The Ancient Stone Implements, Weapons, and Ornaments of Great Britain

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ANCIENT STONE IMPLEMENTS,

ETC.,

OF

GREAT BRITAIN.

 

 

THE ANCIENT

STONE IMPLEMENTS,

WEAPONS AND ORNAMENTS,

OF

GREAT BRITAIN.

 

SECOND EDITION, REVISED.

 

BY

SIR JOHN EVANS, K.C.B.,

D.C.L., Sc.D., LL.D.,
F.R.S., F.S.A., F.G.S., ETC., ETC.
CORRESPONDANT DE L'INSTITUT DE FRANCE.

 

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

39, PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON
AND BOMBAY
1897

(All rights reserved.)

 

 

LONDON:
PRINTED BY J. S. VIRTUE AND CO., LIMITED,
CITY ROAD.

 

 

PREFACE

TO THE FIRST EDITION.

In presenting this work to the public I need say but little by way of preface. It is the result of the occupation of what leisure hours I could spare, during the last few years, from various and important business, and my object in undertaking it is explained in the Introduction.

What now remains for me to do is to express my thanks to those numerous friends who have so kindly aided me during the progress of my work, both by placing specimens in their collections at my disposal, and by examination of my proofs. Foremost among these must be ranked the Rev. William Greenwell, F.S.A., from whose unrivalled collection of British antiquities I have largely drawn, and from whose experience and knowledge I have received much assistance in other ways.

To Mr. A. W. Franks, F.S.A.; Mr. J. W. Flower, F.G.S.; Mr. W. Pengelly, F.R.S.; Colonel A. Lane Fox, F.S.A.; Mr. E. T. Stevens, of Salisbury; Messrs. Mortimer, of Fimber; Mr. Joseph Anderson, the Curator of the Antiquarian Museum at Edinburgh; and to numerous others whose names are mentioned in the following pages, my thanks must also be expressed.

The work itself will, I believe, be found to contain most of the information at present available with regard to the class of antiquities of which it treats. The subject is one which does not readily lend itself to lively description, and an accumulation of facts, such as is here presented, is of necessity dull. I have, however, relegated to smaller type the bulk of the descriptive details of little interest to the ordinary reader, who will probably find more than enough of dry matter to content him if he confines himself to the larger type and an examination of the illustrations.

Whatever may be the merits or defects of the book, there are two points on which I feel that some credit may be claimed. The one is that the woodcuts—the great majority of which have been specially engraved for this work by Mr. Swain, of Bouverie Street—give accurate representations of the objects; the other is, that all the references have been carefully checked.

The Index is divided into two parts; the first showing the subjects discussed in the work, the second the localities where the various antiquities have been found.

Now that so much more attention than formerly is being bestowed on this class of antiquities, there will, no doubt, be numerous discoveries made, not only of forms with which we are at present unacquainted, but also of circumstances calculated to throw light on the uses to which stone implements and weapons were applied, and the degree of antiquity to be assigned to the various forms.

I will only add that I shall gladly receive any communications relative to such discoveries.

JOHN EVANS.

Nash Mills, Hemel Hempstead, May, 1872.

PREFACE

TO THE SECOND EDITION.

The undiminished interest taken by many archæologists in the subject to which this book relates seems to justify me in again placing it before the public, though in an extended and revised form. I am further warranted in so doing by the fact that the former edition, which appeared in 1872, has now been long out of print.

In revising the work it appeared desirable to retain as much of the original text and arrangement as possible, but having regard to the large amount of new matter that had to be incorporated in it and to the necessity of keeping the bulk of the volume within moderate bounds, some condensation seemed absolutely compulsory. This I have effected, partly by omitting some of the detailed measurements of the specimens, and partly by printing a larger proportion of the text in small type. I have also omitted several passages relating to discoveries in the caverns of the South of France.

