The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Twesten, August Detlev Christian
TWESTEN. I. August Detlev Christian, a German theologian, born in Glückstadt, April 11, 1789, died in Berlin, Jan. 8, 1876. He studied at Kiel, and taught at Berlin, where he adopted the views of Schleiermacher. In 1814 he became professor of theology at Kiel, and soon ranked next to Claus Harms in the Lutheran church of Holstein. In 1835 he succeeded Schleiermacher at Berlin, and in 1850 became a member of the new supreme ecclesiastical council of the United Evangelical church. He was one of the chief representatives of those who strive to reconcile the views of Schleiermacher with orthodox Lutheranism. His works include Vorlesungen über die Dogmatik der evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche (2 vols., Hamburg, 1826-'37), and Grundriss der analytischen Logik (Kiel, 1834). II. Karl, a German author, son of the preceding, born in Kiel, April 22, 1820, died in Berlin, Oct. 14, 1870. He became connected with the judicial service, and was one of the founders of the progressive party, which in 1861 involved him in a duel with Gen. Manteuffel, in which he lost his right arm. In the same year he was elected to the Prussian chamber of deputies, and he was one of the founders of the national-liberty party and an early member of the North German Reichstag. Persecuted for advocating the fullest parliamentary freedom, he retired in 1868 after being fined. His works include Schiller in seinem Verhältniss zur Wissenschaft (Berlin, 1863), Machiavelli (1868), and the posthumous Die religiösen, politischen und socialen Ideen der asiatischen Culturvölker und der Aegypter in ihrer historischen Entwickelung (edited by M. Lazarus, 1873).