The Chinese Classics/Volume 1/Confucian Analects/XI

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先進第十一

BOOK XI. HSIEN TSIN.


【第一章】【一節】子曰、先進於禮樂、野人也、後進於禮樂、君子也、【二節】如用之、則吾從先進。

【第二章】【一節】子曰、從我於陳蔡者、皆不及門也。【二節】德行、顏淵、閔子騫、冉伯牛、仲弓。言語、宰我、子貢。政事、冉

Chapter I. 1. The Master said, "The men of former times, in the matters of ceremonies and music were rustics, it is said, while the men of these latter times, in ceremonies and music, are accomplished gentlemen.

2. "If I have occasion to use those things, I follow the men of former times."

Chapter II. 1. The Master said, "Of those who were with me in Ch'an and Ts'ai, there are none to be found to enter my door."

2. Distinguished for their virtuous principles and practice, there were Yen Yuan, Min Tsze-ch'ien, Zan Po-niu, and Chung-

kung; for their ability in speech, Tsai Wo and Tsze-kung; for their adminis-


有、季路。文學、子游、子夏。

【第三章】子曰、回也、非助我者也、於吾言、無所不說。

【第四章】子曰、孝哉閔子騫、人不間於其父母昆弟之言。

【第五章】南容三復白圭、孔子以其兄之子妻之。

trative talents, Zan Yu and Chi Lu; for their literary acquirements, Tsze-yu and Tsze-hsia.

Chapter III. The Master said, "Hui gives me no assistance. There is nothing that I say in which he does not delight."

Chapter IV. The Master said, "Filial indeed is Min Tsze-ch'ien! Other people say nothing of him different from the report of his parents and brothers."

Chapter V. Nan Yung was frequently repeating the lines about a white scepter stone. Confucius gave him the daughter of his elder brother to wife.


【第六章】季康子問弟子孰爲好學。孔子對曰、有顏回者好學、不幸短命死矣、今也則亡。

【第七章】【一節】顏淵死、顏路請子之車、以爲之槨。【二節】子曰、才不才、亦各言其子也、鯉也死、有棺而無槨、吾不徒行以爲之槨、以吾從大夫之後、不可徒行也。

【第八章】顏淵死、子曰、噫、天喪予、天喪予。

Chapter VI. Chi K'ang asked which of the disciples loved to learn. Confucius replied to him, "There was Yen Hui; he loved to learn. Unfortunately his appointed time was short, and he died. Now there is no one who loves to learn, as he did."

Chapter VII. 1. When Yen Yuan died, Yen Lu begged the carriage of the Master to sell and get an outer shell for his son's coffin.

2. The Master said, "Every one calls his son his son, whether he has talents or has not talents. There was Li; when he died, he had a coffin but no outer shell. I would not walk on foot to get a shell for him, because, having followed in the rear of the great officers, it was not proper that I should walk on foot."

Chapter VIII. When Yen Yuan died, the Master said, "Alas! Heaven is destroying me! Heaven is destroying me!"


【第九章】【一節】顏淵死、子哭之慟、從者曰、子慟矣。【二節】曰、有慟乎。【三節】非夫人之爲慟而誰爲。

【第十章】【一節】顏淵死、門人欲厚葬之。子曰、不可。【二節】門人厚葬之。【三節】子曰、回也、視予猶父也、予不得視猶子也、非我也、夫二三子也。

【十一章】季路問事鬼神。子曰、未能事人、焉能事鬼。敢

Chapter IX. 1. When Yen Yuan died, the Master bewailed him exceedingly, and the disciples who were with him said, "Master, your grief is excessive?"

2. "Is it excessive?" said he.

3. "If I am not to mourn bitterly for this man, for whom should I mourn?"

Chapter X. 1. When Yen Yuan died, the disciples wished to give him a great funeral, and the Master said, "You may not do so."

2. The disciples did bury him in great style.

3. The Master said, "Hui behaved towards me as his father. I have not been able to treat him as my son. The fault is not mine; it belongs to you, O disciples."

Chapter XI. Chi Lu asked about serving the spirits of the dead. The Master said, "While you are not able to serve men, how can you serve their spirits?" Chi Lu added, "I venture to ask about


問死。曰、未知生、焉知死。

【十二章】【一節】閔子侍側、誾誾如也、子路行行如也、冉有、子貢、侃侃如也。子樂。【二節】若由也、不得其死然。

【十三章】【一節】魯人爲長府。【二節】閔子騫曰、仍舊貫、如之何、何必改作。【三節】子曰、夫人不言、言必有中。

death?" He was answered, "While you do not know life, how can you know about death?"

Chapter XII. 1. The disciple Min was standing by his side, looking bland and precise; Tsze-lu, looking bold and soldierly; Zan Yu and Tsze-kung, with a free and straightforward manner. The Master was pleased.

