The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi/Volume I/Guide to London
Guide to London (1893-94)
In these days of cheap publication authors are constantly multiplying and have naturally lost a great deal of the respect they used to command before. Let me then at once inform the reader that, in issuing this little guide I am not aspiring to authorship, but simply supplying, as I believe, a long-felt want. Issuing guides does not make authors. They are made of `sterner stuff'. It will be readily admitted that, though Indians have been going to and returning from England for the last twenty years and more, no attempt has yet been made at writing a guide like this. Some of them have published books describing with much effect what is to be seen The exact date of writing is not available. Pyarelal says: "comparative leisure at Pretoria enabled Gandhiji to resume two little unfinished ventures which he had launched while he was in India. One was a little handbook or Guide to London that he had set about to prepare in answer to numerous inquiries on his return from London... It bears the evidence of having been written, at least in part, between the second half of 1893 and the first half 1894... He never published it." (The Early Phase, p. 316). In the introduction, Gandhiji writes: "And here the only topic of conversation with my visitors has been England till I have been sometimes literally bored (Vol 1: "Guide to London"; Introduction)." "Here" in this sentence appears to refer to Indian. It is not known whether the introduction was written before or after the text, but it may be presumed that the work was commenced before Gandhiji left for South Africa in 1893. Gandhiji mentions the "morning coat... now five years old", which he must have bought on reaching London in September 1888; vide Vol 1: "Guide to London", chapter II. About the circumstances in which the MS was located, Pyarelal writes: "The existing copy was retrieved by me from a heap of papers littering the floor of the weaving shed in the Satyagraha Ashram at Sabarmati, shortly after my arrival there in 1920. It being shown to Gandhiji, he said that it had been made at his instance by one of his clerks in South Africa, who wrote a very bad hand, to improve his handwriting. Unfortunately some pages in the appendix are missing. The original could never be traced" (E.P.).
in England and elsewhere. But they have not gone further. They leave you in suspense, for they do create in you a desire for going to England, but how to do it they seem to have failed to tell. Scores of Indians have become barristers, yet no one has been bold to inform his countrymen how he managed to live in England. While there I received many from friends asking me to throw some light on one thing or another. And here the only topic of conversation with my visitors has been England till I have been sometimes literally bored. The avidity with which they have devoured the information must by itself justify the publication of this unpretentious guide. No doubt there are many reasons why a book like this has not been before the public long ago. Any such book in order to be exhaustive must necessarily contain important revelations which I know painfully would perhaps stir up a useless controversy and wrangle and which some would always like not to be made at all. The movement s alike of students and laymen in England are shrouded in mystery. No one for instance knows definitely what an Indian eats in England, where he lives; whether he cooks his food or not, etc., etc. now these are the very points which are of vital importance to those who intend to go to England. The writer, Therefore, of the following pages proposes to discover the mystery and lay bare the movements of Indians in England. Such a course, I hope, would facilitate to some extent the way to England in addition to helping the people to understand the England returned Indians, but I am afraid it will bring on me showers of reproaches and remonstrances from many persons. It may even cost me friendships. Some would call me rash, others would be content with saying that I lack tact1 , while yet others would fling youth into my face, but I have resolved upon bearing the storm for the sake of truth. The next question is whether I am the person who should write such a book. I am inclined to leave it to the reader to a great extent to answer the question. I know there are persons who would tell the same story in a nobler language, who would tell it with a greater accuracy, who would tell with a greater fulness and I know also that probably no one can combine in himself all the qualities. The only reason why I write the book is that no one has as yet written it though badly wanted.
The source has `tactics'.
As a rule the book will contain facts only and at times personal observations when absolutely necessary. If, at any time, anyone finds anything that he cannot understand or any error in the book, I shall thank him to correspond with me so that I may offer an explanation or correct the error. Before concluding the introduction, I beg [all to] extend me their co-operation, i.e., help me by buying and, what is more necessary, reading the book so that they may help themselves. Facts which can be determined easily from other sources will not generally find place in this guide, but the sources will be referred to. The province of the book is not to collect information from the existing books, but to attempt that which has not yet been attempted.
Chapter 1. Who Should go to England ?
It may be laid down broadly that all who can afford should go to England. Of course, here the meaning of the word `afford' should be understood in its widest sense. Thus some cannot go to England because they cannot afford the money, some cannot afford through ill-health, others cannot owing to young age and various other objections. All these will be briefly discussed in the following paragraphs. The first and the foremost question is the question of health. No one with a weak chest or a tendency to consumption should ever think of going to England. It will simply mean going to England in order to court death away from friends and relations. It is true that you can go to the south of Europe not only without injury to the constitution but with benefit to it; thus you can go to the Riviera and be cured of consumption. Thousands of consumptive persons annually flock there to be cured of the fell disease. It is supposed to be one of the finest places for persons with weak chests; but all this means a great outlay of money. And then again the book is not written for invalids so that they may get cured by following the instructions therein contained. It is written for those with a good health who want to learn and be useful. Moreover it is for those who would go to England. It is true also that a person with a generally weak health might take a trip to England during the summer season without coming to much or any harm. Still, if I can venture to give an opinion, I should say that those with any chest disease whatever should never think of going to England except under special circumstances and conditions. On the other hand, persons suffering from any disease due to a warm climate can do worse than going to England. I used to suffer from headaches and nose-bleeding in India. I could not read for three or four hours at a stretch during the summer months without getting a headache. Now I am happy to say I am entirely free from both and this I ascribe mainly to the cold and invigorating climate of England. On there question of health if there be any doubt about it, it would be best always to consult some medical authority. The next question is as to age. It is very difficult to lay down any hard and fast rules for that. All parents must generally know when they can part with their children. The solution of the question depends moreover on the character of the boy who wants to go. Then again it depends on what he wants to do there. If he wants to pass the Civil Service examination, the limit of age in now 23. For a person desiring to be a barrister, he must be twenty-one years before he is called. He who wants to matriculate must be at least sixteen years old. If you want to give your child a beginner's education, you can send it without a guardian to one of the many homes, where children only are educated and taken care of. Having so far dealt with the negative side, I come to the positive. To lay down broadly that all those who have money, a good constitution and [are] of proper age should go to England seems very tempting, but it is not sufficient. All such persons may inquire "Why should we go to England?" And I venture to answer: for the purposes of trade, travel or education. Nowadays many go there for education, some go there for travelling, but very few for trade, though the last is the most important for the material well-being of the country. Everyone knows that India wants trade more than anything else and that England is the best place for getting an insight into different trades. I do not for a moment hold that a person can learn trading only in England. What he does learn is the trading habits of the people. If he wants to extend his commerce with England, the more he knows the land and their people the better for him, From this it follows that he should go to England specially for that. Those who go there for the sake of education or travel do not and cannot make it their object to study everything relating to trade. There one sees different branches of commerce in a most efficient state. He sees also how the large establishments are carried on. A fellow with a trading knowledge can know what would be the best things to trade in. Then again, if we had a direct communication with English gentlemen, we can dispense with agency. I know there are some Indians who have established themselves in England and are trading there. This is very good so far as it goes, but it does not go far enough. I am sorry to say that the management of these houses is far from satisfactory and consequently they are not doing a swinging business. I should like educated traders who have a good knowledge of English to go there, mix with the people, see the secret of their success and then return to India, open up branches in England and India in an improved style. I have been told that we stand a fair chance of doing a good business in selling carved wood and stones and feathers in England. Everyone knows how many feathers are daily wasted away in almost every part of India. Since they are a saleable commodity in Europe, we are wasting away real wealth simply through sheer ignorance or indifference. These are mere instances. There must be various other things which would sell in England. It is exactly because we do not know these things that we should go to England to learn what they are. Will a time come when every trading firm will send their man to England? Then as to travelling. Both the traders and students can combine a little travelling with their profession. These are travellers of a low type. Those who want to become professional travellers, who want to write books on travels must go there for the special purpose of travelling. But I believe such persons had better see their own country first. I cannot do better than quote Mr. Malabari on the point:
In study as in travel it is best to begin at the very beginning and to proceed by slow stages, gaining something at every stage and that something such as to be of immediate practical use at the next stage. When you travel or study by degrees, every fresh step or item of knowledge is a keen enjoyment. You are prepared to receive it, and, thus received, your knowledge will fructify. But when knowledge is thrust upon you without previous discipline, i.e., without your being fit for it, it will be inert and unleavened. What is the use of visiting foreign countries when you know nothing of your own? When you go to Europe ignorant of your own national life, you will miss those thousand points of comparison and contrast, those thousand shades of difference, those thousand beauties and blemishes that modern European civilization presents. At the best you will look at things, not see or see through them.
These are wise words worthy of serious consideration. The outcome of it is that you should begin not at the wrong end. Last of all comes education. It is with very much regret that I have to record here that almost all who go to England for the purpose of education go there in order to become barristers. Education does not mean becoming barristers. I shall have a good deal to say about barristers in a separate chapter, so here I shall just say what other things you can do there. Of course the most coveted examination is the Civil Service examination. But those only who are British-born subjects can go in for that examination. Engineering is another branch of education which you can learn at the Cooper's Hill College. You can get the highest medical degree at the London University. It has turned out most eminent doctors, but it is a long course and, though theoretically requiring only five years, requires practically seven years. Oxford and Cambridge Universities impart a very good education. They are meant for the richer classes, not the poor. The education received in these universities is quite different from that received in the Indian universities. They are not so exacting as our universities here. Again, in India generally it is all work which, as is said, "with no play makes Jack a dull boy". The Oxford and Cambridge education combines both work and play. That university life is not a drudgery as I suppose, unfortunately, it is here. It would be impossible to give exhaustive information about the various centres of education. They can only be pointed out. The secretaries of all these institutions can be written to and will send prospectuses wherefrom every detailed information can be gathered. Edinburgh too is a place which has become a favourite place with the Indians, mostly medical students. The medical course there is far easier than the London course which, of course, is the hardest. The Durham University, too, gives a medical diploma. It might be urged that all these things can be had here and at a less cost. I would admit the former though not the latter. However, the mere fact that the same thing can be had in India is not sufficient. The question is which is of superior quality. Is not education in any branch far superior in England to that in India? Cannot a man learn more during the same time in England than in India? The last proposition is self-evident. A student here is half student and half man. He may be married too. In that case, he has to think of his wife, perhaps children, in addition to house-hold cares which an Indian student is generally saddled with. While, in England, he is alone, no wife to tease or flatter him, no parents to indulge, no children to look after, no company to disturb. He is the master of his time. So, if he has the will, he can do more. Moreover, the invigorating climate in England is by itself a stimulant to work, the enervating climate of India is a stimulant to idleness. Who has not passed idle hours in a summer noon? Who has not wished he had nothing to do in summer but to sleep? Of course, persons are there who never cease to work in India. In fact, hardest working students are found in India. But that work is against the will. In England, it does not do to be idle. You like the work for the sake of it. You cannot help working. I have heard it said of a very learned professor that he read as much in three years in England as he would have in nine years in India. That amount of work which tells upon one's health in India can be gone through with ease in England. An instance is at our very doors. Do we not work more in winter than in summer? So, then, it will not be doubted that a person willing to work will do more in England than in India. It is needless to mention the advantage that we have in England of talking in the English language the whole of our time. It is fervently to be hope d that examples of persons having cut a sorry figure will not be cited in refutation of the above proposition. For such fall under the category of those who are not willing to work, while we are here talking of persons who seek more opportunities for work in England than in India. It will be very uncharitable to expect drones to return types of learning from England. There are the better opportunities, it is for you to avail of them. If you do not, you are to blame, not England. And if superior education can be obtained in England, it follows that it is not more expensive than that to be obtained in India, if the ratio of superiority be the same as that of increased expenses.
