone ware, 4,525,300 gallons. In extent of pork packing Ohio ranks above all other states except Illinois. During the winter season of 1874-'5 there were packed 871,736 hogs, weighing in the aggregate 241,737,547 lbs., the average gross weight being 277.3 lbs. each. The total product of lard was 35,459,594 lbs.; value of hogs packed, $16,597,490. Among the other products were 465,075,171 lbs. of green sides, 186,030,068 of shoulders, and 162,776,309 of hams. The chief seat of this industry is Cincinnati, where the number of hogs packed was 560,164. (See Cincinnati.)—Ohio has three United States customs districts, Miami, Sandusky, and Cuyahoga, the ports of entry being Toledo, Sandusky, and Cleveland. Cincinnati is a port of delivery in the district of Louisiana. By act of congress of July, 1870, it is also made a port of entry, where merchandise may be entered without appraisement at the port of first arrival. The value of the merchandise thus transported during the year ending June 30, 1874, was $111,576; that entered from other districts amounted to $75,435. The imports and domestic exports in the three customs districts during the year ending June 30, 1874, were as follows:

 DISTRICTS.  Imports. Domestic

Cuyahoga  $449,118  $1,426,990 
Miami 79,018  1,836,825 
Sandusky  26,240  264,914 

Total   $554,376   $3,528,729 

The number of vessels and tonnage that entered and cleared in the foreign trade, and the whole number registered, enrolled, and licensed in each district, were as follows:


No. Tons. No. Tons. No. Tons.

Cuyahoga  924  198,676  947  189,587  10 2,320.20
Miami 302  69,517  286  71,339  .. ........
Sandusky  136  12,089  155  14,332  .. ........

Total   1,362   280,282   1,388   275,258   10   2,320.20 

The number of vessels engaged in the coastwise trade and those built in the different districts were as follows:



No. Tons. No. Tons. No. Tons.

Cuyahoga  3,315 1,126,839  3,418  1,170,351  20  11,242.75 
Miami 1,962 441,593  1,918  425,951  1,807.84 
Sandusky  3,140 479,897  3,124  474,602  614.16 

Total   8,417   2,048,329   8,460   2,070,904   28   13,664.75 

—The mileage of railroads in Ohio has increased from 36 m. in 1841 to 572 in 1851, 3,024 in 1861, 3,176 in 1865, 3,214 in 1867, 3,224 in 1869, 3,457 in 1871, 3,787 in 1872, and 4,163 in 1873; and 4,374 m. of main line and branches were reported by the commissioners of railroads and telegraphs, June 30, 1874, besides which there were 1,142 m. of sidings and other tracks, making the total extent of track 5,516 m. The total amount of capital stock paid in was $147,902,160; funded and other debt, $151,029,300; total stock and debt, $298,931,461; number of passengers carried, 14,886,294; freight, 26,199,435 tons; gross earnings on 4,195 m. operated, $37,177,129; net earnings, $10,182,894. The lines in operation in 1874, with their termini and number of miles completed, are represented in the following table:

operation in
the state in
Total length
 between termini 
different from
the preceding.