2. He said, "Yu, there!—he will not die a natural death."

Chapter XIII. 1. Some parties in Lu were going to take down and rebuild the Long Treasury.

2. Min Tsze-ch'ien said, "Suppose it were to be repaired after its old style;—why must it be altered and made anew?"

3. The Master said, "This man seldom speaks; when he does, he is sure to hit the point."


【十四章】【一節】子曰、由之瑟、奚爲於丘之門。【二節】門人不敬子路。子曰、由也、升堂矣、未入於室也。

【十五章】【一節】子貢問師與商也孰賢。子曰、師也過、商也不及。【二節】曰、然則師愈與。【三節】子曰、過猶不及。

【十六章】【一節】季氏富於周公、而求也爲之聚斂而附

Chapter XIV. 1. The Master said, "What has the lute of Yu to do in my door?"

2. The other disciples began not to respect Tsze-lu. The Master said, "Yu has ascended to the hall, though he has not yet passed into the inner apartments."

Chapter XV. 1. Tsze-kung asked which of the two, Shih or Shang, was the superior. The Master said, "Shih goes beyond the due mean, and Shang does not come up to it."

2. "Then," said Tsze-kung, "the superiority is with Shih, I suppose."

3. The Master said, "To go beyond is as wrong as to fall short."

Chapter XVI. 1. The head of the Chi family was richer than the duke of Chau had been, and yet Ch'iu collected his imposts for him, and increased his wealth.


益之。【二節】子曰、非吾徒也、小子、鳴鼓而攻之可也。

【十七章】【一節】柴也愚。【二節】參也魯。【三節】師也辟。【四節】由也喭。

【十八章】【一節】子曰、回也其庶乎屢空。【二節】賜不受命、而貨殖焉、億則屢中。

【十九章】子張問善人之

2. The Master said, "He is no disciple of mine. My little children, beat the drum and assail him."

Chapter XVII. 1. Ch'ai is simple.

2. Shan is dull.

3. Shih is specious.

4. Yu is coarse.

Chapter XVIII. 1. The Master said, "There is Hui! He has nearly attained to perfect virtue. He is often in want.

2. "Ts'ze does not acquiesce in the appointments of Heaven, and his goods are increased by him. Yet his judgments are often correct."

Chapter XIX. Tsze-chang asked what were the characteristics of


道。子曰、不踐迹、亦不入於室。

【二十章】子曰、論篤是與、君子者乎、色莊者乎。

【廿一章】子路問聞斯行諸。子曰、有父兄在、如之何其聞斯行之。冉有問聞斯行諸。子曰、聞斯行之。公西華曰、由也問聞斯行諸、子曰、有父兄在、求也

the good man. The Master said, "He does not tread in the footsteps of others, but moreover, he does not enter the chamber of the sage."

Chapter XX. The Master said, "If, because a man's discourse appears solid and sincere, we allow him to be a good man, is he really a superior man? or is his gravity only in appearance?"

Chapter XXI. Tsze-lu asked whether he should immediately carry into practice what he heard. The Master said, "There are your father and elder brothers to be consulted;—why should you act on that principle of immediately carrying into practice what you hear?" Zan Yu asked the same, whether he should immediately carry into practice what he heard, and the Master answered, "Immediately carry into practice what you hear." Kung-hsi Hwa said, "Yu asked whether he should carry immediately into practice what he heard, and you said, 'There are your father and elder brothers to be consulted.' Ch'iu asked whether he should immediately carry into practice what he heard, and you said, 'Carry it immediately into practice.' I, Ch'ih, am perplexed, and venture to ask you for an explanation." The Master said, "Ch'iu is retiring and slow; therefore,


問聞斯行諸、子曰、聞斯行之、赤也惑、敢問。子曰、求也退、故進之、由也兼人、故退之。

【廿二章】子畏於匡、顏淵後、子曰、吾以女爲死矣。曰、子在、回何敢死。

【廿三章】【一節】季子然問仲由冉求、可謂大臣與。【二節】子曰、吾以子爲異之問、曾由與求之問。【三節】所謂大臣者、以道事君、不可則止。【四節】今由

I urged him forward. Yu has more than his own share of energy; therefore I kept him back."

Chapter XXII. The Master was put in fear in K'wang and Yen Yuan fell behind. The Master, on his rejoining him, said, "I thought you had died." Hui replied, "While you were alive, how should I presume to die?"

Chapter XXIII. 1. Chi Tsze-zan asked whether Chung Yu and Zan Ch'iu could be called great ministers.

2. The Master said, "I thought you would ask about some extraordinary individuals, and you only ask about Yu and Ch'iu!

3. "What is called a great minister, is one who serves his prince according to what is right, and when he finds he cannot do so, retires.


