The Chinese Classics/Volume 1/Confucian Analects/XVI

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季氏第十六

BOOK XVI. KE SHE.


【第一章】【一節】季氏將伐顓臾。【二節】冉有季路見於孔子曰、季氏將有事於顓臾。

Chapter I. 1. The head of the Chi family was going to attack Chwan-yu.

2. Zan Yu and Chi-lu had an interview with Confucius, and said, "Our chief, Chi, is going to commence operations against Chwan-yu."


【三節】孔子曰、求、無乃爾是過與。【四節】夫顓臾、昔者、先王以爲東蒙主、且在邦域之中矣、是社稷之臣也、何以伐爲。【五節】冉有曰、夫子欲之、吾二臣者、皆不欲也。【六節】孔子曰、求、周任有言曰、陳力就列、不能者止、危而不持、顚而不扶、則將焉用彼相矣。【七節】且爾言過矣、虎兕出於柙、龜玉毀於

3. Confucius said, "Ch'iu, is it not you who are in fault here?

4. "Now, in regard to Chwan-yu, long ago, a former king appointed its ruler to preside over the sacrifices to the eastern Mang; moreover, it is in the midst of the territory of our State; and its ruler is a minister in direct connexion with the sovereign:—What has your chief to do with attacking it?"

5. Zan Yu said, "Our master wishes the thing; neither of us two ministers wishes it."

6. Confucius said, "Ch'iu, there are the words of Chau Zan,—'When he can put forth his ability, he takes his place in the ranks of office; when he finds himself unable to do so, he retires from it. How can he be used as a guide to a blind man, who does not support him when tottering, nor raise him up when fallen?'

7. "And further, you speak wrongly. When a tiger or rhinoceros escapes from his cage; when a tortoise or piece of jade is injured in its repository:—whose is the fault?"


櫝中、是誰之過與。【八節】冉有曰、今夫顓臾、固而近於費、今不取、後世必爲子孫憂。【九節】孔子曰、求、君子疾夫舍曰欲之、而必爲之辭。【十節】丘也、聞有國有家者、不患寡、而患不均、不患貧、而患不安、蓋均無貧、和無寡、安無傾。【十一節】夫如

8. Zan Yu said, "But at present, Chwan-yu is strong and near to Pi; if our chief do not now take it, it will hereafter be a sorrow to his descendants."

9. Confucius said. "Ch'iu, the superior man hates that declining to say—'I want such and such a thing,' and framing explanations for the conduct.

10. "I have heard that rulers of States and chiefs of families are not troubled lest their people should be few, but are troubled lest they should not keep their several places; that they are not troubled with fears of poverty, but are troubled with fears of a want of contented repose among the people in their several places. For when the people keep their several places, there will be no poverty; when harmony prevails, there will be no scarcity of people; and when there is such a contented repose, there will be no rebellious upsettings.

11. "So it is.—Therefore, if remoter people are not submissive, all


是、故遠人不服、則修文德以來之、既來之、則安之。【十二節】今由與求也、相夫子、遠人不服、而不能來也、邦分崩離析、而不能守也。【十三節】而謀動干戈於邦內、吾恐季孫之憂、不在顓臾、而在蕭牆之內也。

the influences of civil culture and virtue are to be cultivated to attract them to be so; and when they have been so attracted, they must be made contented and tranquil.

12. "Now, here are you, Yu and Ch'iu, assisting your chief. Remoter people are not submissive, and, with your help, he cannot attract them to him. In his own territory there are divisions and downfalls, leavings and separations, and, with your help, he cannot preserve it.

13. "And yet he is planning these hostile movements within the State.—I am afraid that the sorrow of the Chi-sun family will not be on account of Chwan-yu, but will be found within the screen of their own court."


