The Cutters' Practical Guide (1898)/Part 1/The System
FOR PRODUCING THE VARIOUS GARMENTS
We do not think we could begin on any more appropriate garment than
The Shirt. Dias. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Fig 5.
Begin by drawing line 0,36 and mark of the length desired. Make 0 to 21⁄2, 1⁄6 neck and continue across to 9, 1⁄2 breast; come down from 0 to 21⁄4, 1⁄8 natural waist to find top of shoulder, and draw a line across to top, and shape shoulder from 21⁄2 to 9. 0 to 3; 1⁄2 an inch more than 1⁄8 neck and draw the gorge as shown from points 3 to 21⁄2. keeping it hollow as illustrated, or if a guide is wanted, draw a line from 21⁄2 to 3 and midway between these two points hollow it 3⁄4 of an inch. 0 to 9 is 1⁄4 breast, draw a line across to 111⁄2 making it a 1⁄4 breast and 21⁄2 inches for a moderately close fitting shirt or 3 inches for a looser style, hollow scye by coming in 1 in. from line at 9 as point 1, and shape side seam to taste or fancy, allow 2 inches all down either side of the front to avoid having a seam at the pleats for button holes and button stand, or if a white shirt is desired cut it to allow of a front being inserted as per dotted line, which may be varied to taste.
The Yoke. Diagram 2,
Is cut by the front; raising the back neck half the distance from 0 to 3, and cutting it 1⁄2 inch wider at scye, as per diagram, the back part should be cut on the crease or seams allowed, otherwise the neck will be too small. The bottom of the yoke may be adapted to taste.
The back is also cut from the front taking it across straight from the shoulder point and leaving a good 21⁄2 inches down the centre of back to be gathered or pleated into the yoke, the scye should be filled in a good inch and the bottom made about 2 inches longer than the front.
Draw line 0, 9, 0, 17; 0 to 21⁄2 is the same as the distance from 9 to 111⁄2 of the forepart, 0 to 9 is the half scye plus whatever is desired to be left for fulness or pleats on the shoulders; 21⁄2 to 17 is the length of sleeve less the width of yoke and length of cuff; and the wrist as at 17, 6 to taste varying according to the fulness desired to be put in the wristband. Both parts of the sleeves are cut alike, that part at 21⁄2, 17 being out on the crease and in putting it into the armhole point 9 goes to 111⁄2 of the forepart being at the under arm seam.
The cuff, Dia. 5, may be reproduced either by the inch tape for the 36 size or graduated tapes for the smaller sizes. The collar. Dia. 6, is an ordinary band, and is cut on the lines of stand collar; draw line 0, 15 the length of neck plus 1 inch to allow of it buttoning, 0 to 71⁄2 half this quantity, come up at either end 1 inch, and shape the bottom edge by a gradual curve touching the line for about 2 or 3 inches on either side of point 71⁄2. finish by making the width of the band to any width desired. Binders are sometimes put round the armholes, being cut the same shape as the shirt at that part and are merely put on to strengthen the shirt there, and relieve it of some of the wear. Many variations may be introduced into the details of finish, &c., such as a turn down collar. &c., &c., but these we leave for personal adaption, feeling assured that any cutter of ordinary intelligence will be able to master this having once grasped the system which will act as a foundation for him to start from.
We now come to one of the most important parts in connection with the work, viz.:
THE LOUNGE SYSTEM.
Dia 7. Figs. 6 & 7.
Commence by drawing line 0, 29 and mark off the various stations on it as follows: 0 to 9 depth of scye, 0 to 17 natural waist, 0 to 29 length of jacket required plus 1⁄2 inch for seams, point 31⁄2 is fixed to taste, but as a rule may be made about 1⁄2 inch more than l⁄2 of 0. 9; draw lines at right angles to all these points and mark of 0 to 31⁄6 neck, or if the neck measure has not been taken, make it 1⁄6, of the half waist; at the back pitch which is about 1 or 11⁄2 below line 31⁄2, mark off the width of back plus seams. In the scale the seams are allowed on the back so that when working from it, it will not be necessary to allow them beyond the quantities given, but when working from the measures taken on the customers this must be done or the back will be produced narrower than was anticipated. Hollow the back at waist 3⁄8 to 1⁄2 inch, running out to the line at bottom; on line at 9, mark off the chest measure and from 2 to 21⁄2; inches, varying this quantity according to the substance of the material, allowing the full 21⁄2 inches over breast.; if the material is thick or if it is of medium weight allow 2 inches; of this about 11⁄2 inches are consumed in seams. the remainder being an amount of room left for expansion of the body when breathing, &c., and for ease. Now come back from 20 to 12 the across chest measure which finds the front of scye.