Chapter 2. Preliminaries
Having in the previous chapter shown who should go to England, I now proceed to describe what preliminaries one has to make before starting. In so doing if I may at times enter into the most trifling details, I hope the reader will not take it as an insult. The standard by which I go is my intelligence and lower still if possible and I shall describe things which required an explanation in my case when I left for England. The first consideration is that of money. The amount of money the candidate has to take with him will be given later on, but whatever the amount, let him make absolutely sure of getting the full amount in England. In certain cases it may be advisable to take the whole amount with him. I know by personal experience how even persons who have promised on oath to give some pecuniary assistance, a loan mind you, not an absolute gift and whom you think [you] can safely depend upon prove false to their promises. 1 In London you do not often find persons who would give you a loan even. The loan too is generally big, for when you do not get the promised money, it is not a small sum, but a tolerably large one which you would not expect any friend to lend. I know by personal experience and that of friends what it is for an Indian to be without money even for a moment in England. It involves an extra expense of wiring home, not to speak of the anxieties one has to suffer under such circumstances, and wiring to India is very expensive. It is four shillings per word. Therefore be sure you will get a sufficient amount of money and that, too, at the proper time. Then, if possible, it is always advisable to get some introduction notes to gentlemen in England. They are not absolutely necessary, but when you can get them, they are not useless. You know that you will have some friends when you reach there. They are a consolation and, at times, friendships built upon such introduction notes become lasting and genuine.2 Now you have to consider what things to take with you, where to buy the passage and where to put up on reaching London. I shall first give a list of necessary things and then offer a few remarks thereon, when deemed necessary. Rs. As. 30 0 20 0 10 0 30 0 27 0
1 1 1 1 3
Overcoat Morning coat Waistcoat Jacket suit (vest jacket) Pairs of trousers
Vide An Autobiography, Pt. I, ch. XIII; also "Draft of Letter to Frederick Lely: December 1888. 2 Vide An Autobiography, Pt. I, Ch. XIII.
3 3 3 3 3 6 1 1 3
" drawers (woollen) " " (cotton or merino) Woollen vests Cotton or merino vests Woollen shirts without collars Woollen shirts with collars White shirt Pair of braces Standup collars Mother-of-pearl studs " links 12Handkerchiefs 2 Sleeping suits (woollen) 1 Pair of gloves 1 Rug 6 Cotton or merino socks 3 Woollen socks
B.F. 1 Rugstrap 1 Pair of slippers 1 Pair of shoes 1 " boots 1 Turkish cap 1 Cloth brush 1 Hair brush 1 Tooth brush 1 Shaving brush 1 Razor 1 Razor strap 1 Comb 1 Shaving stick Tongue scraper
15 0 60 12 0 40 16 0 18 0 20 18 10 08 04 14 15 0 20 10 0 30 40 228 8 Rs. As. 228 8 18 14 40 60 14 10 10 04 10 20 20 08 10 04
Note paper Envelopes to match Travelling inkstand Penholder and pocket pencil Blotting Pins and needles and thread Penknife Pens 0 Money purse Stick Deck chair Two trunks Some books Umbrella Total
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 8 0 1 5 16 4 282
8 4 8 8 4 4 8 8 0 0 0 0 4
To buy the above things care must be taken that the best things are bought at the cheapest prices and that the things bought are suitable... There are many shops in Bombay. Some of the native shops are very good. The English shops would be found to be very expensive. Whenever practicable, it is always best to get some experienced person to buy the things for you. It may not be useless here to make a few remarks on the above list. Two trunks have been mentioned in the list and the price for both has been put down at Rs. 16/-. Each trunk may be 26x12 1 . Generally they buy one steel trunk and a leather bag. And one of th0e best steel trunks would cost Rs. 25 and a leather bag--a gladstone bag--would cost much the same. This expense is not necessary. A good trunk can be bought for Rs. 12. In putting down the price at Rs. 16 I have in my mind native iron trunks which are as strong as, if not stronger than, the steel trunks. That would be an encouragement to native industry and a saving of a few rupees to the purchaser. If the native trunks do not suit or if they cannot be had, wooden boxes can be bought or imitation steel trunks which do not cost more than Rs. 5 each. The P. & O. rules say with regard to the size of the trunks:
The portmanteau for cabin use should not exceed 3 ft in length, 1 ft 9 inches in width and 1 ft and 3 inches in depth. No packages exceeding this limit are allowed in the saloons or cabins.
The prices for other articles are not by any means the lowest prices. For example, while I have put down 1/2 rupee for a pair of socks, a good pair can be had for 5 or 6 annas. If good woollen socks cannot be had in Bombay, they may be bought in London. For six socks would answer the purpose in the boat. With the clothing mentioned in the above list one need not spend anything on dress for a year in England. A further list of clothing will be given later on. It may be bought in England if it is found necessary. And that would give one more than enough clothing for a 3 years' stay in England. Certain things that are generally included in such lists have been purposely left out, e.g., towels, soap, etc. These things can be had gratis on board. Foreign stamps can be bought on board. As to what dress to wear on board, it is best to begin with the jacket suit. It is not at all necessary to wear the undervest or the drawers. They should be made use of only when the cold weather has begun. It is always advisable not to overload oneself with dress. I have come across many persons who have suffered from over-clothing. Of course, it is equally necessary not to underclothe. The undervest and drawers would not be required till the steamer reaches Port Said, for, the weather to be met with from Bombay to Port Said is not less warm than that we experience in India. If cold is felt after leaving Port Said, the cotton underclothing may be worn or, if necessary, the woollen underclothing. Till Brindisi is reached the overcoat may not be touched at all. It must be understood that this is not the condition in which all can live. No hard and fast rules can be laid down for clothing. The above remarks have been made simply to remove the generally prevalent idea that the under-clothing and the over coat are absolutely necessary as soon as the steamer leaves the harbour. The safest thing to do is to begin to wear more and warmer clothes according to necessity. The white shirts have almost been left out. This may be considered a hardship not because they are a climatic necessity but because they are a fashion. Well, this is a book meant for those who want to live cheaply and yet respectably. One can safely break through fashion especially when it is expensive and injurious, but the process should not be gone through violently. The white shirts have been left out because they swell up the weekly washing bill to a very great extent. A white shirt would cost 4d to wash while a flannel shirt would cost only 2d. Again, while one flannel shirt per week is sufficient, at least two white shirts would hardly answer the purpose. They spoil sooner than the flannel shirts. Indeed, some unconventional gentlemen in England who have ceased adoring the fashion as a goddess have discarded stiff clothing altogether. They have bidden goodbye to the stiff collars, cuffs and the shirts. Even medical opinion has begun to revolt against too much use of starch which is absolutely necessary for washing white shirts. The starch has been pronounced to be injurious to the body. Whatever it is, there is no denying the fact that flannel shirts are more comfortable and, in the end, less expensive than linen shirts. However, if the fashion is to be adored as it ought to be more or less, if you are not to break through it violently, wear the flannel shirts without collars; use the white collars and cuffs and you would lead others to believe that you have white shirts on. This trick is resorted to by thousands in London and sometimes it is very convenient. And, if at times, you like to look a London swell, that too has been provided for. A white shirt would be found mentioned in the list and may be used occasionally. As a token of respect to the fashion goddess, the neckties too have not been forgotten. They will find a place in the further list. They might be used or not according to one's fancies. They do not cost much if bought cheaply. The morning coat is worn on visits. On board, too, if you are a first-saloon passenger, it is a necessity. As far as possible, you should wear the jacket suit so that the morning coat may not be spoiled. The writer of these pages had only one morning coat. It is now five years old and yet looks as new as if it were made yesterday. As soon as it is done with, brush it well, fold it and put it in your chest of drawers and it would never spoil. Shaving materials are mentioned in the list. Do not be surprised. You shall not be a professional barber. But you will have to shave yourself if you have a beard. Even kings are not ashamed of so doing in Europe. If you have thick hair, you have to shave every day. It is a trouble to be at the mercy of a barber every day and incur an expense of at least 2d. To save that it is necessary to learn how to shave oneself. It does not take long. Only a few minutes spent for three or four days would be found sufficient.
For head-dress the turkish cap is mentioned. This is very handy. But, for one who feels uncomfortable in the cap and does not like to be noticed by people, a felt-hat is mentioned in the second list that is to follow. For tooth powder the best (medically) and yet the cheapest powder is precipitated chalk. You can get 4 oz. for 6d. This will last for months. Slippers are to be worn at home and on board only. There is another item of dress that has been left out from the list. It is the dress suit. Now this is not at all necessary. Although many Indians buy it, it is not advisable to incur that expense. I bought it myself and am very sorry for it. I wore it but three or four times. I consider that to be the most foolish expense I incurred in England. They wear it for evening parties. We Indians can wear the morning coat or the Parsee coat or our own native dress whatever that may be. I have seen many Indians wearing the morning coat. There is nothing wrong in it. You have to look clean and tidy, nothing more. A watch has not been mentioned in the list. For, it has become an article of everyday wear among the educated Indians. The second list will be found in the 4th chapter. The articles contained in it are to be bought in England. No one should go beyond the list unless he uses his clothes very carelessly and, if one goes to England to become or remain careless, might it not be said, he had better not go at all. The two lists include more than ordinarily required clothing for an ordinarily careful man for three years. The next thing that one has to do is to buy the passage. Three things are to be considered before buying it, viz. : 1. What month to start in. 2. Whether to go all the way by sea or via Brindisi. 3. Whether to go by the P. & O. boats or any other Company's. As to the first question, while one can start in any month, all things considered the middle of March is the best season. Thereby one avoids immediate experience of English winter and, before he meets with the bitter cold, he will have six beautiful months, viz., from April to September. April is the depth of spring and September the beginning of autumn. Before he has the first experience of an English winter, he will have been acclimatized and accustomed to the English ways of living. He would thus be able to bear the winter with a greater equanimity. Moreover by starting in March, one gets the mildest weather in the Red Sea. And even the mildest weather of the Red Sea is most trying. In summer, although only 3 days have to be spent on the Red Sea, it is unbearable. The heat is suffocating. No use of punkhas and ice is sufficient to allay the burning sensation. It is a time of perpetual perspiration. Moreover, in March the sea all the way is the calmest in the year. The next best time is September or October. By leaving at that time , of course, you have to brave the winter as soon as you reach England, but if you want to become a Barrister, you have this consolation that you would be able to return home three months earlier than by starting in any other month. This will be treated more fully in the chapter for would-be Barristers. Having selected the season, one has to consider what would be the best thing to do--whether to go all the way by sea or via Brindisi. It takes nearly 22 days by the P&O boats to reach London and 13 days to reach Brindisi, whence London is reached in 2 days by rail. It seems that it is much better to take the sea route throughout. Thereby all the inconveniences of removing luggage and having it examined, etc., are avoided and all the comforts to be found in P&O boats are enjoyed for a longer time. Moreover, a long voyage is very good for health. Some remain on the seas for months for the sake of health only. It is, therefore, advisable that one should take the sea voyage when especially it causes a saving of expense. The second-saloon fare to London by sea is Rs. 370, while via Brindisi it is more than Rs. 400. Those who get sea-sick very often need not be afraid of a sea voyage on that score. For during the 13 days for Brindisi one gets used to the sea and overcomes the sickness. It is to be hoped that no one would avoid the voyage from Brindisi for the reason that thereby he would be less open to the dangers of a wreck. This is an idea unworthy of one intending to go to England. It must be remembered that he would be one out of many in his steamer. There are dangers even on the railway. In fact, nowhere is life without dangers. It is a question merely of degree. The next question to be decided is what Company's boat to go by. There is a very wide field for selection. There the City, Hall, Clan, etc., steamers. But by far the best and most popular are the Peninsular and Oriental Company's boats, which carry Her Majesty's mails to London. The other lines are a trifle cheaper than the last mentioned and, if anyone chooses to book his passage on any of the above lines, he can see the manager and make arrangements. For there are no fixed rates for these lines. However, whenever practicable, P&O boats should be preferred. The passage can be booked through Messrs King and Co., or Messrs Thomas Cook & Sons at Bombay who are always obliging and ready to supply every information. They do not charge any commission. Whether to take the 1st-saloon or the 2nd-saloon ticket, very much depends upon one's purse. As to comforts, there is not much difference. Of course, a 1st-saloon passenger gets better company and better food. The food, however, given in the 2nd-saloon is good enough. And, especially, a vegetarian should not incur the expenses of a 1st-saloon passage. The main difference is in food and, since a vegetarian would not take flesh meat, for him the 1st-saloon expense would be entirely unnecessary. The second saloon by sea costs Rs. 370, while the 1st saloon costs Rs. 680. A second-saloon passage via Brindisi including 2nd-class railway ticket costs Rs. 445 and a first class railway ticket costs Rs. 500, while a first saloon with 1st-class railway ticket costs Rs. 810. First-saloon passengers are allowed on board 336 lb. of personal luggage free of freight and the secondsaloon passengers 168 lb. A few remarks about food, etc., on board would not be out of place here. For those who do not object to meat, nothing specially need be mentioned here except everything one can wish for can ordinarily be had on the steamer. The only complaint that can be urge d against the Company in respect of food is that the passengers are over-fed. From morning till evening or, even as late as eleven o'clock, one can get something to eat at short intervals. As early as six or seven o'clock, you get biscuits and tea or coffee. At 8.30 a.m. you get breakfast consisting of oatmeal porridge, jam, marmalade, bread, butter, salad, meat and potatoes ad libitum. At 1 p.m. you get a good d inner consisting of meat, potatoes and cabbage, some sweet, bread, butter, etc., and twice in a week fruits and nuts. At 4 p.m. you can have a cup of tea and biscuits. Again at 6 p.m. a nice supper consisting of salad, cheese, bread, butter, jam, marmalade, tea, cocoa, etc., is provided and, as a finishing stroke, just at the time of going to bed, you can replenish the hungry stomach with biscuits and cheese. All this to an Indian would sound very strange and look like gluttony. A vegetarian must have found from the above that plenty of things can be had in the steamer that he can take. An Indian who has not been used to English dishes would, it is very likely, not relish the above dishes for some time. Though, after some time, he would find that all the dishes are very nice and nutritious. As a precaution, it would be better to keep a stock of some fresh fruits and sweets, e.g., jalebi, halva, etc., and some salty things, e.g., ganthia 1 , etc. These with English dishes now and then would quite suffice. Care should be taken that English dishes are increased and the quantity of native things taken decreased. Such a gradual change would be effected imperceptibly and without affecting the constitution. The things to be found on board for a vegetarian are bread, butter, milk, fruit, nuts, jam, marmalade, rice, cheese, potatoes, cabbage, salad, cakes, tea, coffee, biscuits and porridge. This is really a large variety out of which many meals containing quite distinct articles can be made. Nothing can be more nutritious than porridge, bread and butter and a cup of cocoa or if you like tea. For dinner you can have one course of bread, butter and vegetables, another course of rice, milk and jam (a sweet preparation) and a third course of some fruit or bread and cheese. You can make a very good supper of bread, butter and cocoa and jam and salad or cheese or both. If these be not sufficient, special arrangements are made for vegetarians. The chief steward should be informed and requested to prepare some vegetable dishes and he very obligingly gets for you vegetable curry, fresh fruit and stewed fruit and brown bread. And you cannot want anything more. Some interesting facts would be found from the appendix as to how the writer of these pages managed on board. 