The Analects/Book II.

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為政第二

BOOK II. WEI CHANG.


【第一章】子曰、為政以德、譬如北辰、居其所、而眾星共之。

Chapter I. The Master said, "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it."


【第二章】子曰、詩三百、一言以蔽之、曰、思無邪。

【第三章】【一節】子曰、道之以政、齊之以刑、民免而無恥。【二節】道之以德、齊之以禮、有恥且格。

【第四章】【一節】子曰、吾十有五而志于學。【二節】三十而立。【三節】四十而不惑。【四節】五

Chapter II. The Master said, "In the Book of Poetry are three hundred pieces, but the design of them all may be embraced in one sentence—'Having no depraved thoughts.'"

Chapter III. 1. The Master said, "If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame.

2. "If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good."

Chapter IV. 1. The Master said, "At fifteen, I had my mind bent on learning.

2. "At thirty, I stood firm.

3. "At forty, I had no doubts.

4. "At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven.


十而知天命。【五節】六十而耳順。【五節】七十而從心所欲、不踰矩。

【第五章】【一節】孟懿子問孝、子曰、無違。【二節】樊遲御、子告之曰、孟孫問孝於我、我對曰、無違。【三節】樊遲曰、何謂也、子曰、生事之以禮、死葬之以禮、祭之以禮。

5. "At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth.

6. "At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired, without transgressing what was right."

Chapter V. 1. Mang I asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "It is not being disobedient."

2. Soon after, as Fan Ch'ih was driving him, the Master told him, saying, "Mang-sun asked me what filial piety was, and I answered him,—'not being disobedient.'"

3. Fan Ch'ih said, "What did you mean?" The Master replied, "That parents, when alive, be served according to propriety; that, when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and that they should be sacrificed to according to propriety."


【第六章】孟武伯問孝、子曰、父母唯其疾之憂。

【第七章】子游問孝、子曰、今之孝者、是謂能養、至於犬馬、皆能有養、不敬、何以別乎。

【第八章】子夏問孝、子曰、色難、有事、弟子服其勞、有酒食、先生饌、曾是以為孝乎。

Chapter VI. Mang Wu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "Parents are anxious lest their children should be sick."

Chapter VII. Tsze-yu asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The filial piety of now-a-days means the support of one's parents. But dogs and horses likewise are able to do something in the way of support;—without reverence, what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other?"

Chapter VIII. Tsze-hsia asked what filial piety was. The Master said, "The difficulty is with the countenance. If, when their elders have any troublesome affairs, the young take the toil of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they set them before their elders, is this to be considered filial piety?"


【第九章】子曰、吾與回言終日、不違、如愚。退兒省其私、亦足以發、回也不愚。

【第十章】【一節】子曰、視其所以。【二節】觀其所由。【三節】察其所安。【四節】人焉廋哉、人焉廋哉。

【十一章】子曰、溫故而知新、可以為師矣。

Chapter IX. The Master said, "I have talked with Hui for a whole day, and he has not made any objection to anything I said;—as if he were stupid. He has retired, and I have examined his conduct when away from me, and found him able to illustrate my teachings. Hui!—He is not stupid."

Chapter X. 1. The Master said, "See what a man does.

2. "Mark his motives.

3. "Examine in what things he rests.

4. "How can a man conceal his character?

5. How can a man conceal his character?"

Chapter XI. The Master said, "If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others."


【十二章】子曰、君子不器。

【十三章】子貢問君子、子曰、先行其言、而後從之。

【十四章】子曰、君子周而不比、小人比而不周。

【十五章】子曰、學而不思則罔、思而不學則殆。

【十六章】子曰、攻乎異端、斯害也己。

Chapter XII. The Master said, "The accomplished scholar is not a utensil."

Chapter XIII. Tsze-kung asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, "He acts before he speaks, and afterwards speaks according to his actions."

Chapter XIV. The Master said, "The superior man is catholic and no partisan. The mean man is partisan and not catholic."

Chapter XV. The Master said, "Learning without thought is labour lost; thought without learning is perilous."

Chapter XVI. The Master said, "The study of strange doctrines is injurious indeed!"


【十七章】子曰、由、誨女知之乎、知之為知之、不知為不知、是知也。

【十八章】【一節】子張學干祿。【一節】子曰、多聞闕疑、慎言其餘、則寡尤、多見闕殆、慎行其餘、則寡悔、言寡尤、行寡悔、祿在其中矣。

Chapter XVII. The Master said, "Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing, to allow that you do not know it;—this is knowledge."

Chapter XVII. 1. Tsze-chang was learning with a view to official emolument.

2. The Master said, "Hear much and put aside the points of which you stand in doubt, while you speak cautiously at the same time of the others:—then you will afford few occasions for blame. See much and put aside the things which seem perilous, while you are cautious at the same time in carrying the others into practice:—then you will have few occasions for repentance. When one gives few occasions for blame in his words, and few occasions for repentance in his conduct, he is in the way to get emolument."


【十九章】哀公聞曰、何為則民服。孔子對曰、舉直錯諸枉、則民服、舉枉錯諸直、則民不服。

【二十章】季康子問使民敬忠以勤、如之何。子曰、臨之以莊、則敬、孝慈、則忠、舉善而教不能、則勤。

【廿一章】【一節】或謂孔子曰、子奚

Chapter XIX. The Duke Ai asked, saying, "What should be done in order to secure the submission of the people?" Confucius replied, "Advance the upright and set aside the crooked, then the people will submit. Advance the crooked and set aside the upright, then the people will not submit."

Chapter XX. Chi K'ang asked how to cause the people to reverence their ruler, to be faithful to him, and to go on to nerve themselves to virtue. The Master said, "Let him preside over them with gravity;—then they will reverence him. Let him be filial and kind to all;—then they will be faithful to him. Let him advance the good and teach the incompetent;—then they will eagerly seek to be virtuous."

Chapter XXI. 1. Some one addressed Confucius, saying, "Sir, why are you not engaged in the government?"


不為政。【二節】子曰、書云孝乎、惟孝友于兄弟、施於有政、是亦為政、奚其為為政。

【廿二章】子曰、人而無信、不知其可也、大車無輗、小車無軏、其何以行之哉。

【廿三章】【一節】子張問十世、可知也。【二節】子曰、殷因於夏禮、

2. The Master said, "What does the Shu-ching say of filial piety?—'You are filial, you discharge your brotherly duties. These qualities are displayed in government.' This then also constitutes the exercise of government. Why must there be that—making one be in the government?"

Chapter XXII. The Master said, "I do not know how a man without truthfulness is to get on. How can a large carriage be made to go without the cross-bar for yoking the oxen to, or a small carriage without the arrangement for yoking the horses?"

Chapter XXIII. 1. Tsze-chang asked whether the affairs of ten ages after could be known.

2. Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty followed the regulations of the Hsia: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. The Chau dynasty has followed the regulations of Yin: wherein it took from or added to them may be known. Some other may follow the Chau, but though it should be at the distance of a hundred ages, its affairs may be known."


所損益、可知也、周因於殷禮、所損益、可知也、其或繼周者、雖百世、可知也。

【廿四章】【一節】子曰、非其鬼而祭之、諂也。【二節】見義不為、無勇也。

Chapter XXIV. 1. The Master said, "For a man to sacrifice to a spirit which does not belong to him is flattery.

2. "To see what is right and not to do it is want of courage."