【第二章】【一節】孔子曰、天下有道、則禮樂征伐、自天子出、天下無道、則禮樂征伐、自諸侯出、自諸侯出、蓋十世希不失矣、自大夫出、五世希不失矣、陪臣執國命、三世希不失矣。【二節】天下有道、則政不在大夫。【三節】天下有道、則庶人不議。

Chapter II. 1. Confucius said, "When good government prevails in the empire, ceremonies, music, and punitive military expeditions proceed from the son of Heaven. When bad government prevails in the empire, ceremonies, music, and punitive military expeditions proceed from the princes. When these things proceed from the princes, as a rule, the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in ten generations. When they proceed from the Great officers of the princes, as a rule, the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in five generations. When the subsidiary ministers of the great officers hold in their grasp the orders of the state, as a rule, the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in three generations.

2. "When right principles prevail in the kingdom, government will not be in the hands of the Great officers.

3. "When right principles prevail in the kingdom, there will be no discussions among the common people."


【第三章】孔子曰、祿之去公室、五世矣、政逮於大夫、四世矣、故夫三桓之子孫微矣。

【第四章】孔子曰、益者三友、損者三友、友直、友諒、友多聞、益矣、友便辟、友善柔、友便佞、損矣。

【第五章】孔子曰、益者三樂、損者三樂、樂節禮樂、

Chapter III. Confucius said, "The revenue of the state has left the ducal House now for five generations. The government has been in the hands of the Great officers for four generations. On this account, the descendants of the three Hwan are much reduced."

Chapter IV. Confucius said, "There are three friendships which are advantageous, and three which are injurious. Friendship with the upright; friendship with the sincere; and friendship with the man of much observation:—these are advantageous. Friendship with the man of specious airs; friendship with the insinuatingly soft; and friendship with the glib-tongued:—these are injurious."

Chapter V. Confucius said, "There are three things men find enjoyment in which are advantageous, and three things they find enjoyment in which are injurious. To find enjoyment in the discriminating study of ceremonies and music; to find enjoyment in


樂道人之善、樂多賢友、益矣。樂驕樂、樂佚遊、樂宴樂、損矣。

【第六章】孔子曰、侍於君子有三愆、言未及之而言、謂之躁、言及之而不言、謂之隱、未見顏色而言、謂之瞽。

【第七章】孔子曰、君子有三戒、少之時、血氣未定、戒之

speaking of the goodness of others; to find enjoyment in having many worthy friends:—these are advantageous. To find enjoyment in extravagant pleasures; to find enjoyment in idleness and sauntering; to find enjoyment in the pleasures of feasting:—these are injurious."

Chapter VI. Confucius said, "There are three errors to which they who stand in the presence of a man of virtue and station are liable. They may speak when it does not come to them to speak;—this is called rashness. They may not speak when it comes to them to speak;—this is called concealment. They may speak without looking at the countenance of their superior;—this is called blindness."

Chapter VII. Confucius said, "There are three things which the superior man guards against. In youth, when the physical powers


在色、及其壯也、血氣方剛、戒之在鬭、及其老也、血氣既衰、戒之在得。

【第八章】【一節】孔子曰、君子有三畏、畏天命、畏大人、畏聖人之言。【二節】小人不知天命、而不畏也、狎大人、侮聖人之言。

【第九章】孔子曰、生而知之者、上也、學而知之者、次也、

are not yet settled, he guards against lust. When he is strong and the physical powers are full of vigor, he guards against quarrelsomeness. When he is old, and the animal powers are decayed, he guards against covetousness."

Chapter VIII. 1. Confucius said, "There are three things of which the superior man stands in awe. He stands in awe of the ordinances of Heaven. He stands in awe of great men. He stands in awe of the words of sages.

2. "The mean man does not know the ordinances of Heaven, and consequently does not stand in awe of them. He is disrespectful to great men. He makes sport of the words of sages."

Chapter IX. Confucius said, "Those who are born with the possession of knowledge are the highest class of men. Those who learn, and so, readily, get possession of knowledge, are the next.