The Neck Point.
Deduct the width of back neck from the front shoulder measure, and sweep by it from point 12; add 1 inch in this and sweep again by point 20, and wherever these area intersect or cross each other fixes the location of the neck point.
The over shoulder measure is the next to be applied, the method of doing so being to deduct whatever the back measures from 9 in a diagonal measure to the shoulder seam, put the remainder at point 12; put the finger on the tape 11⁄2 inches up and sweep again, this gives the slope of shoulder, and it only remains to draw the shoulder seam by well rounding it and making the width to agree with a seam less than the back from 3⁄4 to 71⁄4.
Having now practically fixed the top, bottom, front, and back, of scye, we only have to connect the various points; the shape of a scye should as nearly resemble the shape of a horseshoe as possible, though if special attention is paid to any particular part it should be to make the front well hollow at * and keep it well up at the top of sideseam. Some may feel curious to know the reason we place the finger 11⁄2 inches up from the level of scye and sweeping from * in applying the over shoulder measure. The reason for doing so is, that we always endeavour to apply the measures in the same way as they are taken, which would not be the case if a sweep was taken from point 12, the tape would then cross the scye, a feature quite impossible in taking the measure on the figure.
The shaping of the sideseam is the next operation, and is one which has much to do with the harmony of the jacket when finished; the plan illustrated here is to fix the width of back at natural waist at 1⁄3 chest.; i.e., the half chest. and taking out from 1 to 11⁄2 inches at that part, seldom more than that as it is apt to throw a fullness at the top of sideseam; the back and forepart should touch each other on line 9, 20, and a trifle may be taken out just above where it runs into the beck scye; avoid letting the forepart come too high up into the book scye; from 1 to 11⁄2 inches shore depth of scye line is a very good quantity. as it prevents the possibility of balance being altered by the workman, which might soon occur if the back scye ran up to a point. The forepart is made to overlap the buck 1⁄2 the difference between the seat and breast measures at the bottom of the sideseam If the waist is desired to fit close at the sides and a smart fitting garment required we should take out a fish under the arm, running from the bottom of scye to the pocket mouth, of from 1⁄2 to 1 inch and making the size up in front to the waist measure and 2 inches, which gives the breast line or that part of the garment which rung dawn the centre of the figure and which would be correct for hooks and eyes; lounges, however, are usually made to fasten with buttons so that it will be necessary to allow sufficient overlap. say 11⁄4 inches. The height of the gorge at front may he made 1⁄6 neck or breast, below the neck point, or to taste; and the front of jacket should be 2 of an inch longer from line 9, 20, downwards than the back and rounded off to any style desired.
The Position of the Pockets
Is a matter which puzzles a good many, and the plan we have found to answer well has been to make the hip pocket 1⁄3 breast from the bottom of scye, and making the flap 1⁄2 this distance in length and from 13⁄4 to 2 inches Wide, shaping the front to harmonise with the front of the jacket, the ticket pocket may be placed parallel with it in front and about in the relative position to the hip pocket as shown on the diagram. The breast pocket should be placed level with the bottom of the scye for its bottom edge it is made to slant slightly down and kept at least 1 inch in front of the scye the size of this being 5 inches long by 1 in width for a 36 chest and in corresponding ratio for smaller ones. The buttons down the front should be arranged so that the bottom one comes just above the level of the hip pockets, and if possible it should be arranged to have one opposite the breast pocket.
The Sleeve. Dia. 9.
That the sleeve should be out to lit the scye is an almost self-evident truism; yet it is one that is often ignored, with the result that they do not harmonies with each other and bad fitting sleeves are the consequence.
The sleeve system as here described is as self-varying as any system can be and one which will produce a nice hanging sleeve. Begin by drawing line 0, 1, 43⁄4 from 0 to 43⁄4 is the distance from centre of back to front of scye less the width of the back, in this case 43⁄4; now mark the place where the pitches of the sleeve are desired to come; suitable positions for these are 3⁄4 above level of scye in front and about 11⁄2 below shoulder point of back. Now put the square with either arm touching these pitches, and arrange it till it is in the position in which the sleeves are desired to hang which should be as nearly as possible over the pockets, note what figures are on the square opposite the front pitch and apply this quantity by coming up from point 43⁄4 of sleeve whatever it is, and thus find the position of point 1; now measure the distance across between the two pitches in a straight line, with the back placed in a closing position at the shoulder, and whatever that is, measure across as from 1 to 9; point 41⁄2 is half this quantity, and 21⁄4 one fourth and by these points the sleeve heed may be drawn; measure off the length to elbow and wrist, not forgetting that 3 seams are consumed in making up; hollow the forearm 1 inch and make the width to were which in the absence of any better guide may be fixed at 1⁄3 breast for the cuff 1 inch less than half breast for the elbow; the run of the bottom of cuff may be got by drawing it at right angles to points 63⁄4, 9. The underside is got by measuring round the scye between the two pitches and applying that quantity from 43⁄4 to 8, hollowing it about 1⁄2 inch below a level with 43⁄4, and than taking it across almost straight.
