The Chinese Classics/Volume 2/The Works of Mencius/chapter07

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離婁上

Li Lou I


孟子曰:「離婁之明,公輸子之巧,不以規矩,不能成方員:師曠之聰,不以六律,不能正五音;堯舜之道,不以仁政,不能平治天下。今有仁心仁聞而民不被其澤,不可法於後世者,不行先王之道也。

Mencius said, 'The power of vision of Li Lou, and skill of hand of Gong Shu, without the compass and square, could not form squares and circles. The acute ear of the music-master Kuang, without the pitch-tubes, could not determine correctly the five notes. The principles of Yao and Shun, without a benevolent government, could not secure the tranquil order of the kingdom. There are now princes who have benevolent hearts and a reputation for benevolence, while yet the people do not receive any benefits from them, nor will they leave any example to future ages - all because they do not put into practice the ways of the ancient kings.

「故曰,徒善不足以為政,徒法不能以自行。《詩》云:『不愆不忘,率由舊章。』遵先王之法而過者,未之有也。聖人既竭目力焉,繼之以規矩準繩,以為方員平直,不可勝用也;既竭耳力焉,繼之以六律,正五音,不可勝用也;既竭心思焉,繼之以不忍人之政,而仁覆天下矣。

'Hence we have the saying: "Virtue alone is not sufficient for the exercise of government; laws alone cannot carry themselves into practice." It is said in the Book of Poetry, "Without transgression, without forgetfulness, Following the ancient statutes." Never has any one fallen into error, who followed the laws of the ancient kings. When the sages had used the vigour of their eyes, they called in to their aid the compass, the square, the level, and the line, to make things square, round, level, and straight: the use of the instruments is inexhaustible. When they had used their power of hearing to the utmost, they called in the pitch-tubes to their aid to determine the five notes - the use of those tubes is inexhaustible. When they had exerted to the utmost the thoughts of their hearts, they called in to their aid a government that could not endure to witness the sufferings of men - and their benevolence overspread the kingdom.

「故曰,為高必因丘陵,為下必因川澤。為政不因先王之道,可謂智乎?是以惟仁者宜在高位。不仁而在高位,是播其惡於眾也。上無道揆也。下無法守也,朝不信道,工不信度,君子犯義,小人犯刑,國之所存者幸也。

'Hence we have the saying: "To raise a thing high, we must begin from the top of a mound or a hill; to dig to a great depth, we must commence in the low ground of a stream or a marsh." Can he be pronounced wise, who, in the exercise of government, does not proceed according to the ways of the former kings? Therefore only the benevolent ought to be in high stations. When a man destitute of benevolence is in a high station, he thereby disseminates his wickedness among all below him. When the prince has no principles by which he examines his administration, and his ministers have no laws by which they keep themselves in the discharge of their duties, then in the court obedience is not paid to principle, and in the office obedience is not paid to rule. Superiors violate the laws of righteousness, and inferiors violate the penal laws. It is only by a fortunate chance that a State in such a case is preserved.

「故曰,城郭不完,兵甲不多,非國之災也;田野不辟,貨財不聚,非國之害也。上無禮,下無學,賊民興,喪無日矣。《詩》曰:『天之方蹶,無然泄泄。』泄泄,猶沓沓也。事君無義,進退無禮,言則非先王之道者,猶沓沓也。故曰:責難於君謂之恭,陳善閉邪謂之敬,吾君不能謂之賊。」

'Therefore it is said, "It is not the exterior and interior walls being incomplete, and the supply of weapons offensive and defensive not being large, which constitutes the calamity of a kingdom. It is not the cultivable area not being extended, and stores and wealth not being accumulated, which occasions the ruin of a State." When superiors do not observe the rules of propriety, and inferiors do not learn, then seditious people spring up, and that State will perish in no time. It is said in the Book of Poetry, "When such an overthrow of Zhou is being produced by Heaven, Be not ye so much at your ease!" " At your ease;" - that is, dilatory. And so dilatory may those officers be deemed, who serve their prince without righteousness, who take office and retire from it without regard to propriety, and who in their words disown the ways of the ancient kings. Therefore it is said, "To urge one's sovereign to difficult achievements may be called showing respect for him. To set before him what is good and repress his perversities may be called showing reverence for him. He who does not do these things, saying to himself, My sovereign is incompetent to this, may be said to play the thief with him."'