困而學之、又其次也、困而不學、民斯爲下矣。

【第十章】孔子曰、君子有九思、視思明、聽思聰、色思溫、貌思恭、言思忠、事思敬、疑思問、忿思難、見得思義。

【十一章】【一節】孔子曰、見善如不及、見不善而探湯、吾見其人矣、吾聞其語矣。【二節】隱居

Those who are dull and stupid, and yet compass the learning, are another class next to these. As to those who are dull and stupid and yet do not learn;—they are the lowest of the people."

Chapter X. Confucius said, "The superior man has nine things which are subjects with him of thoughtful consideration. In regard to the use of his eyes, he is anxious to see clearly. In regard to the use of his ears, he is anxious to hear distinctly. In regard to his countenance, he is anxious that it should be benign. In regard to his demeanor, he is anxious that it should be respectful. In regard to his speech, he is anxious that it should be sincere. In regard to his doing of business, he is anxious that it should be reverently careful. In regard to what he doubts about, he is anxious to question others. When he is angry, he thinks of the difficulties (his anger may involve him in). When he sees gain to be got, he thinks of righteousness."

Chapter XI. 1. Confucius said, "Contemplating good, and pursuing it, as if they could not reach it; contemplating evil, and shrinking from it, as they would from thrusting the hand into boiling water:—I have seen such men, as I have heard such words.

2. "Living in retirement to study their aims, and practising


以求其志、行義以達其道、吾聞其語矣、未見其人也。

【十二章】【一節】齊景公有馬千駟、死之日、民無德而稱焉、伯夷叔齊、餓于首陽之下、民到于今稱之。【二節】其斯之謂與。

【十三章】【一節】陳亢問於伯魚曰、子亦有異聞乎。【二節】對曰、未也、嘗獨立、鯉趨而過庭、曰、學詩乎。對曰、未也。不學詩、無以言。

righteousness to carry out their principles:—I have heard these words, but I have not seen such men."

Chapter XII. 1. The duke Ching of Ch'i had a thousand teams, each of four horses, but on the day of his death, the people did not praise him for a single virtue. Po-i and Shu-ch'i died of hunger at the foot of the Shau-yang mountain, and the people, down to the present time, praise them.

2. "Is not that saying illustrated by this?"

Chapter XIII. 1. Ch'an K'ang asked Po-yu, saying, "Have you heard any lessons from your father different from what we have all heard?"

2. Po-yu replied, "No. He was standing alone once, when I passed below the hall with hasty steps, and said to me, 'Have you learned the Odes?' On my replying 'Not yet,' he added, 'If you do not learn the Odes, you will not be fit to converse with.' I retired and studied the Odes.


鯉退而學詩。【三節】他日、又獨立、鯉趨而過庭、曰、學禮乎。對曰、未也。不學禮、無以立。鯉退而學禮。【四節】聞斯二者。【五節】陳亢退而喜曰、問一得三、聞詩、聞禮、又聞君子遠其子也。

【十四章】邦君之妻、君稱之、曰夫人、夫人自稱、曰小童、邦人稱之、曰君夫人、稱

3. "Another day, he was in the same way standing alone, when I passed by below the hall with hasty steps, and said to me, "Have you learned the rules of Propriety?" On my replying "Not yet," he added, "If you do not learn the rules of Propriety, your character cannot be established." I then retired, and learned the rules of Propriety.

4. "I have heard only these two things from him."

5. Ch'ang K'ang retired, and, quite delighted, said, "I asked one thing, and I have got three things. I have heard about the Odes. I have heard about the rules of Propriety. I have also heard that the superior man maintains a distant reserve towards his son."

Chapter XIV. The wife of the prince of a state is called by him fu zan. She calls herself hsiao t'ung. The people of the State call


諸異邦、曰寡小君、異邦人稱之、亦曰君夫人。

her chun fu zan, and, to the people of other States, they call her k'wa hsiao chun. The people of other states also call her chun fu zan.