This style of garment is one of the most suitable for boys' and youths' wear, being particularly appropriate for school use. It is usually made up as represented having 5 pockets, as shown on diagram, and an inside breast pocket. It is made to button fairly high up, the edges stitched and the cuff also stitched to form a cuff, two buttons being put on as shown.
To Reproduce by Graduated Tapes.
This and any diagram in the book may be reproduced by using a graduated tape to agree with the breast measures and applying the units in the same way as the inches are for the full size; if of the old make using a tape a size larger for the small sizes and a size smaller for the very large ones, say a 121⁄2 tape for a 24, and a 211⁄2, for a 44 and so on: or they may be drawn out by the scale given previously by merely using the ordinary inch tape in the manner described. This system is the same as goes throughout the book so that if the reader makes himself conversant with the principles on which this is based he will be more readily able to reproduce any garment in the present volume, by merely varying it in accordance with the lines laid down in dealing with each garment. We give the collar system later on. Although this diagram is illustrated with a collar and turn yet it is equally suitable for a Prussian, roll, or stand collar, only requiring the collar out to suit the customers' wishes in that direction. Care should be taken in making to avoid anything likely to produce fullness at the top of sideseam as owing to the placing of the seams in this style of jacket there is a difficulty in providing a sufficient receptacle for the blades and a corresponding tendency to fullness at top of sideseam, hence it is just as well to take it in a trifle just at the top and put the sleeve in tight at that part. A short collar should be religiously avoided as besides having a tendency to produce this defect, it is also a fruitful source of many others to be frequently met with in all classes of coats; but we shall refer to them in our chapter on alterations, &c., so will at once proceed to examine the characteristics of the
Dia. 8. Fig. 8.
At the present time this is one of the most fashionable styles, and is especially suitable for youths' wear, leaving full scope for putting the buttons forward as the lad grows, a point which often has great weight with the parents. This garment is also used a good deal in H.M. Navy, being worn by almost all ranks and especially by Midshipmen and Cadets; they, however, generally omit the ticket pocket and have gilt anchor buttons, 4 up each front, one being placed under the turn; three are placed across the cuff as Dia. 10, which are the same size as those up the front. As will be noticed it is out precisely the same as the Lounge with the addition of the lapel all down the front from 21⁄2 to 31⁄2 inches wide. In this can it is made 3, the buttons being placed as far behind the breast line as the eye of the hole is in front, a fish is taken out at the top of label which will enable it to button up to the throat clean, this may be omitted if desired the only difference being a little extra length on the outside edge. The collar and lapel as shown on this dia. illustrate the style in which these are finished at the present time, very little space showing between them. If it is desired to make this garment from a thick pilot or nap we should advise the seam being made at least 1⁄2 an inch or more larger and the cut under the arm omitted, as these think materials consume a great deal in making, and being of a heavier substance do not fall in wrinkles as readily as a thin estamene or serge.
The pockets are arranged as for the lounge.
THE NORFOLK JACKET.
Dia. 11. Fig. 9.
No style of garment of a fancy kind has remained so long in favour as this, and it is worn by boys, youths, and men, in almost the same style; a great variety exists as to the style of putting on the pleats, the most popular being the one shown on the diagram and having two up the back and front, meeting at the same spot on the shoulder. It is now the pretty universal custom to out the garment as a Lounge, rather easy fitting about the waist, and to lay the pleats on, fastening them to the garment by sewing them from behind, this has proved itself the most reliable and artistic method, as it enables the cutter to arrange the pleats on the figure in whatever position may he considered the most suitable and at the same time removing any possibility of the garment being made larger or smaller by the workmen in making, an error which readily happens when the foreparts are out wide enough for the pleats to be taken from them. The most reliable method of forming.
In this style is to have them sewn and pressed open previous to cutting the garment, which overcomes the difficulty. As will be noticed the plant and belt are stitched on the edge in the some way as the edges are stitched, the pleats, however, are often left plain. The belt should be made the same size as the garment and a button put further back to allow of its being made smaller. The belt and pleat. Dia. 12, are usually made to agree in widths and are about 13⁄4 or 2 inches wide for a 36 breast and of proportionate width for the smaller sizes. The pockets on this style of garment are either placed under the pleat, at breast or patch as shown on diagram 11, and as in breast pocket in the ordinary position. Variations innumerable are introduced in the method of arranging the pleats for the juvenile branch, but this we shall notice later on, under the heading of designing; but there is one style which is a good deal used for youths and men, which only has one pleat up the buck and one down each front, running into the gorge, this style is generally finished with a Prussian collar, but of course any style of collar and turn may be used. The sleeve as shown on diagram 9, is equally suitable for this as for the Lounge.