I have throughout preserved the original numbering of the Figures, so that references that have already been made to them in other works will still hold good. The new cuts, upwards of sixty in number, that have been added in this edition are distinguished by letters affixed to the No. of the Figure immediately preceding them.

The additions to the text, especially in the portion relating to the Palæolithic Period, are very extensive, and I hope that all the more important discoveries of stone antiquities made in this country during the last quarter of a century are here duly recorded, and references given to the works in which fuller details concerning them may be found. In some cases, owing to the character of the objects discovered being insufficiently described, I have not thought it necessary to cite them.

I am indebted to numerous collectors throughout the country for having called my attention to specimens that they acquired, and for having, in many cases, sent them to me for examination. I may take this opportunity of mentioning that while the whole of the objects found by Canon Greenwell during his examination of British Barrows has been most liberally presented to the nation, the remainder of his fine collection of stone antiquities, so frequently referred to in these pages, has passed into the hands of Dr. W. Allen Sturge, of Nice.

The two Indices have been carefully compiled by my sister, Mrs. Hubbard, and are fuller than those in the former edition. They will afford valuable assistance to any one who desires to consult the book.

For the new woodcuts that I have had engraved I have been so fortunate as to secure the services of Messrs. Swain, who so skilfully cut the blocks for the original work. I am indebted for the loan of numerous other blocks to several learned Societies, and especially to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland and to the Geological Society of London. Mr. Worthington Smith has also most liberally placed a number of blocks at my disposal.

It remains for me to express my thanks to those who have greatly aided me in the preparation of this edition, the whole of the proofs of which have been kindly read by Mr. C. H. Read, F.S.A., of the British Museum, as well as by some members of my own family. Dr. Joseph Anderson, of the National Museum at Edinburgh, has been good enough to read the parts relating to Scotland, while Professor Boyd Dawkins has gone over the chapter on Cave Implements, and Mr. William Whitaker has corrected the account of the discoveries in the River-drift. To each and all I am grateful, and as the result of their assistance I trust that, though not immaculate, the book may prove to be fairly free from glaring errors and inconsistencies.

JOHN EVANS.

Nash Mills, Hemel Hempstead, May, 1897.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTORY.

PAGE
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
1

CHAPTER II.

ON THE MANUFACTURE OF STONE IMPLEMENTS IN PREHISTORIC TIMES.

.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
14

IMPLEMENTS OF THE NEOLITHIC PERIOD.

CHAPTER III.

CELTS.

.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
55

CHAPTER IV.

CHIPPED OR ROUGH-HEWN CELTS.

.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
67

CHAPTER V.

CELTS GROUND AT THE EDGE ONLY.

.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
87

CHAPTER VI.

POLISHED CELTS.

A Type common in the Eastern Counties—With the Surface ground all over—Expanding at the Edge—Of other Materials than Flint—The Thin and Highly-polished Type—With Flat Sides—With Flat Sides and Narrow Butt—With Flat Sides and Pointed Butt—Of Rectangular Section—Chisel-like and of Rectangular Section—Of Oval Section—Of Oval Section with Conical Butt—Of a Form common in France—Of Oval Section pointed at the Butt—With a Cutting Edge at each End—Sharp at both Ends—Polished Celts narrowing in the Middle—Used in the Hand without Hafting—Polished Celts of Abnormal types—Polished Celts with Depressions and Flutings—Circumstances under which they have been Found— Their Discovery with Objects of Later Date—Their Range in Time- Accompanying Interments—Manner in which Hafted—In their original Handles—Inserted in Sockets in the Hafts—Hafted with Intermediate Sockets—Compared with Axes of modern Savages—Mounted in Forked Hafts—Mounted on Wooden Hafts—Compared with Adzes of modern Savages—Mounted in Withes and Cleft Sticks—Modern methods of Hafting Axes
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
98

CHAPTER VII.

PICKS, CHISELS, GOUGES, ETC.

.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
173

CHAPTER VIII.