2 If a pious Indian does not want to eat food cooked by Europeans, he can cook his own food in the Indian quarters, where they would give a space for cooking. Whether this is advisable or not is quite another matter. This is mentioned just to remove the prevailing prejudice to the effect that on board one has no other course open but to take food cooked by the Europeans. The much-vexed and important question whether it is possible to remain a vegetarian on board and in England will be discussed in another chapter. It is sufficient to mention for the present purposes that it is not at all necessary to take meat or wine and it is positively injurious to take the latter. The source has this in Devnagari script; reference to a preparation made of grame flour. 2 Vide also An Autobiography, Pt. I, Ch. XIII
Having landed in London, where to go seems to present some difficulty. The editor of The Vegetarian, a newspaper published in London Memorial Hall, Farringdon Street, has kindly consented to give the necessary directions and find them the proper lodgings where they can have everything cheap and nice. Here I may be allowed to say a word about The Vegetarian. It is a paper which I believe should be subscribed to by every Indian who would see Englishmen as vegetarians and who would sympathize with the movement now going on in London. It should be bought not especially as mental food, not for the sake of the information given by it, not for the high-class intellectual matter contained in it, though these are by no means of an inferior quality, but for encouraging a movement every Indian should have at heart. To return, however, to the main subject, the people of the London Vegetarian Society are always kind and hospitable towards Indians and a more genial man than the editor of The Vegetarian it would be difficult to find. It would, therefore, be a great gain for every Indian going to England to let the editor know of his so doing. I may perhaps suggest, though the suggestion has nothing whatever to do with the editor, that in common fairness every such person would subscribe himself as a member of the Society or subscribe to the paper. But, if the above arrangement be not deemed feasible or advisable, the next best thing to do would be put up at the Vegetarian Hotel, Charing Cross, be he a vegetarian or meat-eater. A list1 of houses would be found at the end of the book wherefrom to make a selection. The terms in the appendix places are very reasonable. Other hotels would be found very dear. On landing, a cab can always be had which would take you, on your giving the name, to the place named. These lodgings, it must be understood, are only temporary until a permanent one is found. So the next thing to do would be to search for a good and suitable room. This can be done in the company of some friend whom you may be knowing or to whom you have got an introduction note.
Chapter 3. The Cost of Living
This is the stumbling block. This is the question which is the
This is not available in Appendix A as some pages are missing.
most inviting and yet most repulsive. To enter into that question seriously is to differ from everybody. Every man would furnish his own estimates, thinking at the same time that no other estimates could be true and, if true, possible for everyone. That again is the question which is the most important, especially, to a man of ordinary circumstances. And it is strange that, although the question is admittedly of such a vast importance, greater ignorance does not prevail with regard to any question ordinarily presenting itself to an Indian wishing to go to England than with regard to this. It is moreover true that the ordinary estimates quoted are from 10 to 20 pounds per month. Living on 10 per month was pronounced to be very economical. With such estimates to say that one can live comfortably on 4 a month or 1 a week could be a heresay: Nevertheless, it is a fact beyond doubt, as shall be proved just now, that it is possible to live on one pound a week and that many have lived on less. I may say that I have tried the experiment successfully and was never happier than under the 4 living. While I was living on 4 per month, I had to work the hardest. The reader will find from (App. A) how, from 12 per month, I gradually came down to 4 per month. First of all, I shall consider the cost of lodgings. It is commonly supposed that a student should have two rooms, one bed-room and one sitting-room. Now this is quite useless except to show, that you are very rich and can afford to spend any amount of money. This guide is not written for those who would make a show very often false, of their riches. It is written for those who would live a regular student's life, as economical as possible. There are many professional gentlemen - bachelors living in one room only. Of course, there are many Indian students and thousands of English students living in one room only. Two rooms are more for families than for students. Then if you have one room only with the necessary furniture in a good quarter, it can be had for 7s per week and less. Of course, one room can be had for 2s per week. I give low estimates. Such rooms can be had in North London, West, Central, West Kensington, Westbourne Park, and many other respectable parts of London commonly favoured by Indian students. In such a room you would find a table, three or four chairs, an easy chair, a wash-stand with all the requisites, a hearth, a chest of drawers, probably a book-case, cupboard, a carpet, a bedstead with bed-sheets and blankets, a looking-glass, etc. Are Indian students used to better-furnished rooms? Indeed, a raw Indian not used to the two rooms would be quite enchanted with such a room and would not wish for a better one. When I first saw my room in the Victoria Hotel, I thought I could pass a lifetime in that room. It is always best to find out a room in the neighbourhood of a place to be frequented most by you. Thereby a great deal of money required in travelling by bus or tram is saved. Secondly, as to other expenses, e.g., washing, bathing, etc. Your washerman' s bill need not amount to more than 11 pence per week, which is as follows: d 1 Flannel shirt 2 1 Drawers 2 1 Vest 2 2 Handkerchiefs 1 1 Sleeping suit 4 Total 11 d A saving can be effected in the above if you do not use the drawers which you need not, in summer especially. The sleeping suits may be changed fortnightly. Moreover, with a little care, a good washerman can be found who would wash the drawers and suits for 1 1/2d each and sleeping suits for 3 d. If and when you wear the white shirts regularly for a week, instead of the flannel shirt, the washerman's bill would be heavier by 6 or 8d. But under no circumstances should it amount to more than 11d per week on an average. As to bathing, it is only in the newly-built houses that bathrooms are attached to them. In ordinary houses no bath-rooms can be found. In such cases very many visit the public baths weekly which cost 6d or 4d. But it is possible to have a daily bath without any expense wherever you go. You can take a sponge bath with two or three tumblers of hot water always to be supplied at your request by the landlady in the morning. You can pour water into your basin, dip a sponge in it and rub hard with the sponge twice or thrice and then rub the body with a dry towel, and you have taken a very nice bath which gives a glow to the body and keeps it clean. Even the sponge may be left out and the hands only used. To these daily baths may be added a fortnightly or monthly visit to the public baths. Your landlady supplies you with two towels every week. All these arrangements must be made with the landlady before engaging a room so that no misunderstanding may arise in future. Whenever you go to engage a room, explain to the landlady what you want to have included in the weekly rent. Boot black, sheets, towels, service, hot-water in the morning, etc., are generally included. It is not true to say, as is commonly supposed, that owing to the severe cold one cannot take baths daily. On the other hand, it is necessary that one should bathe daily in order to keep good health. A landlady, I know, drove away her boarder simply because he would not take his daily bath. She often used to quote: "Cleanliness is next to godliness", and, no matter how cold it was, she used to see every morning that everyone in her house had a bath. Next to bathing come travelling expenses, which should not amount to more than 6d per week. By having your room in the neighbourhood of the place to be most frequented by you, you avoid the daily expense of travelling to the place, but on Sundays you may visit friends and spend a few pence in travelling. Of course, one week you may spend a shilling if need be and not spend anything the next week. It is always best, whenever possible, to walk so that you may have exercise at the same time that you save the money. Nothing can be better. Many do this purposely in England, not so much for the sake of saving a few pence, as for the sake of exercise. Walking three or four miles is a pleasure in the cold climate of England. Indeed, whenever it is possible in the cold weather, a brisk walk should be preferred to a ride in a train or a bus. Very often the latter proves injurious. I was once literally stiff in a bus. Even the bus conductors recognize the danger. At intervals they run with the bus and get into it when they are warm. Six pence per week on an average may be set apart for stamps, etc., though such sum is hardly necessary. If you have your hair cut twice every month, it would cost you 8d, so that 2d per week may be put down for hair-cutting. Of course, you shave yourself. One cake of Pear's soap would last a month. It costs 3 1/2 d. So then 1d per week may be allowed for soap. One penny per week may be set aside for tooth powder. This is rather extravagant. You can have a very fine and harmless tooth powder in precipitated chalk, four ounces of which can be had for 6 d. And an ounce would last you quite a month instead of a week. There is one big item of expenditure that should not be lost sight of. In winter, fire is required in the room during the day time if you use the room. For those who use the library in the case of students, the expense does not amount to much. But for others, it amounts to nearly 2 shillings per week. For 2 shillings you can get 4 scuttles coal. But, as fire is not required generally from April to September, we may put down on an average one shilling per week for coals. This ends the extra expenditure per week which may be thus summed up : d Washerman's bill 11 Bathing 6 Travelling expenses 6 Stamps, etc. 6 Hair-cutting 2 Soap 1 Tooth powder 1 Coal 12 Margin 3 ______ Total 4 s-0 d With 7s for the room rent and 4s for extras we have 9s remaining for food. It may here be remarked that a saving can be effected even in the 11s, whenever required, so that it may be spent on food or buying books and many other useful things. Thus, for instance, out of 6d for stamps, etc., only a penny or two may be spent. One penny, I suppose, would be absolutely necessary for writing home a postcard. Fortnightly baths (in winter especially) may take the place of weekly baths when a sponge bath is taken daily. Similarly, at times, nothing may be spent in travelling. It is an expense to be counted, not necessary to be incurred. The aim ought to be not to spend more than one pound per week on an average and live comfortably. Passing now from this comparatively incontestable part of the question of the cost of living, we reach the most important and contestable part of the question, viz., the cost of food. There is so much to be said on this part of the subject, so much prejudice and misunderstanding to be removed that to treat the subject fully would require a separate and larger book.
How to get good, nutritious, healthy and palatable food for 9s per week is the question before us. At the outset I may say that those only can live on that sum who " eat to live", not "live to eat". If you must have the luxuries, if you cannot sit at the table without company, if you must entertain friends pretty frequently to sumptuous dinners, if you must live like a gourmand, then for you ten times the sum may not be sufficient. But if you would live frugally and happily and not luxuriously, 9s per week would be more than sufficient. I earnestly beseech the reader to dismiss from his mind all premeditated ideas, all prejudice, and he will, I am sure, see for himself that without entailing any loss of health, but rather keeping it up, he would find 9s sufficient for his food per week. As nothing tells like illustrations, I would first cite illustrations in support of the contention that one pound a week is sufficient for a person of frugal habits and not born in the lap of luxury or rather not addicted to a luxurious mode of living. There are thousands of commercial gentlemen living on one pound a week in England. I had a chat with an Anglo-Indian here who said that he was living on one pound a week. There is a gentleman who is an M.A., B.E.L., Barristerat-Law, who lived on 10s a week and has yet been living on less than one pound a week. He is the editor of a newspaper and I have seen him work at the rate of 16 hours or more per diem. He was, when I saw him last, living on bread, figs and water. There are Irish M.P."s living on one pound per week. And some of them are the best debaters. The late Mr. Biggor, M.P., I believe, lived on one pound a week. And what did Charles Bradlaugh do? Says Mrs. Annie Besant of him:
He sold everything he possessed except his books. His home that he had got together by hard work, his furniture, even a diamond ring given to him by a grateful person whom he had helped. He sent his children to school. His wife, not physically able to bear the life he faced, went to live with her parents in the country and he took two small rooms in Turner Street, White Chapel, for which he paid 3s 6d a week and where he remained until he had cleared off most of his liabilities. He then moved to lodgings over a music shop in Circus Road, St. John's Wood, where he lived for the remainder of his life, his daughters joining him on the death of their mother in 1877... He died poor indeed with no personal property save his library, his Indian gifts and his very modest wardrobe, but he left his name free, his honour unstained.