THE INFANTRY PATROL JACKET.
Dias. 13 & 14. Fig. 10.
The Patrol Jacket forms quite a distinct class of garment, being a much smarter and closer-fitting garment than the ordinary Lounge, and we thought it could not be better illustrated than by trimming it in one of the most popular styles in vogue in the British Army, viz., the Infantry Blue Patrol Jacket. The Patrol Jacket was worn very much at one time by cyclists, though the Lounge in the most popular for this exercise at present. The official regulations for men, as issued by the War Office, are as follows:
"Bottom corners rounded, slit at aide, stand collar, hook and eyes down front, flat braided all round with 1 inch wide mohair braid, four drop loops of 3⁄8 wide tubular braid, the top one 8 inches long, the bottom one six, to the edge of breast, with an eye at the centre as in diagram 13, on the left side the braid is carried a loop beyond the edge and olivets or barrel buttons on the right side: sideseam braided as shown, the middle of crow's toe at bottom to be 3 inches from the centre of back, and the middle of the braid at the lowest of the middle eyes 2 inches, the top crow's toe to be at the top of side seam; a plain Austrian knot is placed on the sleeve seven inches high and two and three quarters wide, and placed rather nearer the forearm seam; joined cross pockets with flaps to go in or out."
Such being the military regulations, it will at once be been that the Patrol Jacket proper is more a military than a civilian type of garment, consequently its shape must be influenced by it, and the following variations will be found necessary or advisable. The back being out whole, i.e., no back seam, it necessarily follow the back must he straight, hence line O, 281⁄2; forms the centre of back. The shoulder seam of back is kept rather squarer, which will bring that of the forepart more sloping. The back is out 2 inches wide at the natural waist, point 17, and 3 inches wide at the bottom, so that the braiding may come just over the seam. 11⁄2 inches is taken out between back and sidebody at waist, and run into the depth of scye line, and also slightly overlapping say 1⁄4 of an inch at the bottom, 1 inch is taken out of the under-arm seam, and the chest made up to 2 or 21⁄4 over the chest measure, the waist being done in like manner. Care must be used so as not to out the neck too low or the neck will be too large. The sleeve on diagram 9 is equally suitable. So that it will not be necessary for us to repeat instructions for cutting these.
The Austrian Knot
However, is a bit of puzzle to many, and we herewith give diagrams, descriptions and directions for tying. The first thing is to cut off the necessary length of braid; a knot of the dimensions quoted from the Army Regulations for an Infantry Patrol Jacket can be completed with one yard which allows sufficient to go round top of sleeve and be joined in with the hindarm seam. Now take this length between the forefinger and thumb about six inches from the end, and from the loop as per diagram 15, then continue on with another loop, which brings hook over the other and under the short length as per diagram 16. Great care must be used at this stage, as the whole secret lies in knowing when and whence to begin lacing. Now proceed to lace over and under alternately, as per diagram 17, and when this surge is completed, it will present the appearance of diagram 18, when all that remains to be done in to form the loop at the top, see diagram 19, which will necessitate a half twist through half the knot, which is best done at this stage, as it is very easy to twist the wrong way it done earlier. Carefully examine to see that the braid runs alternately over and under throughout the entire knot, and if formed correct, which it will be if these directions are followed. When it is ready to be put on, its position should be, as previously quoted: top of knot about 7 inches from bottom of cuff; and as it is necessary it should appear on the top of the sleeve, it must be placed about one inch nearer the forearm Beam.
The Eton Jacket.
This is one of the most important styles in connection with the present work, being the garment above all others the high-class tailor is called upon to make. It bears very much the same relation to the youth that the Dress Coat does to the man, being worn on such occasions as demand full dress, although in many of our public schools it is always worn in every day wear. It in seldom or ever worn buttoned, consequently it is not cut with too much bottom stand,3⁄4 of an inch being quite enough at the bottom, the lapel at the top being quite it matter of taste, but should not be made too heavy. The better plan is to cut a pattern and turn it over at the crease row, and see that it does not come nearer the scye than 13⁄4 inches, as it looks very old-fashioned to see a lapel coming right over the sleeve head. As generally worn all over the country, the Eton Jacket is made about 31⁄2 latches below the natural waist and finished off with a point at the bottom of the back; as worn at Eton, however, the point is omitted and carried straight round, which makes it appear rather shorter. It is generally supposed that the Eton Boys wear the white linen collar outside the coat, and that the Harrow Boys wear it inside, whether any regulations exist in this we do not know, but believe such to be the fact. The Eton plan, however, is the one more generally adopted throughout the country, and it will be as well to note that when it is desired to wear the linen collar inside, it will be necessary to enlarge the neck to allow for this increase of size. However, as we are catering for the youths all over the country. We have given a diagram suitable for the style most generally adopted, and which is illustrated on
Dia. 20 Plate 4. Fig. 11.