孟子曰:「規矩,方員之至也;聖人,人倫之至也。欲為君盡君道,欲為臣盡臣道,二者皆法堯舜而已矣。不以舜之所以事堯事君,不敬其君者也;不以堯之所以治民治民,賊其民者也。孔子曰:『道二:仁與不仁而已矣。』暴其民甚,則身弒國亡;不甚,則身危國削。名之曰『幽厲』,雖孝子慈孫,百世不能改也。《詩》云『殷鑒不遠,在夏后之世』,此之謂也。」

Mencius said, 'The compass and square produce perfect circles and squares. By the sages, the human relations are perfectly exhibited. He who as a sovereign would perfectly discharge the duties of a sovereign, and he who as a minister would perfectly discharge the duties of a minister, have only to imitate - the one Yao, and the other Shun. He who does not serve his sovereign as Shun served Yao, does not respect his sovereign; and he who does not rule his people as Yao ruled his, injures his people. Confucius said, "There are but two courses, which can be pursued, that of virtue and its opposite." A ruler who carries the oppression of his people to the highest pitch, will himself be slain, and his kingdom will perish. If one stop short of the highest pitch, his life will notwithstanding be in danger, and his kingdom will be weakened. He will be styled "The Dark," or "The Cruel," and though he may have filial sons and affectionate grandsons, they will not be able in a hundred generations to change the designation. This is what is intended in the words of the Book of Poetry, "The beacon of Yin is not remote, It is in the time of the (last) sovereign of Xia."'

孟子曰:「三代之得天下也以仁,其失天下也以不仁。國之所以廢興存亡者亦然。天子不仁,不保四海;諸侯不仁,不保社稷;卿大夫不仁,不保宗廟;士庶人不仁,不保四體。今惡死亡而樂不仁,是猶惡醉而強酒。」

Mencius said, 'It was by benevolence that the three dynasties gained the throne, and by not being benevolent that they lost it. It is by the same means that the decaying and flourishing, the preservation and perishing, of States are determined. If the sovereign be not benevolent, he cannot preserve the throne from passing from him. If the Head of a State be not benevolent, he cannot preserve his rule. If a high noble or great officer be not benevolent, he cannot preserve his ancestral temple. If a scholar or common man be not benevolent, be cannot preserve his four limbs. Now they hate death and ruin, and yet delight in being not benevolent - this is like hating to be drunk, and yet being strong to drink wine!'

孟子曰:「愛人不親反其仁,治人不治反其智,禮人不答反其敬。行有不得者,皆反求諸己,其身正而天下歸之。《詩》云:『永言配命,自求多福。』」

Mencius said, 'If a man love others, and no responsive attachment is shown to him, let him turn inwards and examine his own benevolence. If he is trying to rule others, and his government is unsuccessful, let him turn inwards and examine his wisdom. If he treats others politely, and they do not return his politeness, let him turn inwards and examine his own feeling of respect. When we do not, by what we do, realise what we desire, we must turn inwards, and examine ourselves in every point. When a man's person is correct, the whole kingdom will turn to him with recognition and submission. It is said in the Book of Poetry, "Be always studious to be in harmony with the ordinances of God, And you will obtain much happiness."'

孟子曰:「人有恆言,皆曰『天下國家』。天下之本在國,國之本在家,家之本在身。」

Mencius said, 'People have this common saying, "The kingdom, the State, the family." The root of the kingdom is in the State. The root of the State is in the family. The root of the family is in the person of its Head.'