From To

[1]Ashtabula, Youngstown, and Pittsburgh  Youngstown  Ashtabula 63  .... 
Atlantic and Great Western  Salamanca, N. Y  Dayton 248  387 
Extension By means of extra rail on Cincinnati, Hamilton, and Dayton road   Dayton  Cincinnati 60  .... 
Divisions Cleveland and Mahoning
Niles and New Lisbon
Liberty and Vienna
 Cleveland  Sharon, Pa. 80  81 
 Niles  New Lisbon 33  .... 
 Girard  New Vienna .... 
Baltimore and Ohio ....  .... 
Leased Baltimore, Pittsburgh, and Chicago
Central Ohio
Sandusky, Mansfield, and Newark
Newark, Somerset, and Straitsville
 Centreton  Chicago, Ill. 95  269 
 Columbus  Bellaire 137  .... 
 Sandusky  Newark 116  .... 
 Newark  Shawmee 44  .... 
Chicago and Canada Southern (branch)  Toledo  Trenton Crossing, Mich.  38 
[2]Cincinnati and Indiana  Cincinnati  Indiana state line 20  .... 
Cincinnati, Hamilton, and Dayton  Dayton  Cincinnati 60  .... 
Leased Cincinnati, Hamilton, and Indianapolis
Cincinnati, Richmond, and Chicago
Dayton and Michigan
 Hamilton  Indianapolis, Ind. 21  98 
 Cincinnati  Richmond, Ind. 37  42 
 Dayton  Toledo 141  .... 
[1]Cincinnati and Muskingum Valley  Dresden Junction  Morrow 148  .... 
Cincinnati, Sandusky, and Cleveland  Springfield  Sandusky 130  .... 
Branch  Carey  Findlay 15  .... 
Leased, Columbus, Springfield, and Cincinnati  Springfield  Columbus 45  .... 
Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis
 Cleveland  Columbus 138  .... 
 Galion  Indianapolis, Ind. 119  203 
 Delaware  Springfield 50  .... 
Leased, Cincinnati and Springfield  Springfield  Cincinnati 74  .... 
Cleveland, Mt. Vernon and Delaware  Hudson  Columbus 145  .... 
Leased, Massillon and Cleveland  Clinton  Massillon 13  .... 
[1]Cleveland and Pittsburgh  Cleveland  Rochester, Pa. 109  124 
River division  Bellaire  Yellow Creek 43  .... 
Tuscarawas branch  Bayard  New Philadelphia 32  .... 
Columbus and Hocking Valley  Columbus  Athens 76  .... 
Branch  Logan  New Straitsville 13  .... 
Dayton and Union  Dodson  Union City, Ind. 32  .... 
[3]Harrison branch  Valley Junction  Harrison .... 
Iron &nbsIrontonp;  Centre Station 14  .... 
Lake Erie and Louisville  Sandusky  Cambridge City, Ind. 87  189 
Lake Shore and Michigan Southern  Buffalo, N. Y.  Chicago, Ill. 265  539 
Sandusky branch  Elyria  Milbury 77  .... 
Franklin division  Ashtabula  Oil City, Pa. 36  87 
Leased, Mahoning Valley  Andover  Youngstown 38  .... 
Lake Shore and Tuscarawas Yalley  Black River  Uhrichsville 100  .... 
[1]Mansfield, Cold water, and Lake Michigan  Mansfield  Allegan, Mich. 64  223 
[4]Marietta and Cincinnati  Parkersburg, W. Va.  Cincinnati 201  ... 
 Marietta  Scott's Lauding .... 
 Portsmouth  Hamden 56  .... 
 Hillsboro  Blanchester 21  .... 
Marietta, Pittsburgh, and Cleveland  Marietta  Canal Dover 98  .... 
Ohio and Mississippi  Cincinnati  St. Louis, Mo. 19  340 
Ohio and Toledo  ..  .. 10  .... 
Painesville and Youngstown  Painesville  Youngstown 50  64 
[1]Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and St. Louis  Pittsburgh, Pa.  Columbus 125  193 
Branch  Junction  Cadiz .... 
Columbus, Chicago, and Indiana Central  
Little Miami
Dayton and Xenia
Dayton and Western
 Columbus  Chicago, Ill. 105  314 
 Bradford Junction  Indianapolis, Ind. 32  106 
 Columbus  Cincinnati 120  .... 
 Xenia  Springfield 19  .... 
 Dayton  Xenia 16  .... 
 Dayton  Richmond, Ind. 41  .... 
[1]Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne, and Chicago  Pittsburgh Pa.  Chicago, Ill. 249  468 
Branch  Lawrence Junct'n, Pa.   Youngstown 17  .... 
Rocky River  Cleveland  Rocky River .... 
Toledo, Canada Southern, and Detroit  Toledo  Detroit, Mich. 57 
[1]Toledo, Tiffin, and Eastern  Tiffin  Toledo 42  .... 
Toledo, Wabash, and Western  Toledo  Camp Point, Ill. 76  454 
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Operated by the Pennsylvania railroad company.
  2. Operated by the Indianapolis, Cincinnati, and Lafayette railroad company.
  3. Operated by the Whitewater Valley railroad company of Indiana.
  4. Including the Cincinnati and Baltimore railroad, which extends from Cincinnati 6 m. eastward.

Ohio has 654 m. of canals proper, 36 in. of feeders and side cuts, 11 m. of reservoirs, and 95 m. of the Muskingum slack-water improvement, from Marietta to Dresden, making a total of 796 m. of artificial navigation. The first canal (the Ohio) was begun in 1825, and the last completed in 1844. The total cost of all was $14,688,666. The canals are as follows:

Ohio, Cleveland to Portsmouth 809  m.
Trenton feeder 8
Dresden side cut 2
Granville feeder 6
Columbus feeder 11
Miami and Erie, Cincinnati to Toledo 246
Branch to Indiana state line, connecting with Wabash and Erie canal  18
Sidney feeder 14
St Mary's reservoir 11
Walhonding, Roscoe to Rochester 25
Hocking, Carroll to Athens 56

