The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda/Volume 7/Inspired Talks/Sunday, July 21
SUNDAY, July 21, 1895. (Patanjali's Yoga Aphorisms)
Yoga is the science of restraining the Chitta (mind) from breaking into
Vrittis (modifications). Mind is a mixture of sensation and feelings, or
action and reaction; so it cannot be permanent. The mind has a fine body and
through this it works on the gross body. Vedanta says that behind the mind
is the real Self. It accepts the other two, but posits a third, the Eternal,
the Ultimate, the last analysis, the unit, where there is no further
compound. Birth is re-composition, death is de-composition, and the final
analysis is where Atman is found; there being no further division possible,
the perdurable is reached.
The whole ocean is present at the back of each wave, and all manifestations
are waves, some very big, some small; yet all are the ocean in their
essence, the whole ocean; but as waves each is a part. When the waves are
stilled, then all is one; "a spectator without a spectacle", says Patanjali.
When the mind is active, the Atman is mixed up with it. The repetition of
old forms in quick succession is memory.
Be unattached. Knowledge is power, and getting one you get the other. By knowledge you can even banish the material world. When you can mentally get rid of one quality after another from any object until all are gone, you can at will make the object itself disappear from your consciousness.
Those who are ready, advance very quickly and can become Yogis in six months. The less developed may take several years; and anyone by faithful work and by giving up everything else and devoting himself solely to practice can reach the goal in twelve years. Bhakti will bring you there without any of these mental gymnastics, but it is a slower way.
Ishvara is the Atman as seen or grasped by mind. His highest name is Om; so
repeat it, meditate on it, and think of all its wonderful nature and
attributes. Repeating the Om continually is the only true worship. It is not
a word, it is God Himself.
Religion gives you nothing new; it only takes off obstacles and lets you see your Self. Sickness is the first great obstacle; a healthy body is the best instrument. Melancholy is an almost insuperable barrier. If you have once known Brahman, never after can you be melancholy. Doubt, want of perseverance, mistaken ideas are other obstacles.
Prânas are subtle energies, sources of motion. There are ten in all, five
inward and five outward. One great current flows upwards, and the other
downwards. Prânâyâma is controlling the Pranas through breathing. Breath is
the fuel, Prana is the steam, and the body is the engine. Pranayama has
three parts, Puraka (in-breathing), Kumbhaka (holding the breath), Rechaka
(out-breathing). . . .
The Guru is the conveyance in which the spiritual influence is brought to
you. Anyone can teach, but the spirit must be passed on by the Guru to the
Shishya (disciple), and that will fructify. The relation between Shishyas is
that of brotherhood, and this is actually accepted by law in India. The Guru
passes the thought power, the Mantra, that he has received from those before
him; and nothing can be done without a Guru. In fact, great danger ensues.
Usually without a Guru, these Yoga practices lead to lust; but with one,
this seldom happens. Each Ishta has a Mantra. The Ishta is the ideal
peculiar to the particular worshipper; the Mantra is the external word to
express it. Constant repetition of the word helps to fix the ideal firmly in
the mind. This method of worship prevails among religious devotees all over