孟子曰:「為政不難,不得罪於巨室。巨室之所慕,一國慕之;一國之所慕,天下慕之;故沛然德教溢乎四海。」

Mencius said, 'The administration of government is not difficult - it lies in not offending the great families. He whom the great families affect, will be affected by the whole State; and he whom any one State affects, will be affected by the whole kingdom. When this is the case, such an one's virtue and teachings will spread over all within the four seas like the rush of water.'

孟子曰:「天下有道,小德役大德,小賢役大賢;天下無道,小役大,弱役強。斯二者天也。順天者存,逆天者亡。齊景公曰:『既不能令,又不受命,是絕物也。』涕出而女於吳。

Mencius said, 'When right government prevails in the kingdom, princes of little virtue are submissive to those of great, and those of little worth to those of great. When bad government prevails in the kingdom, princes of small power are submissive to those of great, and the weak to the strong. Both these cases are the rule of Heaven. They who accord with Heaven are preserved, and they who rebel against Heaven perish. The duke Jing of Qi said, "Not to be able to command others, and at the same time to refuse to receive their commands, is to cut one's self off from all intercourse with others." His tears flowed forth while he gave his daughter to be married to the prince of Wu.

今也小國師大國而恥受命焉,是猶弟子而恥受命於先師也。如恥之,莫若師文王。師文王,大國五年,小國七年,必為政於天下矣。《詩》云:『商之孫子,其麗不億。上帝既命,侯于周服。侯服于周,天命靡常。殷士膚敏,祼將于京。』孔子曰:『仁不可為眾也。夫國君好仁,天下無敵。』今也欲無敵於天下而不以仁,是猶執熱而不以濯也。《詩》云:『誰能執熱,逝不以濯?』」

'Now the small States imitate the large, and yet are ashamed to receive their commands. This is like a scholar's being ashamed to receive the commands of his master. For a prince who is ashamed of this, the best plan is to imitate king Wen. Let one imitate king Wen, and in five years, if his State be large, or in seven years, if it be small, he will be sure to give laws to the kingdom. It is said in the Book of Poetry, "The descendants of the sovereigns of the Shang dynasty, Are in number more than hundreds of thousands, But, God having passed His decree, They are all submissive to Zhou. They are submissive to Zhou, Because the decree of Heaven is not unchanging. The officers of Yin, admirable and alert, Pour out the libations, and assist in the capital of Zhou." Confucius said, "As against so benevolent a sovereign, they could not be deemed a multitude." Thus, if the prince of a state love benevolence, he will have no opponent in all the kingdom. Now they wish to have no opponent in all the kingdom, but they do not seek to attain this by being benevolent. This is like a man laying hold of a heated substance, and not having first dipped it in water. It is said in the Book of Poetry, "Who can take up a heated substance, Without first dipping it (in water)?"'

孟子曰:「不仁者可與言哉?安其危而利其菑,樂其所以亡者。不仁而可與言,則何亡國敗家之有?有孺子歌曰:『滄浪之水清兮,可以濯我纓;滄浪之水濁兮,可以濯我足。』孔子曰:『小子聽之!清斯濯纓,濁斯濯足矣,自取之也。』夫人必自侮,然後人侮之;家必自毀,而後人毀之;國必自伐,而後人伐之。《太甲》曰:『天作孽,猶可違;自作孽,不可活。』此之謂也。」

Mencius said, 'How is it possible to speak with those princes who are not benevolent? Their perils they count safety, their calamities they count profitable, and they have pleasure in the things by which they perish. If it were possible to talk with them who so violate benevolence, how could we have such destruction of States and ruin of Families? There was a boy singing, "When the water of the Cang Lang is clear, It does to wash the strings of my cap; When the water of the Cang Lang is muddy, It does to wash my feet." Confucius said, "Hear what he sings, my children. When clear, then he will wash his cap-strings; and when muddy, he will wash his feet with it. This different application is brought by the water on itself." A man must first despise himself, and then others will despise him. A family must first destroy itself, and then others will destroy it. A State must first smite itself, and then others will smite it. This is illustrated in the passage of the Tai Jia, "When Heaven sends down calamities, it is still possible to escape them. When we occasion the calamities ourselves, it is not possible any longer to live."'