—The number of national banks in the state Nov. 1, 1874, was 170, having a paid-in capital of $29,223,000; bonds on deposit, $25,964,750; circulation issued, $34,474,265; outstanding, $23,605,633. The circulation was $8 68 per capita, 1 per cent. of the wealth of the state, and 80.8 per cent. of the bank capital. Besides the above, 21 state banks were reported in 1874, capital $658,666; 32 savings banks, capital $1,879,324; and 190 private banks, capital $8,502,414.—The present constitution of Ohio was adopted in 1851. The right to vote is secured. to every white male citizen of the United States 21 years of age, who has resided one year in the state, 30 days in the county, and 20 in the township, village, or ward, next preceding the election. Colored citizens are entitled to vote under the federal constitution. The general elections are held annually on the second Tuesday of October. The general assembly consists of a senate of 36 members and a house of 105 representatives, both elected for two years. Its regular sessions are biennial, beginning on the first Monday of January in even years. The executive officers are a governor, salary, $4,000; lieutenant governor, $800; secretary of state, $2,000; auditor, $3,000; treasurer, $3,000; comptroller of the treasury, $2,000; attorney general, $1,500 and fees; and commissioner of schools, $2,000. All are chosen for two years, except the auditor, whose term is four, and the comptroller and commissioner of schools, who hold office for three years. The board of public works comprises three members, who are also elected. The commissioner of railroads and telegraphs, the superintendent of insurance, supervisor of public printing, gas commissioner, and state and law librarians are appointed by the governor. The state board of agriculture consists of ten members, five of whom are chosen annually for two years, at a convention composed of the presidents of the county agricultural societies. The officers are chosen annually by the board. The supreme court consists of a chief justice and four judges, salary $3,000 each. It has original jurisdiction in quo warranto, mandamus, habeas corpus, and procedendo, and appellate jurisdiction of the judgments of the district courts. Regular terms are held annually in Columbus, beginning on the first Monday in December. The state is divided into nine common pleas districts, each of which is subdivided into three parts, each part electing one or more of the judges. Courts of common pleas are held by one or more of the judges in each county, and district courts by the common pleas judges of each district, with one judge of the supreme court. The district courts have original jurisdiction similar to that of the supreme court, and appellate jurisdiction of the judgments of the common pleas. They are composed of the judges of the common pleas in the respective districts and one of the judges of the supreme court. A court of common pleas is held in each county by a single judge, and has original jurisdiction when the amount in controversy exceeds $100, and appellate jurisdiction from justices of the peace and probate courts. There are special superior courts in Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dayton, and Xenia. Probate courts are established in each county. Justices' courts have exclusive jurisdiction in civil actions where the amount does not exceed $100, and concurrent jurisdiction with the common pleas when the amount is between $100 and $300. All judges are elected, those of the supreme and common pleas courts for five years. The state is divided into two United States judicial districts, the courts being held in Cincinnati, Cleveland, and Toledo. A married woman may hold, free from the interference of her husband or his creditors, the property belonging to her at the time of marriage, or afterward acquired by gift, bequest, or inheritance, or by purchase with her separate means, and may dispose of such property by will. She has similar control of her earnings. Divorces may be obtained for three years' desertion, adultery, impotence, extreme cruelty, fraudulent contract, gross neglect of duty, habitual drunkenness for three years, or imprisonment under criminal sentence. Wills, except nuncupative, must be in writing and signed by two or more witnesses. The legal rate of interest is 6 per cent.; not more than 8 per cent. may be agreed upon in writing, but 6 per cent. may be recovered on a contract for more than 8 per cent. Statistics of agriculture, industry, &c., are annually collected by township assessors and published under the direction of the secretary of state. Ohio has 2 senators and 21 representatives in congress, and has therefore 23 votes in the electoral college.—The state funds, not including transfers, during the year ending Nov. 15, 1874, were:

FUNDS. Receipts.  Disbursements.  Balances,
 Nov. 15, 1874. 

General revenue $1,024,588  $725,864  $193,876 
Asylum 1,875,889  1,943,338  40,224 
Sinking 1,315,216  910,121  450,570 
State common school  1,535,125  1,487,562  127,727 
National road 17,971  19,093  ....... 