與求也、可謂具臣矣。【五節】曰、然則從之者與。【六節】子曰、弒父與君、亦不從也。

【廿四章】【一節】子路使子羔爲費宰。【二節】子曰、賊夫人之子。【三節】子路曰、有民人焉、有社稷焉、何必讀書、然後爲學。【四節】子曰、是故惡夫佞者。

【廿五章】【一節】子路、曾皙、冉有、公西華、侍坐。【二節】子曰、以吾一日

4. "Now, as to Yu and Ch'iu, they may be called ordinary ministers."

5. Tsze-zan said, "Then they will always follow their chief;—will they?"

6. The Master said, "In an act of parricide or regicide, they would not follow him."

Chapter XXIV. 1. Tsze-lu got Tsze-kao appointed governor of Pi.

2. The Master said, "You are injuring a man's son."

3. Tsze-lu said, "There are (there) common people and officers; there are the altars of the spirits of the land and grain. Why must one read books before he can be considered to have learned?"

4. The Master said, "It is on this account that I hate your glib-tongued people."

Chapter XXV. 1. Tsze-lu, Tsang Hsi, Zan Yu, and Kung-hsi Hwa were sitting by the Master.

2. He said to them, "Though I am a day or so older than you, do not think of that.


長乎爾、毋吾以也。【三節】居則曰、不吾知也、如或知爾、則何以哉。【四節】子路率爾而對曰、千乘之國、攝乎大國之閒、加之以師旅、因之以饑饉、由也爲之、比及三年、可使有勇、且知方也。夫子哂之。【五節】求、爾何如。對曰、方六七十、如五六十、求也爲之、比及三年、可使足民、如其禮樂、以

3. "From day to day you are saying, 'We are not known.' If some ruler were to know you, what would you like to do?"

4. Tsze-lu hastily and lightly replied, "Suppose the case of a State of ten thousand chariots; let it be straitened between other large States; let it be suffering from invading armies; and to this let there be added a famine in corn and in all vegetables:—if I were intrusted with the government of it, in three years" time I could make the people to be bold, and to recognise the rules of righteous conduct." The Master smiled at him.

5. Turning to Yen Yu, he said, "Ch'iu, what are your wishes?" Ch'iu replied, "Suppose a state of sixty or seventy li square, or one of fifty or sixty, and let me have the government of it;—in three years" time, I could make plenty to abound among the people. As to teaching them the principles of propriety, and music, I must wait for the rise of a superior man to do that."


俟君子。【六節】赤、爾何如。對曰、非曰能之、願學焉、宗廟之事、如會同、端章甫、願爲小相焉。【七節】點、爾何如。鼓瑟希鏗爾、舍瑟而作、對曰、異乎三子者之撰。子曰、何傷乎、亦各言其志也。曰、莫春者、春服既成、冠者五六人、童子六七人、浴乎沂、風乎舞雩、詠而歸。夫子喟然歎曰、吾與

6. "What are your wishes, Ch'ih," said the Master next to Kung-hsi Hwa. Ch'ih replied, "I do not say that my ability extends to these things, but I should wish to learn them. At the services of the ancestral temple, and at the audiences of the princes with the sovereign, I should like, dressed in the dark square-made robe and the black linen cap, to act as a small assistant."

7. Last of all, the Master asked Tsang Hsi, "Tien, what are your wishes?" Tien, pausing as he was playing on his lute, while it was yet twanging, laid the instrument aside, and rose. "My wishes," he said, "are different from the cherished purposes of these three gentlemen." "What harm is there in that?" said the Master; "do you also, as well as they, speak out your wishes." Tien then said, "In this, the last month of spring, with the dress of the season all complete, along with five or six young men who have assumed the cap, and six or seven boys, I would wash in the I, enjoy the breeze among the rain altars, and return home singing." The Master heaved a sigh and said, "I give my approval to Tien."


點也。【八節】三子者出、曾皙後、曾皙曰、夫三子者之言何如。子曰、亦各言其志也已矣。【九節】曰、夫子何哂由也。【十節】曰、爲國以禮、其言不讓、是故哂之。【十一節】唯求則非邦也與。安見方六七十、如五六十、而非邦也者。【十二節】唯赤則非邦也與。宗廟會同、非諸侯而何、赤也爲之小、孰能爲之大。

8. The three others having gone out, Tsang Hsi remained behind, and said, "What do you think of the words of these three friends?" The Master replied, "They simply told each one his wishes."

9. Hsi pursued, "Master, why did you smile at Yu?"

10. He was answered, "The management of a State demands the rules of propriety. His words were not humble; therefore I smiled at him."

11. Hsi again said, "But was it not a State which Ch'iu proposed for himself?" The reply was, "Yes; did you ever see a territory of sixty or seventy li or one of fifty or sixty, which was not a State?"

12. Once more, Hsi inquired, "And was it not a State which Ch'ih proposed for himself?" The Master again replied, "Yes; who but princes have to do with ancestral temples, and with audiences but the sovereign? If Ch'ih were to be a small assistant in these services, who could be a great one?