孟子曰:「桀紂之失天下也,失其民也;失其民者,失其心也。得天下有道:得其民,斯得天下矣;得其民有道:得其心,斯得民矣;得其心有道:所欲與之聚之,所惡勿施爾也。民之歸仁也,猶水之就下、獸之走壙也。故為淵敺魚者,獺也;為叢敺爵者,鸇也;為湯武敺民者,桀與紂也。今天下之君有好仁者,則諸侯皆為之敺矣。雖欲無王,不可得已。今之欲王者,猶七年之病求三年之艾也。苟為不畜,終身不得。苟不志於仁,終身憂辱,以陷於死亡。《詩》云『其何能淑,載胥及溺』,此之謂也。」

Mencius said, 'Jie and Zhou's losing the throne, arose from their losing the people, and to lose the people means to lose their hearts. There is a way to get the kingdom: get the people, and the kingdom is got. There is a way to get the people: get their hearts, and the people are got. There is a way to get their hearts: it is simply to collect for them what they like, and not to lay on them what they dislike. The people turn to a benevolent rule as water flows downwards, and as wild beasts fly to the wilderness. Accordingly, as the otter aids the deep waters, driving the fish into them, and the hawk aids the thickets, driving the little birds to them, so Jie and Zhou aided Tang and Wu, driving the people to them. If among the present rulers of the kingdom, there were one who loved benevolence, all the other princes would aid him, by driving the people to him. Although he wished not to become sovereign, he could not avoid becoming so. The case of one of the present princes wishing to become sovereign is like the having to seek for mugwort three years old, to cure a seven years' sickness. If it have not been kept in store, the patient may all his life not get it. If the princes do not set their wills on benevolence, all their days will be in sorrow and disgrace, and they will be involved in death and ruin. This is illustrated by what is said in the Book of Poetry, "How otherwise can you improve the kingdom? You will only with it go to ruin."'

孟子曰:「自暴者,不可與有言也;自棄者,不可與有為也。言非禮義,謂之自暴也;吾身不能居仁由義,謂之自棄也。仁,人之安宅也;義,人之正路也。曠安宅而弗居,舍正路而不由,哀哉!」

Mencius said, 'With those who do violence to themselves, it is impossible to speak. With those who throw themselves away, it is impossible to do anything. To disown in his conversation propriety and righteousness, is what we mean by doing violence to one's self. To say "I am not able to dwell in benevolence or pursue the path of righteousness," is what we mean by throwing one's self away. Benevolence is the tranquil habitation of man, and righteousness is his straight path. Alas for them, who leave the tranquil dwelling empty and do not reside in it, and who abandon the right path and do not pursue it?'

孟子曰:「道在爾而求諸遠,事在易而求之難。人人親其親、長其長而天下平。」

Mencius said, 'The path of duty lies in what is near, and men seek for it in what is remote. The work of duty lies in what is easy, and men seek for it in what is difficult. If each man would love his parents and show the due respect to his elders, the whole land would enjoy tranquillity.'

孟子曰:「居下位而不獲於上,民不可得而治也。獲於上有道:不信於友,弗獲於上矣;信於友有道:事親弗悅,弗信於友矣;悅親有道:反身不誠,不悅於親矣;誠身有道:不明乎善,不誠其身矣。是故誠者,天之道也;思誠者,人之道也。至誠而不動者,未之有也;不誠,未有能動者也。」

Mencius said, 'When those occupying inferior situations do not obtain the confidence of the sovereign, they cannot succeed in governing the people. There is a way to obtain the confidence of the sovereign: if one is not trusted by his friends, he will not obtain the confidence of his sovereign. There is a way of being trusted by one's friends: if one do not serve his parents so as to make them pleased, he will not be trusted by his friends. There is a way to make one's parents pleased: if one, on turning his thoughts inwards, finds a want of sincerity, he will not give pleasure to his parents. There is a way to the attainment of sincerity in one's self: if a man do not understand what is good, he will not attain sincerity in himself. Therefore, sincerity is the way of Heaven. To think how to be sincere is the way of man. Never has there been one possessed of complete sincerity, who did not move others. Never has there been one who had not sincerity who was able to move others.'