Total  $5,768,789   $5,085,978   $812,397 

The receipts of the general revenue fund included $929,672 from taxes and licenses, $19,271 insurance fees, $24,930 from board of public works, and $42,440 from sale of Central Ohio lunatic asylum grounds. Among the disbursements were $150,278 for salaries of the judiciary, $135,909 for state binding, printing, and stationery, $127,543 expenses of constitutional convention, $101,159 for legislature, $44,275 for public works, $37,876 for clerks in civil departments, $31,587 for salaries of state officers, $16,976 for geological survey, and $3,000 for encouragement of agriculture. The funded debt of the state on Nov. 15, 1874, amounted to $7,988,205, of which $22,365 had ceased to draw interest and $7,965,840 was interest-bearing. The local debts on Sept. 1, 1874, were $21,886,007, making the entire indebtedness of the state (with an irreducible debt of $4,121,394) $33,995,606. The total amount of taxable property in 1874 was returned at $1,580,379,324, including $1,052,257,736 real estate, of which $354,849,199 was in cities, towns, and villages, and personal property valued at $528,121,588. The total taxes levied on this valuation amounted to $26,837,196 (exclusive of $777,532 for delinquent taxes and forfeitures of other years), including $5,050,367 for state and $6,038,750 for county purposes, and $15,748,079 township, city, school and special taxes. The purposes for which the state tax was levied, with the amounts and rates, were as follows:

FUNDS. Rate.
Mills on
 the dollar. 

General reserve .5  $788,856 
Asylum .9  1,419,941 
Sinking .8  1,262,170 
State common school  1.0  1,579,400 

Total 3.2   $5,050,367 

The value of taxable property and the amount of taxes levied for a series of years have been as follows:

 YEARS.  Value of
Value of
Total value
of taxable
 State tax.  Total
taxes on

1840 $85,287,261  $27,038,895  $112,326,156  $564,435  $1,755,589
1850 341,388,838  98,487,502  489,876,340  1,413,830  4,227,708
1860 639,894,311  248,408,290  888,302,601  3,503,713  10,817,676
1861 643,883,552  248,966,532  892,850,084  4,056,379  11,656,814
1862 645,670,080  243,615,312  889,285,292  4,129,473  10,135,285
1863 649,500,022  286,871,222  936,371,244  4,722,608  11,859,574
1864 655,498,100  351,198,016  1,006,696,116  5,329,963  16,595,639
1865 660,557,979  409,047,876  1,069,605,855  5,663,367  20,870,828
1866 663,647,542  442,561,379  1,106,208,921  3,867,167  18,868,487
1867 673,998,757  464,761,022  1,138,754,779  8,981,099  20,253,615
1868 683,452,487  460,008,899  1,143,461,386  3,997,472  20,489,148
1869 697,418,203  459,762,252  1,157,180,455  4,045,476  22,232,877
1870 707,846,836  459,884,861  1,168,731,697  4,666,242  23,463,631
1871 1,025,619,034  476,510,937  1,502,129,971  4,350,728  22,955,388
1872 1,030,160,528  494,159,590  1,524.323,118  4,414,557  23,248,979
1873 1,041,763,931  525,510,708  1,567,274,639  5,477,859  26,131,358
1874  1,052,257,786   528,121,588   1,580,379,324   5,050,367   26,837,196

—Ohio has made liberal provision for the care of its defective and dependent classes. Four institutions for the insane are wholly and two partially supported by the state. The oldest is the central Ohio hospital, which was opened at Columbus in 1839. The building was destroyed by fire in 1868, and a new one is now (1875) in process of construction on a plot of 300 acres of land near the same city. For 15 years prior to its destruction the average daily number of inmates of this institution was 262. The other state hospitals for the insane are the northern Ohio, in Newburgh, Cuyahoga co.; the southern Ohio, in Dayton, and the southeastern, in Athens. The Longview lunatic asylum, near Cincinnati, belongs to Hamilton co., but state patients are received here, and the institution is supported in part by legislative appropriations, which in 1874 amounted to $81,856. Both white and colored insane persons are treated in this institution. The Lucas county asylum, known also as the Northwestern hospital for the insane, near Toledo, does not belong to the state, but receives state patients. During the year ending March 31, 1874, 1,018 were sent to the hospitals for the insane. There is also a city institution for the insane in Carthage, opened in 1860. The state asylum for idiots in Columbus has been in existence since 1857. The present building was first occupied in 1868. (See Idiocy, vol. ix., p. 174.) The asylum for the deaf and dumb and that for the blind are in Columbus. The former had 24 instructors in 1874, and the latter 14. The soldiers' and sailors' orphans' home was established near Xenia, Greene co., in December, 1869, and was sustained by private contributions till May 1, 1870, when it became a state institution. The state reform school is situated upon a farm of 1,170 acres 6 m. S. of Lancaster. The buildings, 15 in number besides barns and outhouses, with the yards, lawns, and play grounds, occupy 20 acres. Boys are sent to the institution by some court of record for crime or misdemeanor, and are here classed in families of 50, each family being under the supervision of an “elder brother,” an assistant elder brother, and a female teacher. Besides receiving instruction, the boys are employed in farm work and other industrial pursuits. Since the opening of the institution in 1857, 1,984 boys have been admitted and 1,520 discharged, the average time of detention being 2½ years. The industrial school for girls is at White Sulphur Springs, where the state owns 189 acres of land. The state penitentiary is in Columbus. The convicts are employed in various manufactures on the direct account of the state, and their labor is let out to contractors. By good behavior and diligence in his work, a convict may diminish his sentence five days a month, and receive a portion of his earnings, not exceeding one tenth. If he passes the entire period of his sentence without violating the rules of the prison, he will be restored to citizenship. There is a separate department for insane convicts. The total receipts during the year ending Nov. 1, 1874, were $177,367, including $165,207 from convict labor; the expenditures were $171,955, not including $4,362 expended in the manufacture of gas for public institutions. During the year 509 prisoners were received, 371 were discharged, and there were 1,005 in confinement at the close of the year. The total disbursements by the state on account of the penitentiary amounted to $187,103, besides $61,576 for the prosecution and transportation of criminals. The condition of the charitable and reformatory institutions for the year ending Nov. 15, 1874, is given in the following statement:

 expenses and 
by the state.

 daily No. 

Central Ohio hospital for the insane 1839 .... .... ........  $304,523 
Northern hospital for the insane 1855 527 253 $57,741  358,841 
Southern hospital for the insane 1855 960 526 99,396  99,396 
Southeastern Ohio hospital for the insane  1874 708 426 94,725  220,539 
Longview asylum for the insane 1861 785 582 119,424  210,369 
Lucas co. asylum for the insane 1871 174 100 25,028  25,278 
Asylum for idiots 1857 386 352 69,903  97,012 
Asylum for deaf and dumb 1829 468 400 81,781  81,781 
Asylum for blind 1837 169 109 40,763  121,067 
Soldiers' and sailors' orphans' home 1869 555 520 61,051  83,567 
Reform school 1857 636 450 49,901  63,563 
Girls' industrial home 1869 166 143 20,202  49,723 

In April, 1874, there were reported in the state, not in any of the above named institutions, 1,347 insane, 1,271 idiotic, 1,039 deaf and dumb, and 870 blind. During the year ending March 31, 1874, 4,066 paupers were supported in county infirmaries, besides 1,935 dependent persons otherwise maintained by counties.—The first law assessing a school tax in Ohio was passed in 1825. In 1838 the school laws were revised, and a state common school fund of $200,000 was established, to be distributed among the several counties according to the number of youth therein. The office of state superintendent of common schools was established in 1837 and abolished in 1840. In 1853 the office of state commissioner of common schools was created. In 1873 the school acts were consolidated into a general law, which provides for the division of the state into school districts of five classes. City districts of the first class include cities having by the census of 1870 a population of 10,000 or more, while cities having less than 10,000 inhabitants constitute city districts of the second class. Village districts embrace incorporated villages. The territory not within any of these classes is divided into special districts and township districts. In all of these districts boards of education are elected by the people. Among other duties they may authorize and require for school purposes a tax not exceeding seven mills on the dollar. They may require any language to be taught in the schools under their control, and are required to provide instruction in the German language upon the demand of 75 freeholders, representing not less than 40 pupils who desire and intend to study both the German and English languages. Prior to 1873 instruction in the German language exclusively was given in many of the public schools. Under the new law all branches must be taught in the English language. Boards of education are also empowered to establish separate schools for colored children when their number exceeds 20, and to provide suitable evening schools for whites. An enumeration of all unmarried persons between 6 and 21 years of age is required to be made in each district annually. The state commissioner of common schools is chosen by the people for three years, and receives a salary of $2,000 besides his travelling and contingent expenses. He is required to visit annually each judicial district, and to make a report before Jan. 20. A state board of three examiners, appointed by the state commissioner for two years, are authorized to issue life certificates to teachers upon examination; there are also county examiners. The state common school fund consists of the proceeds arising from the sale of lands appropriated by congress for the support of schools and the amount accruing from the one-mill tax on the taxable property of the state. The school statistics for 1873-'4, as reported by the state commissioner of common schools, are as follows:

Number of persons between 6 and 21 years of age 985,947 
White 963,548 
Colored 22,399 
Males 505,001 
Females 480,946 
Number of school districts 1,919 
Number of school houses 11,688 
Number of school rooms 14,768 
Estimated value of school houses and grounds $18,829,586 
Number of teachers (males 9,911, females 12,464) 22,375 
Average number of weeks the schools were in sess'n 29 
Average number of pupils enrolled 707,943 
Average number of pupils in daily attendance 429,630 
Number of teachers in colored schools 160 
Pupils 6,131 
Total revenue for school purposes $8,300,594 
Income from mill tax $1,491,510 
Income from interest on irreducible funds and rents of school lands  $225,523 
Income from local taxes (average rate 5.23) $5,960,625 
Income from sale of bonds $399,625 
Income from fines, licenses, &c. $223,310 
Total expenditure $8,072,167 
Amount paid teachers $4,614,499 
Amount paid for supervision $138,530 
Amount paid for sites and buildings $1,474,082 
Amount paid for interest on and redemption of bonds  $516,603 
Amount paid for fuel and contingent expenses $1,328,452 
Average cost per pupil on year's expenditures[1] $14 15
On enrollment $8 57 
Average cost per pupil enrolled[2] $9 55 
  1. Net per capita on average daily attendance. 
  2. Includes 6 per cent. on value of permanent improvements.

The number of high schools reported was 108, having 678 teachers and 23,372 pupils. Besides the public schools above enumerated, there were in the state 265 instructors and 13,066 pupils in private schools. These schools receive no support from the public school funds, but boards of education are required to report concerning their condition. Ohio has no state normal school; but several institutions not receiving public funds are maintained for the training of teachers. Chief among these are the National normal school in Lebanon, the Northwestern Ohio in Ada, the Northwestern in Fostoria, the Ohio Central in Worthington, the Western Eeserve in Milan, the McNeeley in Hopedale, the Orwell normal institute in Orwell, and the normal school in Cincinnati. Most of these have courses of instruction in addition to the normal. The most extensive of them is the National normal school, opened in 1856, which has collegiate (including scientific and classical courses), teachers', engineering, business, and preparatory departments, in all of which there were in 1873-'4 17 teachers, of whom 7 were females, and 1,657 pupils, of whom 324 were females. During 1873-'4, 75 teachers' institutes were held, and were attended by 8,579 teachers. Nothing is contributed by the state to the support of this means of training teachers. Of the cost ($15,318) of maintaining these institutes, $11,792 was taken from the fund accruing from the fee of 50 cents paid by each applicant for a teacher's certificate, and $3,332 was contributed by teachers and others. The Ohio agricultural and mechanical college has been established by means of the congressional land grant of 1862, from which a productive fund of over $500,000 has been realized. The institution was opened in Columbus in September, 1873. The system of instruction embraces three schools: 1, exact sciences, including mathematics, civil engineering, physics and mechanics, and chemistry; 2, natural history, comprising botany, zoology, geology, and agriculture; 3, letters, embracing the English, German, French, Latin, and Greek languages and literatures. Social science and political economy are also taught. The entire course of instruction occupies four years. The studies of the first two years are prescribed. During the remainder of the course the student has a liberty of choice from six courses of study. He is required to take at least one from each of the schools above mentioned, and may take all of his remaining studies from one school. Instruction is free to pupils of both sexes. Applicants for admission are examined in the ordinary English branches. The degrees of bachelor of arts, bachelor of science, and civil engineer are conferred. The institution has a farm of 320 acres, and valuable apparatus and collections for imparting an industrial and scientific education. In 1874-'5 there were 10 instructors and 75 students.—The colleges and professional schools of the state, with the number of instructors and pupils in 1874-'5, were as follows:

INSTITUTIONS. Where situated. Denominations.  In what 
No. of
Pupils in
 Pupils in all 