As will be soon the back is cut on the crease as in the Patrol Jacket. and is made rather narrow at the waist being out about 11⁄4 inches wide at that part, and gradually run off to the bottom, which as previously quoted is finished with a point; 11⁄2 inches is taken out between back and sidebody, and about 3⁄4 of an inch at the waist of under-arm scam. Care should be taken to allow sufficient spring for the hips, a point which sometimes causes trouble, especially as the inlay, which is inavriably left all along the bottom, contracts it. The length of the front should be made to just cover the vest in the some way as a Gent's Dress Coat, nothing appearing much worse than one too short, or one very much too long, and conveying the appearance that the lad is wearing out the jacket his older brother has grown out of; the diagram is arranged with the front end as much below waist seam as the bottom of sidebody is below point 23⁄4 and will generally be found a safe guide, and which will also be of service to hollow the side by, this being made about 1 inch hollow from a line drawn from bottom of sidebody to the bottom of front. The lapel on this diagram is made 13⁄4 inches wide at top, 21⁄4 in the widest part. and 3⁄4 at the bottom; the gorge in lowered 1 inch in front.
These jackets are generally made from a fine black diagonal, a kind of dress Twill or Corkscrew, have generally bound edges, the binding is never carried round the bottom, it being invariably left bluff, the inlay being turned up all along at that part, so that only the fronts, collars and cuffs are bound. This make of cloth has entirely superceded the old superfine black cloth which is hardly or ever seen. We have occasionally seen them made from Vienna or soft wool, with corded edges, but these have the exception. A good facing should be put through the forepart, and one or two in breast pockets inserted. A flower hole is sometimes put in the turn, but it is as often left plain. There are three button-holes only put up the front, as a rule, although we sometimes see four. The style of cuff generally adopted is illustrated on
Which is nothing more than the ordinary hole and button cuff, with the braid put on cuff high, and brought to the end of the slit which it is just as well to very slightly round at the bottom which does sway too considerable extent with the tendency slit cuffs have to curl up at the points. In order to get this garment to fit to perfection, great care should be taken to get it to balance exactly to the figure, as if it in loo long in the front it will set away from the waist at back and have a general "falling away from the figure" appearance, whilst if it is too short, it presents an all alive appearance with any amount of surplus material on the back, hence it is always better to err in a too long front shoulder than a too short one for this class of garment.
For this Jacket, is either of the no collar or roll collar type, and is of course finished in the same way, and made from the some material as the coat. For school wear, it is generally made no collar. but when worn for semi-dross occasions, of the roll collar, button rather high type. as diagram 61. and when for full dress, the present hollow cut front or horseshoe dress vest is used as in diagram 62, so that a fair amount of latitude in allowed with this part of the Eton Suit.
Are invariably made from black for all dress and semi-dress wear; but for school wear they are frequently made from any dark neat pattern material such as West of England Hairline; it should, however, be remembered that the correct thing is black, and any variation from that must be particularly neat, only being permissible on account of its increased usefulness and wear resisting qualities for school use. One point to be specially remembered is, that the seat of these trousers shows very conspicuously, so that it is not allowable to put in seat pieces or take out cuts that will show below the Jacket, as such would give a "short of material" impression. Care should also be taken in cutting these to avoid all surplus material (only allowing 11⁄2 over seat instead of 2 inches), and to get them to fit as clean as possible at the back of thighs, just under the ball of the sent. They must he much cleaner fitting at this part than ordinary trousers, so that if the seat angle is slightly reduced it will improve them so for as tit is concerned. though it will reduce the bending or stooping capacity somewhat. It is just such little details as these that are noticed by parents, and odd materially to the success and renown of the tailor. The pockets of the trousers are put in across the top as the side style gape so much; but this is one of those points wherein it will be necessary to consult the wishes of your customer, it not being of very great importance which plan is adopted, though the cross, being much neater, is decidedly preferable.
It may be of service to our readers if we give a list of the articles usually required by youths about to go to any of the leading public schools and colleges.
- 1 Best Suit.
- 2 School Suits.
- 1 Overcoat.