孟子曰:「伯夷辟紂,居北海之濱,聞文王作,興曰:『盍歸乎來!吾聞西伯善養老者。』太公辟紂,居東海之濱,聞文王作,興曰:『盍歸乎來!吾聞西伯善養老者。』二老者,天下之大老也,而歸之,是天下之父歸之也。天下之父歸之,其子焉往?諸侯有行文王之政者,七年之內,必為政於天下矣。」

Mencius said, 'Bo Yi, that he might avoid Zhou, was dwelling on the coast of the northern sea. When he heard of the rise of king Wen, he roused himself, and said, "Why should I not go and follow him? I have heard that the chief of the West knows well how to nourish the old." Tai Gong, that he might avoid Zhou, was dwelling on the coast of the eastern sea. When he heard of the rise of king Wen, he roused himself, and said, "Why should I not go and follow him? I have heard that the chief of the West knows well how to nourish the old." Those two old men were the greatest old men of the kingdom. When they came to follow king Wen, it was the fathers of the kingdom coming to follow him. When the fathers of the kingdom joined him, how could the sons go to any other? Were any of the princes to practise the government of king Wen, within seven years he would be sure to be giving laws to the kingdom.'

孟子曰:「求也為季氏宰,無能改於其德,而賦粟倍他日。孔子曰:『求非我徒也,小子鳴鼓而攻之可也。』由此觀之,君不行仁政而富之,皆棄於孔子者也。況於為之強戰?爭地以戰,殺人盈野;爭城以戰,殺人盈城。此所謂率土地而食人肉,罪不容於死。故善戰者服上刑,連諸侯者次之,辟草萊、任土地者次之。」

Mencius said, 'Qiu acted as chief officer to the head of the Ji family, whose evil ways he was unable to change, while he exacted from the people double the grain formerly paid. Confucius said, "He is no disciple of mine. Little children, beat the drum and assail him." Looking at the subject from this case, we perceive that when a prince was not practising benevolent government, all his ministers who enriched him were rejected by Confucius - how much more would he have rejected those who are vehement to fight for their prince! When contentions about territory are the ground on which they fight, they slaughter men till the fields are filled with them. When some struggle for a city is the ground on which they fight, they slaughter men till the city is filled with them. This is what is called "leading on the land to devour human flesh." Death is not enough for such a crime. Therefore, those who are skilful to fight should suffer the highest punishment. Next to them should be punished those who unite some princes in leagues against others; and next to them, those who take in grassy commons, imposing the cultivation of the ground on the people.'

孟子曰:「存乎人者,莫良於眸子。眸子不能掩其惡。胸中正,則眸子瞭焉;胸中不正,則眸子眊焉。聽其言也,觀其眸子,人焉廋哉?」

Mencius said, 'Of all the parts of a man's body there is none more excellent than the pupil of the eye. The pupil cannot be used to hide a man's wickedness. If within the breast all be correct, the pupil is bright. If within the breast all be not correct, the pupil is dull. Listen to a man's words and look at the pupil of his eye. How can a man conceal his character?'

孟子曰:「恭者不侮人,儉者不奪人。侮奪人之君,惟恐不順焉,惡得為恭儉?恭儉豈可以聲音笑貌為哉?」

Mencius said, 'The respectful do not despise others. The economical do not plunder others. The prince who treats men with despite and plunders them, is only afraid that they may not prove obedient to him - how can he be regarded as respectful or economical? How can respectfulness and economy be made out of tones of the voice, and a smiling manner?'

淳于髡曰:「男女授受不親,禮與?」

Chun Yu Kun said, 'Is it the rule that males and females shall not allow their hands to touch in giving or receiving anything?'