PERFORATED AXES.

.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
183

CHAPTER IX.

PERFORATED AND GROOVED HAMMERS.

.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
217

CHAPTER X.

HAMMER-STONES, ETC.

.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
238

CHAPTER XI.

GRINDING-STONES AND WHETSTONES.

.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
261

CHAPTER XII.

FLINT FLAKES, CORES, ETC.

.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
272

CHAPTER XIII.

SCRAPERS.

.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
298

CHAPTER XIV.

BORERS, AWLS, OR DRILLS.

.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
321

CHAPTER XV.

TRIMMED FLAKES, KNIVES, ETC.

.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
326

CHAPTER XVI.

JAVELIN AND ARROW HEADS.

.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
360

CHAPTER XVII.

FABRICATORS, FLAKING TOOLS, ETC.

.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
412

CHAPTER XVIII.

SLING-STONES AND BALLS.

.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
417

CHAPTER XIX.

BRACERS, AND ARTICLES OF BONE.

.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
425

CHAPTER XX.

SPINDLE-WHORLS, DISCS, SLICKSTONES, WEIGHTS, AND CUPS.

.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
436

CHAPTER XXI.

PERSONAL ORNAMENTS, AMULETS, ETC.

.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
452

IMPLEMENTS OF THE PALÆOLITHIC PERIOD.

CHAPTER XXII.

CAVE IMPLEMENTS.

.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
473

CHAPTER XXIII.

IMPLEMENTS OF THE RIVER-DRIFT PERIOD.

The Discoveries at Abbeville and Amiens—Discoveries on the Continent and in India—In the Valley of the Ouse—Biddenham, Bedford—Hitchin, Herts—Valleys of the Cam and the Lark—Bury St. Edmunds—Icklingham—High Lodge, Mildenhall—Eedhill, Thetford—Santon Dowuham—Bromehill, Weeting—Gravel Hill, Brandon—Lakenheath—Shrub Hill, Feltwell—Hoxne, Suffolk—Saltley, Warwickshire—Possibility of their occurrence in the North of England—Gray's Inn Lane, London—Highbury, London—Lower Clapton, Stoke Newington, &c.—Ealing and Acton—West Drayton, Burnham, Reading—Oxford and its Neighbourhood—Peasemarsh, Godalming—Valleys of the Gade and Colne—Caddington—No Man's Land, Wheathampstead—Valley of the Lea—Valley of the Cray—Swanscomb and Milton Street—Ightham, Sevenoaks—Limpsfield, Surrey—Valley of the Medway—Reculver—Thanington, Kent—Canterbury and Folkestone—Southampton—Hill Head, Southampton Water—The Foreland, Isle of Wight—Bemerton, Salisbury—Fisherton and Milford Hill, Salisbury—Bournemouth and Barton Cliff—Valley of the Axe
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
526

CHAPTER XXIV.

FORMS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF IMPLEMENTS FROM THE RIVER-DRIFT.

.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
640

CHAPTER XXV.

ANTIQUITY OF THE RIVER-DRIFT.

Hypothetical case of River-action—Origin of River Systems—Amount of Solid Matter in Turbid Water—Nature of Flood-deposits—Effects of Ground-ice—Deposits left on the Slopes of Valleys during Excavation—Solvent power of Carbonic Acid—The results of the Deepening of Valleys—Actual Phenomena compared with the Hypothetical—The Denudation of the Fen Country—The Valley of the Waveney—The Valley of the Thames—Deposits in the South of England—Deposits near Salisbury—The Origin of the Solent—Deposits at Bournemouth—Breach through the Chalk-range South of Bournemouth—The Question of Climate—Evidence as to Climate—Association of Implements with a Quaternary Fauna—Scarcity of Human Bones in the River-drift—Attempts to formulate Chronological Data—Data from Erosion—Conclusion
.      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .
662


This work was published before January 1, 1924, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.