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The American Cyclopædia (1879)/San Diego (county)

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SAN DIEGO, the S. county of California, bounded E. by Arizona, from which it is separated by the Colorado river, S. by Lower California, and W. by the Pacific ocean; area, about 13,500 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,951. Two branches of the Coast range cross it from N. to S., dividing it into three divisions differing much in climate, soil, and topography. The division along the coast is about 25 m. wide, and consists largely of level plains or gently sloping valleys, watered by the San Bernardo, San Diego, San Luis Rey, Margarita, Sweetwater, and other rivers; the greater portion is suitable for agriculture and grazing. The central or mountain division is very irregular in outline, averaging nearly 40 m. in width. Both ranges are covered with forests of oak, cedar, pine, and fir, and contain gold, silver, copper, and other minerals. Valuable gold mines have been opened within the past four years. Between them are a number of broad valleys or table lands, having a delightful climate and a fertile soil. They produce grapes, oranges, wheat, barley, &c. The E. division is occupied by the Colorado desert, which is for the most part treeless and barren, and part of it is below the level of the sea. It is very dry and hot, and contains many natural curiosities, among which is a lake of boiling mud, about half a mile long by 500 yards wide. The chief productions in 1870 were 32,947 bushels of wheat, 9,330 of Indian corn, 18,745 of barley, 9,250 lbs. of wool, and 1,433 tons of hay. There were 5,687 horses, 1,268 milch cows, 20,347 other cattle, 16,443 sheep, and 1,683 swine. Capital, San Diego.