孟子曰:「禮也。」

Mencius replied, 'It is the rule.'

曰:「嫂溺則援之以手乎?」

Kun asked, 'If a man's sister-in-law be drowning, shall he rescue her with his hand?'

曰:「嫂溺不援,是豺狼也。男女授受不親,禮也;嫂溺援之以手者,權也。」

Mencius said, 'He who would not so rescue the drowning woman is a wolf. For males and females not to allow their hands to touch in giving and receiving is the general rule; when a sister-in-law is drowning, to rescue her with the hand is a peculiar exigency.'

曰:「今天下溺矣,夫子之不援,何也?」

Kun said, 'The whole kingdom is drowning. How strange it is that you will not rescue it!'

曰:「天下溺,援之以道;嫂溺,援之以手。子欲手援天下乎?」

Mencius answered, 'A drowning kingdom must be rescued with right principles, as a drowning sister-in-law has to be rescued with the hand. Do you wish me to rescue the kingdom with my hand?'

公孫丑曰:「君子之不教子,何也?」

Gong Sun Chou said, 'Why is it that the superior man does not himself teach his son?'

孟子曰:「勢不行也。教者必以正;以正不行,繼之以怒;繼之以怒,則反夷矣。『夫子教我以正,夫子未出於正也。』則是父子相夷也。父子相夷,則惡矣。古者易子而教之。父子之間不責善。責善則離,離則不祥莫大焉。」

Mencius replied, 'The circumstances of the case forbid its being done. The teacher must inculcate what is correct. When he inculcates what is correct, and his lessons are not practised, he follows them up with being angry. When he follows them up with being angry, then, contrary to what should be, he is offended with his son. At the same time, the pupil says, 'My master inculcates on me what is correct, and he himself does not proceed in a correct path." The result of this is, that father and son are offended with each other. When father and son come to be offended with each other, the case is evil. The ancients exchanged sons, and one taught the son of another. Between father and son, there should be no reproving admonitions to what is good. Such reproofs lead to alienation, and than alienation there is nothing more inauspicious.'

孟子曰:「事孰為大?事親為大;守孰為大?守身為大。不失其身而能事其親者,吾聞之矣;失其身而能事其親者,吾未之聞也。孰不為事?事親,事之本也;孰不為守?守身,守之本也。曾子養曾皙,必有酒肉。將徹,必請所與。問有餘,必曰『有』。曾皙死,曾元養曾子,必有酒肉。將徹,不請所與。問有餘,曰『亡矣』。將以復進也。此所謂養口體者也。若曾子,則可謂養志也。事親若曾子者,可也。」

Mencius said, 'Of services, which is the greatest? The service of parents is the greatest. Of charges, which is the greatest ? The charge of one's self is the greatest. That those who do not fail to keep themselves are able to serve their parents is what I have heard. But I have never heard of any, who, having failed to keep themselves, were able notwithstanding to serve their parents. There are many services, but the service of parents is the root of all others. There are many charges, but the charge of one's self is the root of all others. The philosopher Zeng, in nourishing Zeng Xi, was always sure to have wine and flesh provided. And when they were being removed, he would ask respectfully to whom he should give what was left. If his father asked whether there was anything left, he was sure to say, "There is." After the death of Zeng Xi, when Zeng Yuan came to nourish Zengzi, he was always sure to have wine and flesh provided. But when the things were being removed, he did not ask to whom he should give what was left, and if his father asked whether there was anything left, he would answer "No;" - intending to bring them in again. This was what is called "nourishing the mouth and body." We may call Zengzi's practice "nourishing the will." To serve one's parents as Zengzi served his, may be accepted as flial piety.'

孟子曰:「人不足與適也,政不足間也。惟大人為能格君心之非。君仁莫不仁,君義莫不義,君正莫不正。一正君而國定矣。」

Mencius said, 'It is not enough to remonstrate with a sovereign on account of the mal-employment of ministers, nor to blame errors of government. It is only the great man who can rectify what is wrong in the sovereign's mind. Let the prince be benevolent, and all his acts will be benevolent. Let the prince be righteous, and all his acts will be righteous. Let the prince be correct, and everything will be correct. Once rectify the ruler, and the kingdom will be firmly settled.'