He began life on 10s a week. And we all know how clever intellectually and how strong in body he was. So far as food is concerned, his food did not cost Cardinal Manning more than nine shillings per week if what is written about him be true.
There are, to take a noted and living example, few harder working men in England than Archbishop Manning, a man full of cares and labours, yet I am assured by those who have had the most intimate personal relations with him that Mr. Disraeli in 'Lothair' has not in the least exaggerated his habitual abstinence and that his ordinary meal, in public or private, is a biscuit or a bit of bread and a glass of water.
His strict abstinence from wines is notorious. Dr. Nichols from whose work the above has been taken did not, and probably does not, spend more than 6d a day on food. (3s 6d per week). He has written a book How to Live on Six Pence a Day, a book everybody who would live frugally ought to read. In it he relates his experiment with the most gratifying results. There are many other books written on the subject. There is a book entitled How to Live on One Pound a Week. This includes everything, lodging, food, clothes, etc. Indeed, a gentleman has even tried to limit his food expenses to one shilling a week and written a book on the subject. We however allow nine times the sum for food. All these instances must suffice to show that, not only is it possible to live on 1 a week, but many have done it. Has any Indian done it, some may ask? Yes, a gentleman, a judge from the Punjab, while I was in England came there, for a Barrister's education on furlough. He was over 40 years of age and was with his son in England. He said his pay was Rs. 150. He gave, he said, Rs. 50 to his wife at home and spent Rs. 50 for himself and his boy in London. That amounted to 3 1/3 per month, i.e., less than 1 per week for two souls. This small sum was made to include many things besides those that we allow for one pound. Another Indian gentleman from Gujarat was living on less than 10s per week and seemed to be quite happy. He shared a room for 4s with a friend and thus got his accommodation for 2s only. This gentleman has been receiving medical education in England. Sadhu Narayan Hemchandra has been living on one pound a week.1 He has a
Vide An Autobiography, Pt. I, Ch. XXII.
room for 6s a week. He spends 3 or 4d for washing and 7s for food per week. He works very hard. He says in his letter that he knows now German, English and French. In one pound per week he manages to buy his clothes and books of which I brought to India a boxful. He must have bought quite as many, if not more, by this time. A gentleman who has recently gone to England writes thus to me:
From my last letter you might have thought very badly of me because I myself look upon my conduct at the time with little satisfaction. But, as you wanted to know how I was living, I had to give you my sincere views. Since that time a great change has been brought about by degrees. What I thought an impossibility at that time is now a practical possibility. Six pounds a month are a thing of the past, and you will wonder to hear that, even in London, I am able to limit my board and lodging expenses to three pounds per month.
With this array of facts before the reader, I hope he will have no difficulty in following and agreeing with me that, if one has the will, one can live on one pound a week and even less in England. Now we come to the solution of the question how to live on 9s a week. In the first place it may be mentioned that, to live so cheaply, all the luxuries ought to be avoided, viz., tea, coffee, tobacco and wines and, last but not least, flesh foods. There are people to tell you that it is impossible to do without tea in England. Some say you cannot do without coffee, others say you would die without tobacco, wines or meat. All these gentlemen must be questioned as to the source of their information and the difficulty will be solved. It is all humbug and hearsay. There is difference of opinion as to flesh foods. As to the rest, every Indian who has gone to England would tell you that not one of them is necessary except for the sake of pleasure of luxury. However what do they think of tea and coffee in London? Says Dr. Nichols about tea and coffee:
Even the milder stimulants such as tea and coffee have no appreciable nutritive value. If the leaves of tea or the berries of coffee had as much nutrition as the same weight of spinach, but an infinitesimal portion can be in the decoctions we drink. In the matter of food and as the materials of bone, muscle or nerve, an ounce of bread is worth gallons of tea or coffee. The sugar and milk drunk in them are food, all the rest is almost worthless. They soothe hunger as narcotics and sedatives, Some physiologists are of opinion that they prevent waste and so make less food necessary. If this were true, it would be injurious, for waste and the removal of waste matterare necessary to the health of the system. Tea and coffee are stimulants only and their influence upon the body is either inappreciable or hurtful. Strong decoctions of either stimulate the brain and nerves, produce over-action and, by combating fatigue for a time, allows us to over-task our powers until we bring on dyspepsia, neuralgia, softening of the brain, paralysis, apoplexy.
A distinguished Indian doctor of considerable experience, while talking about tea, said that he refused to treat patients who would not leave off tea under his treatment. However, if tea and coffee are to be taken, they would not mean so much more expense as so much less nutritive food. For they will be substituted for milk which is far better than tea or coffee. From a pecuniary point of view, a cup of tea or coffee made at home would cost less than a glass of milk. If tea is to be taken, it would be better to use condensed milk as it would be difficult to buy milk sufficient only for one or two cups of tea, unless only milk is used for making tea. As to tobacco, it is positively injurious to the system and an expensive luxury which does no good and a great deal of harm. Tobacco, it must be known, is very dear in England. If it is indulged in, six pence would be ordinarily required daily. It cost an Indian gentleman 30 during his three years' stay. A good cigar costs 4 to 6d and a cigarette 1d each. One can get 5 cigarettes for a penny, but this is the dirtiest stuff possible. It contains either ashes of tobacco or cabbage leaves. So in order to be able to live well on 1 a week, it is absolutely necessary to [abstain from] 1 tobacco which "whether chewed or smoked or snuffed has no nutritive property but is an acrid poison, absorbed into the blood and resting upon the brain and nerves, first exciting and then dulling their sensibility and finally stupefying and paralysing." Thus hatefully does Count Tolstoy, than whom "few men have been more given to wine and cigarettes", speak of both:
People drink and smoke not merely for want of something better to do to while away the time or to raise their spirits, not because of the pleasure they receive, but simply and solely in order to drown the warning voice of conscience.
To illustrate the proposition he says :
No one would take the liberty to flood with water a room in which people were sitting to scream and yell in it or to perform any other acts tending to disturb or injure others and yet out of a thousand smokers scarcely
Source is damaged here.
one will hesitate to fill with noxious fumes a room the atmosphere of which is being breathed by women and children who do not smoke.
Indeed, this nuisance is so much felt that, in railway carriages, special compartments for smoking are reserved. In orderly houses smoking rooms are set apart for young men who are never allowed to smoking in dining-rooms. A friend was taken to task for smoking in a shelter on the staircase of the house he was living in. Says the Court further:
For the more a man stupefies himself with these stimulants, narcotics, the more stolid, quiescent and stagnant he become intellectually and morally.
We all know what deeds are committed by men in a drunken state. As to the wines, the above quotations are sufficient to show what a man who used to drink fearfully thinks of them. It is not necessary to quote extracts to prove that wines are injurious and that we are not required to drink wines in England. There are hundred of societies to convince you of the fact that wines are not necessary. There are many members of Parliament who do not drink at all. In fact, there in a teetotalers party in the Commons, with which are prominently associated the names W.S. Caine and Sir Wilfred Lawson. We have temperance societies in Bombay and many parts of India. There are even Anglo-Indians who are teetotalers. In spite of all this, persons there are, enlightened by then, who believe and refuse to disbelieve, even though convinced, that wines are absolutely necessary in England. A gentleman said: "After reaching England, you may not require them, but somewhere in the Mediterranean sea, I am told you die without them." He was told, I may be allowed to tell him that if the wines were so very necessary, the P. & O. Company would provide wines together with the food for the fees they charge and not make the passengers pay separately for the wines they consume. If the wines were to be taken in England, and that regularly, 9s would be used up simply in drinking and it would be impossible to make the two ends meet for the estimate given by me. So, then, it is absolutely necessary to exclude wines and tobacco from the estimate and advisable to exclude tea and coffee, as the latter can be used at a sacrifice of far more substantial drink: milk. Now we come to the question of flesh foods which, I think, must be abandoned if 9s are to be sufficient so as not to injure health. How would the Mahommedans and Parsis do, it may be asked in that case. For them this guide is useless. Tarry a little. I would ask: Are there not many Mahommedans and Parsis who, on account of their poverty, get flesh foods only on rare occasions and some on none? These surely can manage without flesh foods which they get but rarely in India, not for the sake of religion or principles, but for the sake of economy. They are free to take meat whenever they can get it, e.g., in their Inn if they have gone for a Barrister's education. If it be true that one can live on vegetable foods without injuring one's health, why should not all live on a vegetable diet because it is more economical than a meat diet? That vegetarianism exists in England there are living examples to prove. There are vegetarian societies and any quantity of vegetarian literature to testify to the existence of vegetarianism in England. There are living notable Englishmen who are vegetarians. Lord Hannen of the H.M.'s Privy Council, better known as Sir James Hannen, the President of the late Parnell Commission, is a vegetarian. Mr. Gotling of Bombay is a vegetarian. John Wesley was a vegetarian. So was Howard the philanthropist and a host of others all men of light and learning. The poet Shelley was a vegetarian. It is impossible in the compass of a small book to so much as do justice to such a vast subject. I must content myself with referring the inquisitive reader to Perfect Way in Diet by Dr. Anna Kingsford1 who says of herself:
I cured myself of tubercular consumption by living on vegetable food. A doctor told me I had not six months to live. What was I to do? I was to eat raw meat and drink port wine. Well, I went into the country and ate porridge and fruit and appear today on this platform.
There is another advisable book to which the reader might be referred. It is entitled A Plea for Vegetarianism by H. S. Salt.2 Dr. Benjamin Ward Richardson, M.B., L.R.C.S., etc., himself not a vegetarian, has come to the following conclusions in his Food for Man.
1. Man, although possessing the capacity of existing on an animal diet in whole or in part, is by original cast adapted to a diet of grain and fruit and, on a scientific adaptation of his natural supplies, might easily be provided with all he can require from that source of subsistence. 1 2
Vide also An Autobiography, Pt. I, Ch. XV. Vide An Autobiography, Pt. I, Ch. XIV
2. The vegetable world is incomparable in its efficiency for supply of food for man when its resources are thoroughly understood and correctly applied. 3. The supplies of food for man are most economically and safely drawn direct from the vegetable world. 4. Diseases may be conveyed by both sources of supply, but need not be conveyed by either. Diseases may be generated by misuse of either source, of supply, but need not be, and under judicious management, would not be, generated by either. Under a properly constituted fruit and vegetable diet, strength of mind and body may be as fully secured as under an animal or a mixed animal and vegetable system. He says also, "I admit that some of the best work has been done and is being done on a vegetarian regimen."