- 1 Dressing Gown
- 8 White shirts
- 6 Colored „ or
- 4 Flannel „
- 4 Under „
- 4 Pairs Drawers
- 8 Pairs Hose or Half Hose
- 1 doz. Collars
- 1 „ Handkerchiefs
- 2 pairs Gloves
- 2 „ braces
- 2 „ Strong lace Boots
- 1 „ Calf Shoes
- 1 „ Patent Dress Shoes
- 1 „ Slippers
- 1 „ Leggings
- 1 „ "Athletic" Boots or Shoes
- 1 Cricketing Suit.
- 1 Football Suit
- 4 Neck Ties
- 1 „ Wrapper
- 1 Silk Hat
- 1 Polo Cap
- 1 Rug
- 1 Umbrella
- 4 Towels
- 2 Bath Towels
- 1 Sponge and Bag
- 2 Combs and Brushes
- 1 Bag for Ditto.
- 1 Tooth Brush
- 1 Nail „
- 1 Clothes „
- 1 pair Bathing Drawers
- 4 Dinner Napkins
- Knife, Fork, and Spoon.
- 2 pairs Sheets
- 4 Pillow Cases
- Play Box
- Leather Bag
- Key Ring and Label.
Varieties of the Eton Jacket.
Dias. 21 and 22. Figs. 12 and 13.
These are supposed to partake of the Naval Style of Dress. The Admiral Bound Jacket being somewhat simile: to the D.B. Eton, of diagram 21; it is also used in the Merchant Service, it is, however, more a variation from the regulation Naval Dress than a copy of any authorised pattern.
Its principal features are the increased width of the lapel, more especially at waist, and the two rows of buttons. All Navel Jackets for lads have pockets placed at the aides as shown on 22, but these are always omitted from Civilian Dress, the pockets in the latter case being put in the breast. The badge on the collar is generally a matter of taste.
The Eton Jacket with Roll Collar
Comes as something new, and new that this style of front is so popular with gentlemen for their Dress Costs, we quite anticipate it becoming an established style of Youth's Dress, for evening wear, it being very smart and effective. It is also shown as a naval adaptation, having A badge on the collar and pockets at the side.
If these latter styles are desired for representations of naval uniform, the suit are as shown on diagram 26, which has three gilt uniform buttons, with cords of Russia Braid coming nearly to the bottom,whilst, if intended for ordinary Dress wear, that shown on diagram 26, will be the better; at the same time remembering what was previously stated regarding the pockets.
We now come to deal with the naval uniforms proper for the Midshipmen and Cadets, illustrated on figures 14 and 15, and diagrams 23, 24, 26 end 27, and take first.
THE MIDSHIPMAN'S ROUND JACKET.
The official regulations for this are as follows:
"Blue cloth, single breasted, with nine holes and buttons up the front, three notched holes on each cuff with buttons to correspond; stand up collar, with a white turn back on each side 2 inches long, with's notched hole and button." It is cut-exactly the some as an Eton Jacket in the back and the fronts arranged as diagram 23 from which it will be readily gathered it is cut large enough to button right up to the throat, Care should be taken to put only the regulation number of buttons up the front, 9. Welt pockets are put on either aide us shown. The only difference between this and the Cadets, is that the white turn back is omitted, and a button hole of white twist, and a uniform button placed instead. This applies to both the Round Jacket and
THE FULL DRESS COAT.
Dias. 21. Fig. 15.
Which as will be seen is of the Dress Coat type, but made large enough to button; with 9 notched holes up the front, graduated as shown, the longest one being the top but one, and the bottom one being placed on the waist seam. As a belt is worn with this, it will be necessary to cut it rather smaller in the waist than ordinarily; otherwise surplus cloth would form in folds under the pressure of the belt; a hook is put at the hip to keep the belt in position. Flaps are placed on the hips with three buttons and notched holes, and are lined with white, as are the skirts; the pockets are placed in the pleat. We may state that notched holes have now become a thing of the past,a narrow Russia braid doing duty for this equally as well as the notched hole. it is very much easier put on and is consequently cheaper. A button is placed in the pleats as shown. The length of the strap of the skirt is made one-filth the entire waist, being fixed at that proportion by the Admiralty. This coat in used for both full and undress, and, as previously stated, the only difference for a cadet is the omission of the White end to the collar, and a notched hole and button put in its stead. We give a Table of the necessary articles for a cadet on entering H.M.S. Britannia, that being the ship where cadets are sent to undergo a course of training to enable them to pass the necessary examination to enter Her Majesty's Navy.
A midshipman's sea chest complete, with name in full on top, engraved on plain brass plate—length 3ft. 6in., breadth 2ft., height 2ft 8in.
(It is requested that the chest may be at Dartmouth previous to the cadets joining.)
