The Chinese Empire. A General & Missionary Survey/Manchuria

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search

THE DEPENDENCIES OF CHINA

COMPARATIVE TABLE

SHOWING AREA AND POPULATION OF THE DEPENDENCIES OF CHINA, AS COMPARED WITH OTHER WELL-KNOWN COUNTRIES.

Dependency. Area, sq. miles. Population.
Manchuria 363,610 8,500,000
Ontario, Canada 214,310 2,114,321
Mongolia 1,367,000 2,580,000
Australia 2,934,515 4,000,000
Tibet 463,200 6,430,000
New South Wales 308,560 1,132,234

"How important has Canada been esteemed, and how poor is our appreciation of Manchuria; yet the latter is perhaps the richer country of the two."—Dr. Alexander Williamson.

"I have a feeling as if I had all my life been systematically duped and misled by the stereotyped European and American delineation of the Heathen Chinee—possibly the Manchurian Chinese are a different race. It seems incredible that these dignified, clever, often noble-looking men, and these sensible, practical, hard-working women should have served as originals to the Chinese depicted in Western literature. I have never in all my life even imagined a set of people so passionately, feverishly devoted to work. There is no eyewash here; no extra efforts under the eye of the master or mistress. All have some share in the profits, and they all of them put their backs into what they have to do as if their very lives depended upon it. Energy is only half the battle; these men and women possess high individual intelligence to guide that energy. To be realised, their farming must be seen. Such furrows! Such promise of crops with each sprouting corn-stalk tended like a rose-bush in the garden of a duchess! And all this energy, strength, and intellect available for about tuppence ha'penny per diem!"—From A Staff Officer's Scrap-book, by Lieut.-General Sir Ian Hamilton, K.C.B., British Attaché to the Japanese forces in Manchuria.

Page:The Chinese Empire. A General & Missionary Survey.djvu/375 (Coreans), who first appear on the upper Yalu about the Christian era, established themselves in Liaotung. While paying tribute to China they succeeded in maintaining a virtually independent kingdom, extending as far west as the Liao, and having its capital at Pingyang, until in a.d. 668 they were overthrown by the Tang dynasty. Their name still remains attached to many villages in Fengtien, and any ruins whose history is lost are ascribed by the popular voice to the Kaoli. It was not till the tenth century that they revived sufficiently to establish the modern Corean kingdom, since when the Yalu has remained the boundary on the west.

MEANWHILE CENTRAL MANCHURIA had been following an independent course under the headship of various tribes of whom little is known but the name. The fall of the Corean power was the occasion of the rise of a powerful confederacy named Bohai, which from its capital near Ninguta dominated the country from the Sungari almost to the mouth of the Yalu. During this period the country was prosperous and well peopled. " Learning flourished " — presumably Chinese learning. However, in 926 the power of Bohai was de- stroyed by the invasion of the Kitan, a race dwelling on the upper Liao, who for many centuries had raided the north of China, and who now turned their arms eastwards, over- running the country as far as the Hurka. It was this people who at the same time established the Liao dynasty in North China. Erom them the name Cathay was carried to Europe, and China is still known to Russia as Kitai.

The people of CENTRAL MANCHURIA now appear under the name of NÜchen, but broken up into many independent clans. Under the weight of disaster, their former civilisa- tion was lost, and they reverted to the nomadic state. In 1114 a NÜchen chief attacked an army of the Liao on the banks of the Sungari, where his victory began a career of conquest more startling in its rapidity than even that of the later Manchus, for in nine years he had swept down through MANCHURIA and taken Peking, thus founding the

dynasty of Kin.
The Chinese Empire A General & Missionary Survey djvu 378.jpg

'rOMB OF KrKHACHU Nurhachu was the founder of the present Mauchii power, the chieftain ot the original royal Tungusic tribelet known as "Manchu." He died 1627. The picture shows the corner tower of the Bast Tomb near Moukden. The roofs are bright yellow glazed tiles ; under the eaves the woodwork is painted bright blues and

greens. Beautiful wild woods surround the tombs. Page:The Chinese Empire. A General & Missionary Survey.djvu/379 Page:The Chinese Empire. A General & Missionary Survey.djvu/380 Page:The Chinese Empire. A General & Missionary Survey.djvu/381 Page:The Chinese Empire. A General & Missionary Survey.djvu/382 Page:The Chinese Empire. A General & Missionary Survey.djvu/383 Page:The Chinese Empire. A General & Missionary Survey.djvu/384
The Chinese empire- a general and missionary survey (1907) (14597444578).jpg
Page:The Chinese Empire. A General & Missionary Survey.djvu/387 Page:The Chinese Empire. A General & Missionary Survey.djvu/388 Page:The Chinese Empire. A General & Missionary Survey.djvu/389 Page:The Chinese Empire. A General & Missionary Survey.djvu/390 Page:The Chinese Empire. A General & Missionary Survey.djvu/391 Page:The Chinese Empire. A General & Missionary Survey.djvu/392 Page:The Chinese Empire. A General & Missionary Survey.djvu/393 Page:The Chinese Empire. A General & Missionary Survey.djvu/394 Page:The Chinese Empire. A General & Missionary Survey.djvu/395