If so much is conceded by a thoughtful and cautious doctor not a vegetarian, the reader will easily guess how much must be claimed by vegetarians for their system. They claim that anatomically, physiologically, economically and morally vegetarianism is far superior to meat-eating. From this it must be abundantly clear that vegetarianism is not only possible, but is really practised by hundreds of people in England. If, then, vegetarianism be as shown above as good as flesh-eating in other respects, I hope no man, not determined upon setting his face against vegetarianism at any cost, would hesitate to adopt it if it is cheaper than flesh-eating. While a vegetable soup costs 3d per plate, a meat soup costs from 9d to 1/3s and more. A mutton chop would cost at least three times as much as a vegetable chop, unless you go in for meat of the worst kind, and it must be borne in mind that there are more diseases lurking in cheap meat than in vegetables. It would be futile for me to demonstrate an admitted fact, viz., that vegetarianism costs far less than meat-eating. If there be anyone who can contradict this, let him try to live on 9s per week and get flesh foods. I concede that, by a judicious management, it would be possible to have in that sum, if anyone thinks that he must have, not as a luxury but as a sheer medical necessity, meat once or twice a week. Another fact is worth mentioning here. An ordinary vegetarian in England does not exclude eggs from his dietary, while an Indian vegetarian would. As a counterpart, there are vegetarians in England who do not take even milk and butter, they being animal products. Before describing the food that can be had for 9s per week, there are one or two points still remaining to be cleared. Whether you would cook the food yourself or whether you would have it cooked by your landlady, from a religious point of view, if you are a strict Hindu, you would of course cook your own food. In this case, your expenses would be much cheaper. Here let me remark, in spite of all that is said to the contrary, that given all the resources at your command, there is nothing to prevent you from leading a purely Hindu life. To say that there are no cooking arrangements to be had in London is humbug and a mere bagatelle. It would be true to say that there are very few who have the mind to do it. Again, to perform the everyday ceremonies, to dine bare-bodied, to sit in contemplation bare-bodied for hours together would be impossible for a poor man, but a rich man who is prepared to spend any amount of money can perform each and every religious ceremony that can be performed in India. If he does not want to cook his own food, he can even take a cook with him. But, then, an ordinary student would not be able to command money and time for such things. I should like to know how many students are there who find time or have the mind to perform all the ceremonies even in India. If they are not performed here, some of them may well be left out in London without shocking the pious and elderly persons, as even our scriptures make certain exemptions in favour of travellers and students. A distinguished yogi told me that he forwent most of the usual ceremonies while travelling. For an ordinary Indian who is not overscrupulous in his religious views and who is not much of a believer in caste restrictions, it would be advisable to cook partly himself and get a part of his food ready made. Of course, he can have all his things cooked by his landlady which, by a previous arrangement, she engages to do for 7s that are paid for the rent. But, this would be found to be inconvenient in certain cases. The landlady may not know the vegetarian cookery. She may not be honest; she may be very unclean. She may cook vegetables in utensils used for cooking meat without first cleaning them. The first two difficulties can be surmounted: she may be given a cookery book and she would cook the required food by the help of the book. By a strict watch, she may not be given an opportunity for being dishonest, but if she is not clean, there is no help for the poor lodger if he has to be at her mercy. The last difficulty can be overcome or overlooked. So, then, on the whole, it would be better to cook one's food if the landlady is not clean. Cooking, as perhaps would be feared, is not at all a difficult or troublesome process. No smoke, no wood, no cowdung cakes and no blowing or fanning are associated with the idea of cooking as here advocated. A portable oil stove serves the purpose of the Indian chulas. On that stove one can cook almost everything that may be cooked on the Indian chulas for 5 or 6 persons. Moreover, the cooking does not take much time. Twenty minutes would be found quite sufficient. Ten minutes are required for boiling milk. During the interval, while milk in boiling, many find it convenient to read something, e.g., a newspaper. An enamelled pan, one or two plates, two spoons would be your cooking utensils. The whole would cost not more than 10s. Water-white kerosene oil is very good for cooking. It does not give any nasty smell and burns well. The utensils would be supplied by your landlady too. It is, however, advisable to buy your own pan. Some meals may be prepared by the landlady and some taken outside, e.g., breakfast and supper may be prepared by the landlady and the midday meal taken outside. Some meals may be cooked by yourself and others taken outside. It is not troublesome to prepare one's breakfast and supper which consist of simple things. Under every one of these modes it is possible to live on 9s per week. And every one of the modes has been tried by me as well as many others. The first mode is the cheapest, viz., to cook all your meals; but it would cost more time and may prove inconvenient for a student who may pass his day in his library. However, let us see how under the first mode, 9s would give us sufficient food. As has been said above, the same food that we usually take in India is sufficient in England. Then we may see what would be the cost of the Indian meals. For example, if you stick to the two meals per day, you have for dinner at 10 p.m. chapati, dal, vegetable, bhat and milk. Such a dinner would cost as follows:
oz Wheat meal flour Rice Potatoes Lentils Butter Salt & pepper Oil for cooking Milk 1 / pint 2 8 4 8 4 1
3/ 1/ 3/ 4
1/ 4 1/
5d For the evening meal, khichadi and chapati may be had. Rice and lentils 16 2 1/ Butter 1 2 1 / pint Milk 1 2 1/ 1/ Salt, pepper & oil 2 2 _____ 4d Thus, two good meals can be had for 9d And if it be found desirable that a third meal should be had, 3d can be laid out in milk and bread or tea and bread. This for a week would amount to 7s with a balance of 2s in our favour. However, it would be found convenient and perhaps better for health to have English vegetable dishes. You have before you a wide range of selection. In cereals you have wheat, oatmeal, maize, etc. In pulses you have peas, haricots, lentils, rice [sic], etc. In vegetables you have potatoes, cabbage, spinach, celery, artichokes, haricot beans, green peas, tomatoes, cauliflower, parsnips, onions and leeks. In fruits there are fresh fruits and dry. Among the first class can be counted apples, oranges, grapes, bananas, apricots, pears, peaches, plums, strawberries, raspberries, cherries, etc. Among the second class are found figs, dates, currants, raisins, muscatel raisins and sultanas, etc.
In nuts we have hazel, brazil nuts, almonds, chestnuts, etc. The above presents a variety sufficient to satisfy the most delicate tastes and all of these are within the reach of the 9-s man. Fruits are supposed in England to be absolutely necessary. At any rate, the vegetarians think so. They are a sure safeguard against medicine. They purify the blood and keep the bowels regular; since constipation is the father of many diseases, one cannot do better than take the utmost precautions to prevent that fell disease. This can be best done by a liberal use of whole wheat meal and fruits. The fine wheat flour ordinarily to be had in England is to be discarded altogether. It is very innutritious and very often injurious when it is adulterated as it very often is. Moreover, it is insipid. On the other hand wheat meal flour is very sweet to the taste. So one should always make it a point to use brown bread made of whole wheat meal flour and discard the white bread altogether. It may be said that the above observations are unauthenticated and useless coming from a person who cannot pretend to any knowledge of chemistry or medicine. Well, they are not unauthentic. Only the authorities have not been quoted. That what has been written above is the general opinion of doctors can be seen by reading the many vegetarian pamphlets published by the Vegetarian Society. It must be repeated here that the aim of this guide is not to supersede other useful books and to give all the information, its aim is to supplement, to give information not hitherto given and to direct where the proper information can be had. We assume then that food is to be selected for three meals from the vegetable kingdom. The meals consist of breakfast at 8.30 a.m., dinner at 1 p.m., and supper at 6.30 p.m. A good breakfast may be made of oatmeal porridge--a splendid dish especially in winter. In almost every household, they have this porridge for breakfast in winter. Thousands of Scotch people live on oatmeal. It tastes like wheat and is sweeter. The preparation is very simple. You can stir one ounce of oatmeal into a sufficient quantity of water and put it on the oil stove. If it is fine oatmeal, the porridge would be ready in 20 minutes. If it is coarse, it would take 30 minutes. It can be eaten with sugar and milk or stewed fruit. Stewed fruit is fruit cooked in water with a little sugar. The porridge may be made entirely in milk or milk and water. Made in milk it tastes better. This breakfast would cost as follows :
Oatmeal Milk Fruit (currants or raisins) Bread Butter
oz 1 1 /2 pint 2
d 1 /4 1 1 /2 1 /2 3 /4
3d. Breakfast may consist of bread (1d), butter (1d) and cheese (1/2 d). It may consist of toast and milk (3d), toast, jam and tea (3d), bread and butter and fruit (3d), maize, musc and fruit (2d) bread and apples 1 /2l b (4d per 1b) (3d), bread, butter and cocoa (3d), bread, butter and marmalade (21/2d), et ad lib. Soup and bread and fresh fruit or rice and milk and sugar would make a good dinner. Soup made of potatoes, onion and haricots costs 11/2d . Rice, milk and sugar would cost 2d or less and bread 1d. This dinner, then, can be had for 41/2 d. And if you are very fond of butter, you can have a penny worth of butter in which case your dinner would be 51/2d. The following variety of dinners can be had for and under 5d: Pea soup and bread and stewed fruit or fresh fruit, rice, milk and bread and radishes and cheese. Potato soup, bread and semolina with stewed fruit or milk. Tapioca pudding bread with almonds and raisins, etc., etc. Supper may consist of bread, butter and cocoa (3d), bread and butter and cheese (2 1/2d), toast and milk and radishes (3d), porridge and fruit and bread (3d), bread, butter, celery and cheese, etc. Thus, three meals can be had for 11d or say 1s. These meals are quite sufficient and nourishing and give as much nutrition as a sumptuous meat meal with no dyspepsia or other disease which is generally the consequence of the latter. Thousands subsist well on such meals. The three meals or two of them may be cooked by you or by your landlady. When the cooking is entrusted to the landlady, all the things must be bought by you so that you may be sure that you get the right thing at the right price. It may be remarked here that only those fruits and vegetables must be bought which are in season, otherwise they are very expensive. Moreover, they must be bought at the proper place. If you go to Regent Street and think of buying the hot-house grapes, they would cost 3s per pound. These, of course, you cannot buy; but you can easily buy the grapes at 4d per pound when they are in season. Sometimes, I was going to say very often, it is found convenient to take the dinner outside. Whether you be a traveller or a student, you would go out after breakfast and return in the evening. In such a case, you would not care to return home for dinner. That entails a great loss of time and trouble and you would not care to go home from your library, especially if it be some distance from your house. There are vegetarian restaurants in all the busy quarters of London for such people. They have generally two divisions. One division provides sixpenny dinners of 3 courses. You buy a ticket and, on presenting the ticket, you get a selection of 3 out of about 20 courses. The popularity of these dinners is immense. From 1 p.m. to 2 p.m., very often it becomes very difficult to find a place owing to the large number of customers. In the other division, you can have any number of courses and you pay for what you eat. A list of items called the menu is shown to you in which the prices are marked against each item and you select your dinner according to your appetite and purse. Our 9-s man can patronize either division. Two courses would be found to be quite sufficient in the first division. And three courses of the first division are more than sufficient even for a gourmand. It may be remarked that there is no difference in the quality of food in both the divisions. In fact, there are the same dishes in both. In the first division, you have the satisfaction to know that you pay more and, if you are ashamed to sit side by side with a labourer, to know that there is no such person to shame you in the first division. There is again more room in the first division called the dining-saloon and the hall is better ornamented. I give a specimen menu showing the courses generally provided in the vegetarian restaurants of which Dr. Richardson says:
I confess with perfect candour that, if I could on all occasions get for my meals the same foods as are to be obtained in the best vegetarian dining rooms, I should not take willingly any other kind of food. In time, I doubt not that the present centres for good vegetarian diets will become schools for the nation and that every hotel in the kingdom and every private dwelling will have its cook or housewife.
SOUPS Green pea Scotch broth Florador and milk Bread Lentil Cutlets " " 3d 3d 3d 1d
Monday Oct. 22/88 PORRIDGES Oatmeal Wheaten Maize musc Anglo-Scotch SAVOURIES Parsley se " " VEGETARIAN PIES in sugar or syrup 3d
& sprouts Turnips Tomatoes
4 4 4
Tomato & macaroni pudding Yorkshire pudding se & haricot Curried egg and rice Sprout se & baked potatoes EXTRA VEGETABLES Macaroni Rice Tomatoes Haricots SWEET PUDDINGS College pudding Tapioca and custard Blanc mango & jam Maize and peaches Wheat and jelly STEWED FRUITS Apples Raisins Plums Damson Peaches 3 3 3 3 3 Wheat cake Coffee chocolate Cheddar Gorgonzola Celery 2 2 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 Turnips Sprouts Baked potatoes Mashed " PASTRY Damsonpie Apple tart Plum SUNDRIES
4 4 4 4
2 2 2 2
3 3 3
No greater variety can be required for a good selection. The vegetarian restaurants are closed on Sundays and bank holidays. On these days dinners must be taken at home. In dealing with this subject of food, I have simply put down the result of my own experience and that of others. It may interest the reader to know that the meals above enumerated give all the elements necessary to sustain life. It is outside the province of this work to show what they are and in what proportion they are required. That is a separate study. The enquiring reader can test the truth of my statement from The Perfect Way in Diet, Fruits and Farinacea, and such other works. This closes the remarks on the most important subject. There should be no difficulty in carrying out the above plan and, if carried out, it will be found that it is far better even from the point of view of health. For, luxury and over-eating never lead to health. Wise frugality in diet is the surest mode of preserving or attaining health. Says Dr. A. Von During: "Wouldst thou enjoy life, renounce life's enjoyment. "There is an Italian proverb which says: "He who eats more eats less (because he shortens his days by gluttony)." Again Seneca says: "Multos morbos multa fercula fuerunt" --"Many dishes many diseases." Says Professor Meyor, that first Latin professor from whose Why I Am a Vegetarian the above quotations are taken, with regard to students' extravagance:
Many we know who, for their own persons put up with plain fare, blush to set before guests what costs them little. They deem it penurious, shabby, churlish. This prejudice certainly affects students, at least in England, to no small extent. Even thrifty men may save three shillings a day, i.e., a guinea a week, by adopting Spartan self-control. In other words, they may win without contest a scholarship of 50 a year. tenable for life, purchasing into the bargain independence of character and health.