孟子曰:「有不虞之譽,有求全之毀。」

Mencius said, 'There are cases of praise which could not be expected, and of reproach when the parties have been seeking to be perfect.'

孟子曰:「人之易其言也,無責耳矣。」

Mencius said, 'Men's being ready with their tongues arises simply from their not having been reproved.'

孟子曰:「人之患在好為人師。」

Mencius said, 'The evil of men is that they like to be teachers of others.'

樂正子從於子敖之齊。樂正子見孟子。孟子曰:「子亦來見我乎?」曰:「先生何為出此言也?」曰:「子來幾日矣?」曰:「昔昔。」曰:「昔昔,則我出此言也,不亦宜乎?」曰:「舍館未定。」曰:「子聞之也,舍館定,然後求見長者乎?」曰:「克有罪。」

The disciple Yue Zheng went in the train of Zi Ao to Qi. He came to see Mencius, who said to him, 'Are you also come to see me?' Yue Zheng replied, 'Master, why do you speak such words?' 'How many days have you been here?' asked Mencius. 'I came yesterday.' 'Yesterday! Is it not with reason then that I thus speak?' 'My lodging-house was not arranged.' 'Have you heard that a scholar's lodging-house must be arranged before he visit his elder?' Yue Zheng said, 'I have done wrong.'

孟子謂樂正子曰:「子之從於子敖來,徒餔啜也。我不意子學古之道,而以餔啜也。」

Mencius, addressing the disciple Yue Zheng, said to him, 'Your coming here in the train of Zi Ao was only because of the food and the drink. I could not have thought that you, having learned the doctrine of the ancients, would have acted with a view to eating and drinking.'

孟子曰:「不孝有三,無後為大。舜不告而娶,為無後也,君子以為猶告也。」

Mencius said, 'There are three things which are unfilial, and to have no posterity is the greatest of them. Shun married without informing his parents because of this, lest he should have no posterity. Superior men consider that his doing so was the same as if he had informed them.'

孟子曰:「仁之實,事親是也;義之實,從兄是也。智之實,知斯二者弗去是也;禮之實,節文斯二者是也;樂之實,樂斯二者,樂則生矣;生則惡可已也,惡可已,則不知足之蹈之、手之舞之。」

Mencius said, 'The richest fruit of benevolence is this: the service of one's parents. The richest fruit of righteousness is this: the obeying one's elder brothers. The richest fruit of wisdom is this: the knowing those two things, and not departing from them. The richest fruit of propriety is this: the ordering and adorning those two things. The richest fruit of music is this: the rejoicing in those two things. When they are rejoiced in, they grow. Growing, how can they be repressed? When they come to this state that they cannot be repressed, then unconsciously the feet begin to dance and the hands to move.'

孟子曰:「天下大悅而將歸己。視天下悅而歸己,猶草芥也。惟舜為然。不得乎親,不可以為人;不順乎親,不可以為子。舜盡事親之道而瞽瞍厎豫,瞽瞍厎豫而天下化,瞽瞍厎豫而天下之為父子者定,此之謂大孝。」

Mencius said, 'Suppose the case of the whole kingdom turning in great delight to an individual to submit to him. To regard the whole kingdom thus turning to him in great delight but as a bundle of grass - only Shun was capable of this. He considered that if one could not get the hearts of his parents he could not be considered a man, and that if he could not get to an entire accord with his parents, he could not be considered a son. By Shun's completely fulfilling everything by which a parent could be served, Gu Sou was brought to find delight in what was good. When Gu Sou was brought to find that delight, the whole kingdom was transformed. When Gu Sou was brought to find that delight, all fathers and sons in the kingdom were established in their respective duties. This is called great filial piety.'