Antioch college  Yellow Springs  Unitarian 1853 10  43  120 
Baldwin university  Berea  Methodist Episcopal 1856 18  179  288 
Buchtel college  Akron  Universalist 1872 14  101  180 
Capital university  Columbus  Evangelical Lutheran 1850 60  80 
Cincinnati Wesleyan college  Cincinnati  Methodist Episcopal 1842 18  114  220 
Denison university  Granville  Baptist 1831 10  87  162 
Farmer's college  College Hill  Not denominational 1847 20  82 
Franklin college  New Athens  United Presbyterian 1825 ...  ...  ... 
German Wallace college  Berea  Methodist Episcopal 1864 35  110 
Heidelberg college  Tiffin  Reformed 1850 102  210 
Hiram college  Hiram  Disciples 1867 37  233 
Kenyon college  Gambier  Protestant Episcopal 1825 13  52  69 
Marietta college  Marietta  Not denominational 1835 10  85  183 
Mount St. Mary's of the West  Cincinnati  Roman Catholic 1851 15  318  112 
Mount Union college  Mount Union  Methodist Episcopal 1858 16  638  809 
Muskingum college  New Concord  Not denominational 1837 ...  125 
Oberlin college  Oberlin  Congregational 1833 68  159  1,330 
Ohio Central college  Iberia  United Presbyterian 1854 15  50 
Ohio university  Athens  Not denominational 1804 48  109 
Ohio Wesleyan university  Delaware  Methodist Episcopal 1844 12  159  376 
One Study university  New Mark't Stat'n   Methodist Episcopal 1859 ...  217 
Otterbein university  Westerville  United Brethren in Christ 1847 11  75  205 
Richmond college  Richmond  Not denominational 1835 ...  ... 
St. Xavier college  Cincinnati  Roman Catholic 1831 16  159  272 
University of Wooster  Wooster  Presbyterian 1870 27  155  306 
Urbana university  Urbana  New Church 1851 10  25 
Western Reserve college  Hudson  Not denominational 1826 16  66  183 
Wilberforce university  Xenia  Afric'n Method't Episcopal  1856 ...  ...  ... 
Wilmington college  Wilmington  Friends 1870 15  79 
Willoughby college  Willoughby  Methodist 1858 25  150 
Wittenberg college  Springfield  Evangelical Lutheran 1845 10  100  163 
Xenia college  Xenia  Methodist Episcopal 1850 122  271 
Law school of Cincinnati college  Cincinnati 1833 65  ... 
Ohio state and union law school  Cleveland 1856 ...  ...  ... 
Cincinnati college of medicine and surgery  Cincinnati  Regular 1821 14  ...  ... 
Cincinnati college of pharmacy  Cincinnati  Pharmaceutic 1871 76  ... 
Cleveland medical college  Cleveland  Regular 1842 15  66  ... 
Eclectic medical institute  Cleveland  Eclectic 1843 ...  ...  ... 
Homœopathic hospital college  Cleveland  Homœopathic 1849 13  70  ... 
Medical college of Ohio  Cincinnati  Regular 1819 10  282  ... 
Miami medical college  Cincinnati  Regular 1852 12  ...  ... 
Ohio college of dental surgery  Cincinnati  Dental 1845 38  ... 
Pulte medical college  Cincinnati  Homœopathic 1872 14  56  ... 
Starling medical college and hospital  Columbus  Regular 1848 65  ... 
Lane theological seminary  Cincinnati  Presbyterian 1833 48  ... 
Mount St. Mary's of the West  Cincinnati  Roman Catholic 1851 ...  ... 
St. Mary's theological seminary  Cleveland  Roman Catholic 1849 30  ... 
Theological seminary  Xenia  United Presbyterian 1794 ...  ...  ... 
Theological seminary of the Evangelical Lutheran joint synod of Ohio   Columbus  Evangelical Lutheran 1830 ...  ...  ... 
Theological seminary of St. Charles Borromeo  Carthagena  Roman Catholic 1860 48  ... 
Union Biblical seminary  Dayton  United Brethren in Christ 1871 25  ... 

The system adopted by the One Study university enables students to complete one study before beginning another. The Cincinnati Wesleyan college is exclusively for females. Both sexes are admitted to Antioch, Hiram, Mount Union, Oberlin, Ohio Central, One Study university, Otterbein, Richmond, and the university of Wooster. Besides these, there are numerous seminaries of a high order for the superior instruction of females. In addition to the professional schools above named, there is a law department in Wilberforce university; a medical department (in Cleveland) of the university of Wooster; a college of pharmacy connected with Baldwin university; scientific departments of Denison university and Oberlin college; and theological departments of German Wallace college, Heidelberg college, Mount St. Mary's of the West, Oberlin college, Wilberforce university, and Wittenberg college. The Toledo university of arts and trades has recently been organized for advanced artistic and industrial instruction of young men and women. The number of libraries in 1870 was 17,790, with an aggregate of 3,687,363 volumes. Of these, 11,765 with 2,353,000 volumes were private, and 6,025 with 1,334,363 volumes other than private; 3 town, city, &c., 61,000; 1,118 school, college, &c., 426,013; 4,896 Sabbath school, 796,650; and 5 circulating, 8,500. The largest libraries are the public in Cincinnati, which in 1874 had 62,000 volumes; the state in Columbus, 39,000; the mercantile in Cincinnati, 35,500; and the library of Marietta college, with 26,000 volumes. St. Xavier college, Mount St. Mary's of the West, Ohio Wesleyan university, Denison university, Western Reserve college, and Oberlin college have also large libraries. The Cincinnati law library contains about 10,000 volumes. The whole number of newspapers and periodicals in 1870 was 395, having an aggregate circulation of 1,388,367, and issuing annually 98,548,814 copies. There were 26 daily, with a circulation of 139,705; 8 tri-weekly, 13,560; 3 semi-weekly, 7,200; 299 weekly, 923,502; 8 semi-monthly, 65,050; 47 monthly, 228,750; 2 bi-monthly, 2,700; and 2 quarterly, 7,900. In 1874 the total number reported was 505, viz.: 29 daily, 10 tri-weekly, 5 semi-weekly, 386 weekly, 1 bi-weekly, 12 semi-monthly, 61 monthly, and 11 quarterly.—The total number of religious organizations in 1870 was 6,488, having 6,284 edifices with 2,085,586 sittings, and property valued at $25,554,725. The denominations were represented as follows:

DENOMINATIONS.  Organizations.   Edifices.   Sittings.   Property. 

Baptist, regular 555  545  164,020   $2,538,000
Baptist, other 158  157  88,850  225,500
Christian 681  610  167,625  1,366,990
Congregational 198  195  87,150  1,385,585
Episcopal, Protestant 114  112  51,150  1,343,280
Evangelical Association 157  140  33,500  338,500
Friends 91  91  26,050  218,770
Jewish 4,000  360,584
Lutheran 477  476  131,050  1,392,975
Methodist 2,161   2,115   714,146  6,540,910
Moravian 1,200  14,000
New Jerusalem (Swedenborgian) 1,350  55,000
Presbyterian, regular 628  625  233,945  3,580,756
Presbyterian, other 164  165  60,000  564,970
Reformed church in America (late Dutch Reformed) 700  9,500
Reformed church in the United States (late German Reformed)  288  266  88,900  887,700
Roman Catholic 295  295  160,700  3,959,970
Second Advent 300  1,000
Shaker 2,100  16,000
Universalist 78  78  20,750  175,950
Unknown, local missions 200  600
Unknown, union 33  33  8,600  34,775

—The first explorations in the territory which now constitutes the state of Ohio were made by the French, the discoveries of La Salle in this region dating from about 1680. The object of the French adventurers, however, seems to have been trade rather than settlement. They were soon involved in disputes with the English, who, having obtained from their sovereign a grant covering part of the territory claimed by the French, sent out surveyors, and established trading posts in the Ohio valley. It was in the war which broke out in consequence of these conflicting claims that Washington first became known; but neither his abilities nor the operations of a powerful force sent out under Gen. Braddock could overcome the French, who kept possession of the country until Canada and the whole country W. to the Mississippi were surrendered by the treaty of 1763. After the war of the revolution disputes arose between several of the states respecting the right of soil in this territory, which were only allayed by the cession of the whole to the United States, Virginia reserving 3,709,848 acres near the rapids of the Ohio for her state troops, and Connecticut a tract of 3,666,921 acres near Lake Erie (the Western Reserve). In 1800 jurisdiction over these two tracts was relinquished to the federal government, the states retaining the right to the soil, and disposing of it in small lots to settlers, while the Indian titles to the rest of the state were bought up by the general government. In 1787 congress undertook the government, and in 1788 the first permanent settlement was made at Marietta. The first years of the Northwest territory, as it was called, were harassed by Indian warfare, which was not terminated until after the signal victory of Gen. Wayne in 1794. In 1799 the Northwest territory was organized, and shortly afterward Ohio was formed into a separate government. It was admitted into the Union as a state in 1803. From 1800 to 1810 the seat of government was in Chillicothe, from 1810 to 1812 in Zanesville, and from 1812 to 1816 in Chillicothe. Columbus became the capital in 1816. A convention to revise the constitution assembled in Columbus May 6, 1850, and finally adjourned March 10, 1851, a portion of the session having been held in Cincinnati. The amended constitution was ratified by the people June 17, 1851. Another convention to revise the constitution convened in Columbus May 14, 1873, and, having adjourned to Cincinnati, framed a new constitution, which was rejected by the people at the election of 1874. The whole number of troops furnished by Ohio to the Union army during the civil war was 317,133, or 239,976 reduced to a three years' standard. The first geological survey of Ohio was made in 1837-'8, under the supervision of Prof. W. W. Mather, chief geologist. A more complete survey was begun in 1869 and completed in 1874, by Prof. J. S. Newberry as chief and E. B. Andrews, Edward Orton, and John H. Klippart as assistant geologists. Besides the reports of progress for 1869, 1870, and 1871, two volumes of the final report, each in two parts (geology and palæontology), have been published. The publications yet to be made comprise a volume on geology, one on economic geology, and one on zoology and botany, besides a geological map.