Sir Henry Thomson goes so far as to say that "our eating is more injurious than our drinking", and who does not know that we are more apt to over-eat than under-eat? To carry out what has been mapped out above, nothing but a stern will is required. Given that one thing, the way is smooth. A little experience will accustom you to that mode of life. "Adopt that course of life which is best and custom will render it delightful." I cannot do better than close this chapter with the following lines from Dr. Nichol's How to Live on Six Pence a Day:
The case of Louis Cornaro so often quoted is a very remarkable instance of the effects of a very temperate and simple diet in producing health, cheerfulness and longevity. At the age of 40, his constitution seemed ruined by what is called free living. He changed all his habits and lived on 12 ounces of food a day and his health became so perfect that for half a century he was never ill. When past ninety, in deference to his friends, he increased his food to 14 ounces a day instead of 12 and this trifling addition nearly cost him his life. He became sad and dispirited, everything vexed him and he was attacked with a pain in the stomach which compelled him to return to his former diet and even to diminish it. Writing at the age of ninety-five, he describes his life as one of great serenity and enjoyment. He wrote plays, he assisted in fortifying and embellishing Venice. He enjoyed what he called his beautiful life. He writes: "I have attained my ninety-fifth year and find myself as healthy, merry and happy as if I were but twenty-five." At this age, and even on to a hundred years, his senses, memory, heart, judgment and voice were perfect. He wrote seven or eight hours a day, walked, enjoyed society and music and sang and played delightfully. His grand-niece writes of him: "He continued healthy and even vigorous until he was a hundred years old. His mind did not at all decline. He never required spectacles. He did not become deaf. His voice remained so strong and harmonious that, at the close of his life, he sang with as much power and delight as he did at twenty."
The reader will find in the appendix how I lived on 4 per month during the last year of my stay in England. In the above estimates no mention is made of expenses on account of newspapers which are found to be an absolute necessity, a daily food as it were. There are now in almost all the parts of London free public libraries, where are to be found all the leading daily and weekly papers. These institutions are visited by hundreds of people every day. So it is always preferable to visit the public libraries to buying a paper. However, if necessary, there is a sufficient margin left for spending 6d per week on newspapers. The London newspapers are very cheap. An evening newspaper can be had for one half penny.
Chapter 4. A Chapter for Would-be Barristers
Whether you will be a Barrister or receive some other education in England is a question that can be best determined by you or those who know you best. Each man's case must be peculiar. I can offer only general remarks. For the present Barristers are at a discount. They are not so well thought of as they were before. This I suppose is an undisputed fact. It is, however, true that they have got a status from which it is not easy to oust them and it is true also that they have got the widest field for action. And it may be said also that, with a large amount of patience and close application, no Barrister need despair of earning a decent livelihood from his own profession or by accepting some appointment. But why are the Barristers at a disadvantage? The fault is partly their own and partly the people's. Again, there are natural causes. The fault is their own because they do not come up to the expectations of the people. Of the people because they expect too much from them. The natural causes consist in the increase of their number. When there was only one newspaper, it was prized by all; now when there are many only few are held in estimation. A first matriculate was a sort of demi-god. Now when you stumble upon matriculates, they are sold at a nominal price. Again, when there was only one Barrister, he was incomparable, now there are many among whom to set up a comparison. So, then, there is no need to be fear-stricken by a little dislodging of the position; only we must not lower our standard of work and a time may come when we may be yet too few. That time is distant though. And, during that time, we ought to be cautious so that it may not be extended any further. In being over-hasty we may spoil matters; in not working as we ought to, we may do the same. We must, therefore, guard against both. There is nowadays a tendency to do it easily, i.e., to work little and expect much. This ought to be avoided if we would not be thrown further downward. If our parents send us to England, or if we hold ascholarship, we have a sacred trust to perform. We have to account to our parents or patrons for the work we have done and for the moneywhich [we] have spent. We ought to do unto them as we would be done by. If we were to send some one to England at our expense to become a Barrister, I suppose we would expect him to utilize every moment of his stay there and give us an account of how he passed his time. Exactly the same would be expected of us. Consciousness of this and work according to it are all that is required of us. If we do that, we shall have done our duty and will have no occasion to be sorry for having gone to England. When we go there to be Barristers, we ought to do there everything that would make of us good Barristers and not indulge in luxuries or pleasures. Let those who send their boys to England make sure that they would discharge their trust faithfully and they will have no occasion to regret having sent them. The best way to ensure this is to give your boy just enough money to make of him a Barrister and then tell him plainly that he should expect no more. Make a certain provision for him on his return from England for a year or two and then let him know that he shall be left to himself to earn his living. This may seem a little hard, but once done it would be a source of the highest happiness, or else it will be a source of woe and misery both to the parents and the boy. Are there already too many Barristers? Yes and no. Yes, if we take any one province into account, but, if India as a whole were taken into account, there are far too few. That Barristers have a field in any of Her Majesty's dominions seems to have either been forgotten or not cared for, because every Barrister goes to his native land to practise. Now, while in one's fatherland there is some chance of success owing to acquaintances and knowledge of the native country, there is much disadvantage if the profession is overcrowded. Why not then invade the regions not yet invaded? Then, again, a field, I am told, is sure to be opened as well for Barristers as for all educated persons in the protected States. They are yet in a very backward state. They are expected to make reforms. When that time comes, the aid of the educated of the land is likely to be called in. Again, it is a notorious fact that so far education has been too much neglected by the agencies and back-door influence has prevailed. This too will be set right some day. I must not, however, be misunderstood to advocate the Indians flocking to England to become Barristers. Whether it is good to be a Barrister or not is not the province of this guide to discuss. There are many other guides to throw light on that matter. Indeed, I must confess freely my incompetence to aid the discussion of that question. I am simply to guide those who have made up their minds to be Barristers as to what they would be required to spend, what examinations they have to pass, how they would gain admission, etc. It was not without many misgivings and hesitation that I was induced to insert even the above paragraphs. Supposing, then, that you have made up your mind to become a Barrister, the first thing for you to do is to get a certificate of your having passed the matriculation examination. If you have not passed the matriculation examination, you will be required to pass an entrance examination before admission. They examine in History and Latin, but Indian students are by an application exempted from the Latin examination. The examination is rather easy.
This done you get the form of admission for one guinea; you pay the fees which amount to nearly 141. Those who have joined some university are exempted from the payment of 100 in the beginning, though they have to pay the sum in the end. In Lincoln's Inn, those who have passed public examination only in the British Dominions are exempted from that payment. I am not sure whether this applies to Indian Universities. Such information can be had directly by writing to the treasurers of the respective Inns of which there are four, viz., Inner Temple, Middle Temple, Lincoln's Inn and Gray's Inn. Perhaps, from an economic point of view, Lincoln's Inn is the best Inn, which boasts also the best library. Middle Temple is the most patronized by the Indians. From the education point of view, all the Inns are equal because they have a common examination. Middle Temple pays the scholarships in cash, the Inner Temple makes you join chambers and pays for them. One has to keep twelve terms before being called to the bar. There are four terms every year, the 1st in January, the 2nd in April, the 3rd in June and 4th in November. The shortest term lasts 20 days and the longest about 31 days. Keeping terms means taking dinners in the respective Inns to which you belong; you have not necessarily to take your dinner but you must go to the dining-hall punctually at the appointed time and sit there for one hour. You are said to have kept one term when you have attended six dinners in the term. Those who belong to a university have to attend only three dinners. These dinners, whether partaken of or not, have to be paid for Inner Temple charges 31/2s per dinner, Middle Temple 2s. Thus you make a saving of 1 1/2s every dinner by joining the Middle Temple. And such dinners have to be taken 12 times in all. Lincoln's Inn and Gray's Inn, too, charge most probably 2s. If you pay for the dinners and if you have no religious objection, why should you not take your dinner, one may pertinently ask? The answer is you ought to dine, but, then, a further question arises as to what a vegetarian should do. Well, you can have ordinarily bread and vegetables and cheese, but you can have a better vegetarian dinner specially prepared for you by applying to the chief steward of the Inn or, if need be, the sub-treasurer of your Inn. A Parsi friend who had turned a vegetarian and I used to get our vegetarian dinners specially prepared.
And it is better that every Indian should insist [on this] so that, in future, every Inn may make it a rule to prepare vegetarian dinners regularly. To be fit for being called to the Bar at the end of 12 terms, two examinations must be passed, one in Roman Law and the other in the English Laws. A student can appear in the Roman Law examination after--but not before--keeping four terms. Thus, after reaching England, the student has one year at least to prepare for the examination which is much more than what is required for the purposes of passing the examination; hence, the brilliant results of the examination. For Roman Law, Saunder's Justinian is the text-book. Many students, however, read Hunter's Introduction to Roman Law. The other examination called the Bar Final a student can appear in it after--but not before--keeping nine terms, i.e., at the end of two years after admission. This time, too, is more than enough for the examination. The examination takes place in the Law of Property, Common Law including Criminal Law and Equity, and lasts for four days. It used to last only three days, but now there are two Equity papers instead of one. For the Law of Property the prescribed books are: William's Real Property " Personal Property Goodeve's Real Property " Personal Property Edward's Compendium of the Law of Property in Land. Students, however, generally find it sufficient to read William's and Goodeve's Real Property and Goodeve's Personal Property. Very few read William's on personal property. They read besides, various guides to the examination. In Law the prescribed Common book is Broom's Common Law. Indermauer's Common Law is, however, read in addition to or instead of Broom by the students. For Equity the prescribed book is Snell's Equity. The matter of the examination changes almost every year. Thus, while generally a competent knowledge of the English laws is required, special subjects are prescribed every year. For instance, for Equity they sometimes prescribe certain portions only (e.g., trusts, mortgages, etc.) from White and Tudor's Leading Cases in Equity.
Those, however, who are well grounded in the general principles of law do not find it difficult to pass. The latest prospectus1 of the Council of Legal Education is appended hereto. A notion seems to prevail in many quarters that students are called to the bar without any examinations or that the examinations are a farce. Both these statements are entirely without foundation and inventions of fertile brains. No doubt the examinations are easy or, rather, found to be easy. The results are generally good. There are two or three reasons for the examinations being found easy. In the first place, they take place four times every year. So, then, if a student fails, the failure does not shock him so much as it does in India. In England he can re-appear in three months. Secondly, the time at the student's disposal for preparation is ample. While both the examinations are a year's work at the rate of 6 hours per day, to ensure success there are clear two years at the student's disposal. So, then, the preparation can be made with a light heart and without having to work hard. Whether it is good that more than sufficient time should be given for preparation is another question altogether, but let there be only three months for preparing for the examinations and we shall have cutting [sic] results and a different verdict. Thirdly, there are many facilities for study in the shape of tutors, etc. It is only in rare cases that tutors should be resorted to. It is a useless waste of money. And a tutored student never goes beyond what is required and forgets what he has learnt soon after the examination. Such is the experience of many. Nothing like selfpreparation. It is worthy of notice that the tendency nowadays is happily to raise the standard of the examinations. They have begun to prescribe more useful matter now. The latest prospectus is a substantial improvement on the prospectus of two years ago. For merely a knowledge of Evidence was not [then] necessary; now, however, it is. Students generally study for themselves through lectures common to the four Inns. Special lectures, too, are organized by each
This is not available.