- 3 Pillow Cases.
- 1 Hair Mattress 5ft. 6in. by 1ft 9.in
- 3 Blankets 6ft 6 by 4 ft 6
- 1 Counterpane „
- 3 pair Sheets. „
- 4 Uniform Jackets.
- 1 „ Trousers
- 1 „ Waistcoat
- 1 „ Cap, peak 1⁄2 turn down.
- 2 Working Uniform Suits (one of thick flannel, one of pilot cloth).
- 1 Uniform Working Cap, peak 1⁄2 turn down.
- 4 White Flannel Trousers, well shrunk
- 6 Pairs drawers, Merino
- 3 White Flannel Shirts (with collar to turn down)
- 3 Lambswool Undervests
- 12 White Shirts
- 12 Collars
- 12 pairs Merino Socks.
- 2 White Waistcoats.
- 12 Towels.
- 6 Night Shirts.
- 7 Merino Vests.
- 2 Black Silk Neckties (made up)
- 2 pair Braces
- 3 pair Strong laced Boots. with thick soles.
- 1 Clothes Brush.
- 1 Sponge
- 1 Carpet Bag.
- 1 Clothes Bag.
- 12 Pocket Handkerchiefs.
- 1 pair elastic-side Oxford Shoes, with strong soles.
- 1 Brush and Comb.
- 1 Tooth Brush.
- 1 Nail Brush. 1 Rug (travelling).
Pea Jackets are not to be supplied, as the thick working Jacket can be worn over the Uniform Jacket if necessary.
Clothing to be distinctly marked with the cadet's name in full.
Trousers to be made without pockets, and only one pocket on the left breast of the Jackets of the two Uniform Working Suits.
THE MORNING COAT
Dia. 28. Fig 16.
We now come to a style of garment suitable for the youth budding into manhood, and as it is a garment of special importance from the number worn, not only by youth but by men of all sizes; and as the principles here laid down are equally applicable to the old as to the young, we will go through the system once more, and may be we shall make points clear which are perhaps a little indefinite in the previous one. It also varies somewhat in minor details of working, so that the space devoted to it will not be lost, Commence at the back and draw line 0 19 and mark off the following points 0 to 31⁄2 to taste it merely being a. guide to fix the location of the shoulder seam and which will have no effect on the fit, as any variation in this to meet the whims of a customer or the freaks of fashion will be met, when applying the over shoulder measure. 0 to 9 is the depth of scye as taken on figure, 0 to 17 is the natural waist length, 0 to 19 the fashion waist, and on to 34 the full length; if the customer is fairly hollow at the waist, come in at 17. 3⁄4 to 1 inch, and draw the back seam into it; draw line at right angles to point 0, 31⁄2,9, 17; from 0 to 3 is 1⁄6 neck, come up from this point 3⁄4, and shape back neck. If the neck has not been taken, the half waist will do as well. From 31⁄2 to 71⁄4 is the across back measure, as taken, plus seems, which usually equals one-fifth of the breast (a too wide back is specially to be avoided). Now measure forward from point 9, the half breast measure, and wherever allowance is deemed advisable for ease, &c. 21⁄4 inches is added in the present case, that being a medium quantity. Measure back from 201⁄4 to 121⁄4 the across chest measure as taken on the customer; now deduct the width of back neck from the front shoulder length, and placing the tape at point 121⁄4, sweep by it to find the neck point; now add 1 inch to the front shoulder length, and sweep again by this increased length from point 201⁄4, and wherever these arcs intersect each other is the location of the neck point; next measure up from point 9 on the back towards the shoulder seam, and see what that is, and deduct it from the over shoulder measure. Place the remainder on point 121⁄4, put the finger on a point 2 inches up as at *, and make its pivot, then sweep to find the shoulder 1 as at 17. We have now the scye at all points no that it can be easily reproduced, the only points requiring special attention being to make it well hollow at * and keep it well up at sidebody. The shoulder seam of forepart may now be drawn. care being used to make it well round: the style shown on these diagrams; is very good, and will produce a nice clean fitting shoulder. Make the width of back scye about one-ninth breast, and draw the sideseam by drawing a line from this point to 17 and hollowing it 3⁄4 of an inch on line 9: make the Width of back at 17, also one-ninth breast, and shape this seam by point so obtained forming it into it graceful curve. Special attention should be paid to this seam as being so prominently seen in the garment, any defect in it would greatly detract from the grace and harmony of the garment. We have found it is always the better plan to avoid extremes of style, and recommend this method to our readers as one; that will no avoid them. Now square across from 19 to find the run of the top of the hip pleats. The sidebody may now he drawn by taking out about 11⁄2 inches on line 17, increasing this quantity if the blades are very prominent, and vice versa if they are particularly flat. The sidebody should be nipped in slightly, say it bare 1⁄4 of an inch at top, which point may be used to sweep from the back on line 19, to get the length of the bottom of sidebody, which. as will be seen. should be about 3⁄4 of an inch lower than the back; the reason for this is not always apparent at first sight, but is explained. It will of course be understood that seams are taken off both back and sidebody, and as the back is hollow, the taking a 1⁄4 inch off all up the sidearm will increase the length, as it must be apparent to anyone that as soon as you increase the diameter of a circle, the circumference must be increased as a matter of course with the sidebody, however, the same principle is applied, but in the reverse way, for that being a round, a seam taken from it shortens it; hence as the one is lengthened and the other shortened in the process of seaming; so it in of importance that the sidebody should be cut long enough to allow of this. Draw a line across from this point prallel to the waist line, which forms a capital guide to get the length of waist seam in front. The waist seam may be drawn by hollowing it over the hips about 1 inch. The underarm seam may be placed in the position considered the most effective (we prefer a narrow sidebody ourselves), and take out 1 inch at this part for a figure 4 inches smaller at waist than chest, and adding on or taking off 1⁄3 of the disproportion at this part as the waist increases or diminishes in its relation to the chest. Now measure across to the front the waist measure, plus 2 inches, add on a button stand, and shape the front to agree with fashion or fancy.