Inn. These lectures are generally attended by those students only who want to compete for scholarship examinations. But attending the lectures has now been made indirectly compulsory as the examinations are held on the subject of lectures. Call to the bar is a mere formal ceremony. After you are called, a certificate is given to you and you have to apply for a special certificate if you want to practise in India or the Colonies. Before leaving England, students, now Barristers, generally get their names enrolled in Her Majesty's High Court of Justice on a payment of 5 shillings. It may be important here to discuss whether it is desirable that the student should try for scholarship examinations. It has been said above that, for the purposes of passing the examinations, the time at the student's disposal is more than enough. The question, therefore, is what shall he do with the rest of his time? It may be answered--he will devote it to private study. Now this is all very well to say. There are persons who do study as well for the sake of study as for an examination. But these are exceptions to prove the rule that, unless a person has a task imposed on him, he will not generally do it only because it is good. Private study very often gives place to other pursuits, not so study for an examination. It, therefore, seems better to impose some examination task upon oneself than to rely upon one's own will-power to take care of private study. And, in that case, it is difficult to say whether it is better to compete for some scholarship or to join some University. In going in for some scholarships there is one drawback. The competition is unequal. There may be M.A.'s, B.A.'s and other University men against mere matriculates who would stand a very poor chance of winning scholarships. For those who have graduated in India nothing can be better than trying for the scholarship examinations. Indeed, there are students who do both--join a University and work for a scholarship. Matriculates and others, if they try for a scholarship, while they may not be successful in getting one, will have the satisfaction of knowing that they have added to the stock of their knowledge and done some useful work. It may, however, be thought more advisable for them to graduate in one of the Universities. Then comes the question of selection of a University. There are Cambridge and Oxford Universities on one side and London University on the other. So far as substantial knowledge is concerned, London University is by far the best. And if a University is to be joined for enjoyment and pleasures, of course London University would lag far behind. Oxford and Cambridge would win the palm. There is no, what is called, University life in London of which there is plenty in Oxford and Cambridge. London University is an examining body merely and does not require candidates to have kept any terms. There is no doubt an opportunity of mixing with Professors in Oxford and Cambridge which is not to be found in London. It is said that education in Oxford and Cambridge is very costly. To graduate and become a Barrister would cost at least Rs. 15,000. Though I have no personal experience of either, I can say that education in either should not cost anything more than Barrister's education except the actual expenses of fees and books. Of course, to live with such economy one will have to remain a non-collegiate student. No such charge, however, can be brought against the London University. And, on that account, it would be better to graduate from the London University. The great advantage of the London University is that it holds its examinations even in India. London University would be found better by vegetarians as there are more facilities for them in London than anywhere else. Now, this University is so exacting that even an M.A. or B.A. of any other University has to matriculate in the London University before he can appear for any of its degree examinations. But, after passing the matriculation examination, one can appear in its Law examinations without having to pass the B.A. examination, as is the case in the Bombay University. The London LL.B. course nearly extends to three years after matriculation. So, in three years one can pass the matriculation and the intermediate LL.B. examination together with being called to the bar. Such a course of training would keep the student's hands pretty full and he will find no time to devote to idle amusements and this would not mean an extra outlay over and above the cost of a Barrister's education of more than 20 to 25. The cost of Barrister's education: In order to be called to the bar, it is necessary to leave for England so as to reach there in time for keeping the November term. If you start in October or September, you can return in the July of your third year's stay in England. By starting in any other month you can return in that month of your third year's stay in England, which is previous to the month you started in for England. Except for the saving of two months by starting in October, it has been shown in a pervious chapter that March is the best month to start in for England. For three years' stay in England we have, in the previous chapter, calculated the expenses of board and lodging in London, which amount to 4 per month. So 150 may be allowed for board and lodging in England during the three years' stay in England. A list of clothes, too has been given in previous chapter. The clothes contained [in the list] in that chapter would be quite sufficient at least for the first year, though by a judicious use no more may be required for two years. However, a further list of clothes is appended below. These may be bought as required. But more should in no case be required. According to one's fancy changes may be made. The sum to be expended in clothing should not be exceeded. s d 3 pairs of trousers 1 16 0 1 jacket suit (vest & jacket) 2 00 3 white shirts 0 60 2 woollen shirts 0 16 0 2 woollen undervests or merino 0 11 0 4 cotton undervests 0 80 2 woollen drawers 0 13 0 6 pairs of woollen socks 0 12 0 7 20 12 pairs of merino or cotton socks 0 90 12 cotton handkerchiefs 0 20 2 felt hats 0 70 6 neckties 0 30 1 slippers 0 20 4 pairs of boots and shoes 1 12 0 1 pair of gloves 0 30 10 0 0 sd brought forward 10 0 0 3 tooth brushes 016 2 umbrellas 0 11 0 1 razor 0 30 1 evening suit on hire for one evening 0 50
1 4 1 1 2
0 10 0 0 11 0 0 56 0 16 0 20 0 10 13 11 6 I t must be understood that there is room for economy in the above list as well as the list given in the previous chapter, economy both as regards quantity and prices. When the lists were shown to a friend who is rather exacting than otherwise, he pronounced it to be extravagant. The evening dress mentioned at the bottom in the list is meant for the call night. It is compulsory to wear the dress on the call night, so they say. No one seems to have tried to appear in the ordinary dress. The experiment is worth trying. However, if one has to wear the evening dress, he can have it on hire for one evening for 5s at many shops in the Strand or Fleet Street. It may be borrowed from friends. It may not be superfluous to mention that expenses of mending shoes or clothes at times are included in the 1 per week. Shoes are the article requiring repair rather often. They can be mended for 1/6 per pair or less. In the list will be found mentioned the oil stove and pan, etc. They are meant for cooking. They will prove very useful at times if not always. When travelling, cheap food may not be procurable, the landlady being not a good cook or from various other causes. In such cases it will be best to cook one's food. There remain now to be considered the expenses on account of fees and dues to be given to the Inns. They are as follows in the Inner Temple: s d Admission form 110 Stamp dues and fees 35 6 5 Lecture fee 550 Commons & dues & dinners for 12 terms 15 13 0 Call certificate for the Colonies 0 12 0 Call fees 94 10 0 152 7 11 Enrolment in the High Court 0 50 152 12 11
gown cotton or merino drawers oil stove enamelled pan spoons plates
These were the fees paid by me. Now, if the Middle Temple is joined and if there are no fees besides those charged in the Inner Temple, as there are probably not, 72 times 1 1/2s , i.e., 5-8-0 can be saved as the Middle Temple dinner costs only 2s [as compared] to the 3 1/2s of the Inner Temple. I know that in no case do the fees exceed 1 5 2 - 7 - 1 1 . Hence 153 may be put down as the highest expense for fees. Then we come to books. Before enumerating the books, it may be remarked that the libraries of the several Inns are meant for the use of their members and it will be their own fault if they do not make a liberal use of them. Thus, all of the big works on law which have to be read for the scholarship examination will be found in the library. All the works just to be mentioned will also be found in the library. However, they being books of daily reference may be bought. There are law lending libraries in London which entitle their members to issue books to be kept for a month, three months, etc., according to the subscription they pay. So then he who wants to practise further economy may make use of these libraries, too. And, in passing, I may mention that such economy sometimes becomes very necessary. You may think of travelling and yet may not afford to spend more than a given sum which did not include travelling expenses. In that case you must save somewhere. An instance will be found of a saving thus effected in Appendix A. A few odd shillings or pence saved now and then and collected swell up the savings to a decent sum which may be spent in various other useful pursuits. A mention has nowhere been made of theatres which are a national institution in England and, as some suppose, a seat of education and amusement combined. They moreover portray the modern habits and customs of England. No one would return to India without visiting the theatres. Then, where is provision for that in the estimates provided in this guide, it may be asked. They are provided for generally in the one pound a week and also in the estimates provided for clothing where a margin has been left for cutting down. Theatres do not cost much. Gallery seats are one shilling each and pit 2 or 3 1/2d each. The last seats are used by respectable middle-class persons and frequently patronized by the Indians. Once a month on an average is more than sufficient and the reader will have remarked that an ample margin has been left for saving even 4 times 2s. The arrangements given in the guide will have to be disturbed only when some big expense has to be incurred. Thus, if a travel has to be undertaken and if the average limit of 4 is not to be overstepped, a saving may be effected, e.g., by removing to a cheaper room. To return, however, to the libraries. It has been alluded to in the previous chapter that it will be convenient to pass most of your time in the library of your Inn. For even a luxuriously fitted room would not be so comfortable and suitable as the library hall which is always wellwarmed and ventilated. The books to be required are as follows. All the booksellers give a 25 per cent discount on books of general literature and 20% on law books. The prices in the second column are prices minus discount. sd sd Saunders' Justinian 0 18 0 0 15 0 Hunter's Introduction to Roman Law 0 7 6 0 60 William's Real Property 110 0 17 0 Goodeve's Real Property 110 0 17 0 Goodeve's Personal Property 110 0 17 0 Broom's Common Law 150 1 00 Indermauer's Common Law 100 0 16 0 Snell's Equity 100 1 00 Extra 3 12 0 Total 10 0 0 There is now only one item of expenditure to be considered, viz., the fare on returning, which is 35. Thus the total expenses of a Barrister's education are: Dress in Bombay 18 Fare from Bombay to London 24 Dress in London 14 Fees, etc. 153 Board and lodging during three years in London 150 Books 10 Fare from London to Bombay 35 Emergencies, etc. 16 420 This brings down the expenses on a Barrister's education to
420 which, as the reader must have seen is capable of being reduced to 400 quite easily. There are three items, viz., dress in Bombay, that in London and books, which evidently admit of a reduction of 4 and the emergency sum ought really to find no place in the estimate as that has been taken into account in the 150 for board and lodging. Attention ought to be drawn to the first two items which have been estimated in rupees and then reduced to pounds sterling at the present rate of exchange which is nearly Rs. 16 for one pound. In rupees, as will have been noticed, it amounts to nearly Rs. 653; represented in pounds, it would fluctuate with the exchange. The passage Rs. 370, too, is subject to variation. Already owing to the sinking down of the rupee, the passage has been raised some 20 p.c. If the rate goes higher, as it is expected to, [it] is likely that the fare would be brought down to its original value. Now it has to be discussed how many pounds you will take with you. Of course, Rs. 653 or thereabouts will be spent in Bombay. On reaching London you will have to pay your fees amounting to nearly 141. Out of this 41 are taken as fee and 100 as deposit as security for further dues to your Inn. It has been said above that this deposit is excused in certain cases. If you are sure that you come under the excuse rules, you may take 100 less. But, in all other cases, take with you or be sure that you will get on your landing in England at least 175 pounds sterling. If you take money with you, of course, you would not take it in cash, but take a bill of exchange to some bank. Messrs Hutchinson & Co., are good bankers and cater for Indian customers. Mr. Wm. Digby is concerned with the business. They undertake to supply gratis the requisite information to Indians about lodging, etc. I do not suppose they would be able, however, to show them cheap lodgings. They have got a list of families who take Indians, as boarders, but these families charge nearly 30s per week for board and lodging. Some charge even 25s. But they may be told that you want to live cheaply and perhaps they would secure you good lodgings. On this point, however, the editor of The Vegetarian would be the best guide. He has promised to find suitable lodging for Indians asking for his advice. That is by the way. As bankers, Messrs Hutchinson & Co. would be quite good. Their address in London is :1 Messrs Thomas Cook & Sons, Hornby Road, Bombay, also are
The source carries no address.
good and well-known bankers. Many Indians have their accounts with them. All these firms get their customer's letters free of charge. It is better, however, to get your letters at your Inn or at your lodging when you have fixed upon one. It would be advisable to keep two or three pounds with you in cash in order to pay for your railway-ticket on landing in London and to pay a few shillings to the steward of your cabin or to pay for boat hires if you land at various stations touched by your boat. Although the estimates supplied are not the lowest possible it is supposed that no one would venture to go to England who could not afford 420, i.e., at the present rate of exchange Rs. 6,720. I have, however, a word to say further. If you have got Rs. 10,000, do not spend all in London, thinking that you would be able to lead a happier life there. I shall just diverge from my main subject. I am going immediately to point out that, from every point of view, the life you would have to lead on 420 would be happier than the life led by many a student in India. And mind, Rs. 10,000 would not supply you with luxuries. They would simply make you pine for more to vie with your luxurious brothers and thus, in fact, make you more miserable. Did you say one room in England would not be sufficient for you? I ask you, then, what have you been having here? Do you not sleep, even though you may be the son of a rich man, two or three in one room, a room without a carpet, without any furniture, surrounded by dirty ditches having hardly a window or two? Have you not in Bombay used the same room for kitchen, bed-room and sitting room? Why, I have seen very rich students spending money like water living in a dirty house not even swept daily. Did you say you could not live on the food provided in the book? Well, if so, you can only be pitied. I am sure that you are having no better food here. Do you always taste, much less eat 1, fruit in India? Do you not subsist on two meals only, in India, with milk only once in the day? Did you say you could not cook your food? Well, if so, it is not absolutely necessary that you should cook in London except for your religion. But, does not many a student, if not you, cook his food in India and in what? In the miserable fire-places, blowing the fire, now and then spoiling the clothes and having the eyes quite red with smoke after the dinner is
The source has `cut', obviously a slip.
cooked. In the place of all this, what do you have in England on one pound per week? A nice comfortable room all to yourself, a room with a nice carpet specklessly clean, a nice bedstead with a feather bed, two pillows, looking-glass, washing-stand, chairs, etc. (see the description ante). The maid of the house always makes the bedding for you, washes your basin and dances attendance on you whenever you want her and does all the household work for you. You have not to cry out aloud for her, but just touch the bell and she knocks at your door and enters only when you say, yes. That surely is not a miserable life and, if it be miserable, the Rs. 10,000 would not make it less so. To return, then, to our subject from the digression: if you have Rs. 10,000, keep them. Only spend out of them Rs. 6,000 or the equivalent of 420. And the rest you will be able to command on your return to India. What a relief! Just ask a junior how he felt to be told that he would be able to command some Rs. 2,000 to go on with in India and you will gauge the measure of relief. But, if you spend the whole Rs. 10,000, why to find yourself without money on your return would cause far greater pain than the additional happiness, which you may expect but are sure not to get by spending more than 420 worth of rupees. It is absolutely necessary that you should have some money, [Rs.] 1,000, 2,000 or any such sum at your disposal. Then you would not regret having gone to England. On that you would be able to build your position, but, if you have not got the foundation money, any edifice you may hope to build without that foundation would crumble down to pieces and you would find yourself in the open air without an edifice. For there is no work awaiting you on your return. There may be empty honours and congratulations just to sting you. Even if there be work, perhaps, without a knowledge of practice you will not be able to accept it. Therefore, if you would take the advice of one who has undergone the bitter experience and would profit by it, if you have Rs. 10,000, only spend 420 worth and keep the rest to be spent in India and you would be happy and contented. No one would point his finger at you; your position you would not feel unstable. And, in two years or so, according to abilities and opportunities, you would be able to establish yourself as a respectable Barrister. Nay, more, the economical habits cultivated in England would stand you in good stead in India. You would then be able to "pull on" better and not feel the want of the luxurious way of living. Indeed, if you do not expect to command about Rs. 2,000 on your return, it were advisable not to go to England at all for a Barrister's education unless, of course, you expect to get some suitable appointment. For, the Rs. 2,000 or some such sum are as indispensable for India as the 420 for England. Too much stress cannot be laid, if you want to practise in India on your return, on the importance of studying the Indian Codes in England. These books will be available in your library. Whitley Stoke's Anglo-Indian Codes are very popular with Indian students in England. There are books published for the information and guidance of those wishing to go to England for study. They invariably give much higher estimates than those given here. It will occupy a very large space to answer them here. I can only say that they may be read side by side with this and compared. There is, however, an association doing good work for Indians that deserves notice. It is the national Indian Association. So long as it can count upon the active services of that good and philanthropic lady, Miss E. A. Manning, 35 Bloomfield Road, Maiden Hill, the Association cannot fail to do good. She may, indeed, be consulted by every Indian whom she is always willing to help and give kind advice to. But the information given by the Association is, I am afraid, not trustworthy. The estimates furnished by it are too extravagant. I have talked to some of those who were put under the care of the Association, and they told me that the estimates given were extravagant. They are as follows in the India Magazine and Review, the organ of the Association:
With regard to expenses it is estimated that the amount required will be: For an ordinary school education, from 150 to 200 a year according to the age of the pupil and the standing of the school. For a student at the University 300 a year For an Indian Civil Service student 300 " " For a student of engineering 300 " " For a law student at the Inns of Court 250 " " For a medical student 250 " " For an agricultural student 250 " " These sums include tuition, board and residence, dress, vacation expenses and cost of superintendence. Fees for entrance at one of the Inns of Court amounting to nearly 150 are not included in the above estimate. The sum of 30 is also required to meet the expenses of outfit on arrival.
So, according to the above, the expenses amount to 250 per year, i.e., 750 in three years. Add to that 150 for fees, not included in the above, as also 30 for dress, and I suppose about 18 in Bombay and also the fares to and from London, about 60, and we get 1,008. These estimates include tuition and superintendence not calculated in the estimates given in the guide. And he must be in a sorry plight, indeed, who would require tuition for passing the Bar Final examination and superintendence so that he may not go astray. Will it not be better to keep your boy with you if he required a strict watch than trust him to the superintendence of a committee not one of whom you know personally? It must be by this time clear to those who know or must know that no amount of superintendence, especially of the above type, would set a student right if he is bent upon going astray. He must be trusted to take care of himself or not sent at all. Only, he must not be given a full command of the purse so that he may play fast and loose with it. It is the purse more than anything else that is the most powerful instrument in spoiling a student in England. Why, it would be quite safe to undertake to spoil two students on 250 a year. It is not, however, for a moment argued that a single penny more than 50 a year spent would be credited to extravagance. Far from it. Even 500 a year can be spent usefully in England. The aim of this guide is not, however, to show how 500 can be spent usefully per year in England, but to show that one can live happily on 50 per year and do all the things generally done by Indian students in England spending much more. In Appendix A, it will be found how from 15 per month I came down to 4 per month and, in so doing, how I was not obliged to sacrifice any of the comforts I used to enjoy before.
It was on the 4th September 1888 that I left for England to receive a Barrister's education per s.s. The Clyde. I had two Indian companions with me whom I did not know before.1 The mere fact that we were three Indians was a sufficient introduction to us. How I managed on the steamer:2 As I was not sure that I would be able to partake of the vegetable foods provided on the steamer, I was well provided with Indian sweets, ganthias, and plenty of Indian fruits. This was my first experience of a voyage on a steamer. I was, therefore, very modest and shy and would not go to the table to
Vide "London Dairy", 12-11-1888. Vide An Autobiography, Pt. I, Ch. XIII.
partake even of tea. I, therefore, began with the sweets. I lived upon them exclusively for about two or three days and could have done so for a long time, but one of the Indian friends mentioned above was very fond of his roti and rice and dal; so he arranged with one of the native sailors to cook us some Indian dishes. The flour and other articles were provided free of charge by the steamer authorities. So we lived on these Indian dishes. The sailors were very dirty and I generally preferred the English loaf to the roti. In spite of the persuasions of the brother passengers, I could not persuade myself to sit at the table with them to eat. I was so modest. During the return voyage, however, I naturally managed better. I was not ashamed to sit at the same table with other passengers. And it is very desirable that, if one has no religious objections, to do so even on going to England. There is sufficient vegetable food provided on the steamer. I, however, requested the chief steward to supply some vegetable foods and I had usually for breakfast oatmeal porridge, milk and stewed fruit and bread, butter and jam and marmalade and cocoa. For dinner I had rice, vegetable curry, milk and jam pastry, stewed fruit, bread and butter. For supper bread, butter, jam, cocoa, some lettuce with pepper and salt and cheese. I had only three meals per day. Two days in the week they provide fresh fruit and nuts on the steamer. How I began on 12 pounds per month: After staying with a friend for a month who treated me very kindly and taught me how to behave and how to use the fork and the spoon. 1 I moved to a family where I had to pay 30s per week for board and lodging. Thus, my board and lodging cost me only 6. I was told, however, that living on 12 per month would be considered very economical. I therefore managed somehow or other to spend 12 per month. I did not discard tea from the very beginning. Did I believe at first in taking only three meals per day? A suggestion was thrown out by somebody that I would be considered to be stingy if I took all meals every day in the family and tea very often. Following up this suggestion, I used to lunch outside at least once a week and take tea only thrice a week. Thus, I paid for all this in the family; I spent about 10s in the lunching and taking tea outside. I used to spend unnecessarily a great deal also in travelling. It need hardly be
Vide An Autobiography, Pt. I, Ch. XIV.
said here that taking your meals or tea outside purposely to show that you are not stingy or that you are rolling in wealth is anything but gentlemanly and entirely unnecessary. Of course, it is another thing altogether when you have to dine or take tea outside because you have to go far for some business and it would be a waste of time to return home for tea. Again, while living in the family, you are supposed to be punctual. They have fixed times for all the meals and they do not or are not expected to wait for you. So, if you are outside and if you think that you would not reach in time for your meal, that would be a case of dining outside. These occasions are rare and do not at all prove costly, though one who would live on 4 per month cannot afford to do these things. He cannot even get into a good family for 1 per week. The food they used to provide for dinner was third-rate; (no fault of the family. I was the first vegetarian boarder with them) : vegetable soups and a vegetable, mostly potatoes, and some fresh fruit. For breakfast they gave me bread and butter and jam and tea and I had porridge occasionally. For lunch they gave me bread and butter and cheese invariably. For tea, bread and butter and tea and cake sometimes. All this did not cost them more than 7s per week. Thus, it will be seen that I paid 30s not because the cost of giving board and lodging was so much or even half so much, but because of the privilege of being allowed to enjoy their company. It is generally thought desirable to live in families in order to learn the English manners and customs. This may be good for a few months, but to pass three years in a family is not only unnecessary but often tiresome. And it would be impossible to lead a regular student's life in the family. This is the experience of many Indians. If you live in a family, you must--it is only fair--sacrifice some time for them if only... 1 ... was to cook the morning and the evening meals and to have the midday meal outside. I was to spend at the most 8s for one room per week, 6d breakfast, supper and one shilling at the most, for dinner. I was told that there was a vegetarian restaurant in Brighton.2 On reaching Brighton, it was after some difficulty that I could get a good room. The landladies could not be persuaded to believe that the room would not be spoiled by my cooking in room. One of 1 2
Pages 5, 6, 7 & 8 are missing. Vide An Autobiography, Pt. I, Ch. XIX.
them said: "No, I cannot give the room even for 20s. The whole carpet would be spoiled by stain of grease and no one else after you leave would take my room." I however assured her that she so spoke because her ideas were associated with mutton and that by allowing me to cook her room would not be spoiled as I simply wanted to prepare porridge or boil the milk and I told her also that, if her carpet was spoiled, I would pay for the spoiling. She after some hesitation accepted my proposal and I took her room for 8s per week. After leaving my luggage in the room, I went out in search of the vegetarian restaurant. I could not find it. And I thought my experiment would fail. This gloomy outlook was rendered gloomier still when I found that no restaurant-keeper would arrange to provide me a dinner consisting of vegetable soup, and bread and butter for one shilling. All thought they could not undergo the bother for one man. I thought the task was hopeless and that I would be obliged to pay 2s or 3s merely for a dinner. I was quite tired by this time and very hungry, but I did not give up. I knew that I was to take rest and was not to read much during my stay in Brighton. So I said to myself that if I should cook two meals, why not cook three? As soon as the idea flashed in my mind, I caught hold of it, went to a grocer and bought the necessary things and went to my place. On reaching the house, I told the landlady that, although the arrangement was to allow me to cook only two meals, I would have to cook three. She was angry and would have driven me out of the house, had I not offered to raise the rent from 8 to 10s. I then set about to work. The first evening I prepared porridge and stewed fruit and I liked it very much. The next morning I had the same. For dinner I had haricot soup which proved to be very nourishing and nice. I thus arranged my meals for the [four] weeks. For breakfast I had bread and milk and stewed fruit and bread and butter (3d), for dinner I had soup (1 1/2) , strawberries (2d) and bread (1d). For supper I had porridge (1 1/2) , bread and butter and fruit (2). Thus I spent only 11d or 1 shilling per day at the most for food in Brighton. With the 10s rent, 3 shillings for washing, the whole expenses for board and lodging for four weeks amounted to 3-10-0. And it cost me 4-8-5 for fares to and from Brighton. Thus I was able for four pounds to go to live for four weeks in and return from Brighton. I found out during the last week of my stay in Brighton that there was a vegetarian home where I could have got board and lodging for 14s per week. The house is situated near the Preston Park. The weekly rent was 5s, breakfast 4d, dinner 9d, and supper 4d. Had I found the house a little earlier, I could have lived in Brighton yet more cheaply and more comfortably; but I would not have learnt how to cook with facility. There is also another vegetarian house in Brighton where they charge 18s per week for board and lodging. It may be said that the cooking did not take much time. The breakfast took only 10 minutes to be ready. For there was only milk to be made hot. The supper took nearly 20 minutes and the dinner 1 hour. Thus encouraged by success on reaching London, the first thing for me to do was to go on in search of a suitable bed-sitting room. I selected a room in Tavistock Street for 8s a week. Here I cooked my breakfast and supper and dined outside. The landlady supplied me with plates, spoons and knife, etc. The breakfast almost always cons is ted of porridge, stewed fruit and bread and butter (3d). I dined for 6d at one of the many vegetarian restaurants and for supper I had bread and milk and some stewed fruit or radishes or fresh fruit (3d); so then the expenses for board and lodging in England were, during the last 9 months of my stay, only 15s and even 14s latterly when, in the same house, I took up a 7-s room. During this time I enjoyed the best of health and had to work very hard, if not the hardest, as there were only 5 months left for the final examination. I used to walk about 8 miles every day and in all I had three walks daily, one in the evening at 5.30 p.m. for an hour and the other always for 30 or 45 minutes before going to bed. I never suffered from ill health except once when I suffered from bronchitis owing to over-work and neglect of exercise. I got rid of it without having to take any medicine. The good health I enjoyed is attributable only to vegetable diet and exercise in the open air. Even the coldest weather or the densest fog did not prevent me from having my usual walks. And under the advice of Dr. Allinson, the champion of open air, I used to keep my bedroom windows open about 4 inches in all weathers. This is not generally done by people in winter, but it seems to be very desirable. At any rate it agreed with me very well.
From the typescript. Courtesy : Pyarelal Nayyar