Should be drawn by squaring down from the lower line 9 inches and out 1. These quantities are suitable for all sizes, as it produces the run of the back shirts at a given angle. which is suitable for an ordinary well-developed figure, but should be increased for a person with very prominent seat, and vice versa Draw a line from the bottom of the sidebody, through point 1 out from 9, and round the back of skirt about 1⁄2 an inch which should be well worked forward over to the hips in making; a bare 1⁄4 inch may he hollowed out between skirt and forepart at point 1, and a trifle may be taken out of waist seam at front. The skirt should have at least an inch of fulness beyond the combined width of sidebody and forepart; the run of the front should be made to agree with the forepart. The breast pocket is put on a level with the bottom of scye slanting slightly downwards, and at least 1 inch in front of the most forward part of scye. The sleeve as explained on diagram 9, will suit this so it will be only necessary we should turn our attention to
THE DRESS COAT
Dia. 29, Fig. 11,
In order to complete the garment. Point A is the height at which the coat is desired to button and we require a collar with a 11⁄4 stand and 13⁄4 fall. B is a 1⁄4 of an inch less than the height of stand above the hollowest part of the gorge, and line A B C is drawn. D is the difference between the height of stand and the depth of fall below C, and line D B A forms the crease line. D to E is the stand which is than drawn from D to the hollowest part of gorge, and following it round to G where a seam is added. The shape of the collar end at H must be left to the taste of the operator, to form it in accordance with the turn, so as to produce the effect desired. F is the depth of the fall above D, and is drawn from F to H. This is a collar system which adapts itself to almost all styles and widths of collar, from the Dress Coat to the Overcoat with the wide collar. It requires very little working up, and has the advantage of adding additional spring at the fall edge: when the fall becomes deeper, a result which must commend itself to all thoughtful minds. Of course there are styles of collar which cannot be produced by this system, and which will be treated in connection with such garments they as usually worn on. We now come to
THE COLLAR SYSTEM.
It will not be necessary to go over the various points, as they are produced in the same way as for a Morning Coat, with the exception that they are usually made rather close-fitting and are sometimes a trifle narrower in the back. From 9 to 191⁄2 is only 11⁄2 inches over the breast measure, but this is 1⁄2 an inch from the actual centre of the front of the garment, and from which the sweep to obtain the position of the neck point is cast. The gorge is lowered quite an inch, and the waist made to the nett size, as they are never worn buttoned. The lapel is cut by drawings straight line and following it 1 inch back at the bottom as shown. The top is made about 2 to 21⁄4 inches wide and pointed upwards, and the middle or holly pert is made about 21⁄2 to 31⁄4 wide; the bottom is made 11⁄2. It is generally advisable to cut these lapels on the double at the enter edge, which is arranged by taking out a large V at the top, and keeping it rather to one side. so that it shall be cut of sight; this will greatly facilitate getting a much cleaner thin edge, a feature well worthy of notice at such a part of a Dress Coat.
The skirt is cut in the came way as the Morning Coat. the length of the strap being generally fixed at 1⁄2 of the width across at the waist, and the bottom edge fixed at about 1 inch less than a half, and the front edge slightly rounded. The width of the strap is generally made 11⁄2 inches, and as will be noticed, it only comes to the lapel seam.
BLAZER, or CRICKET and BOATING JACKET.
Dia. 31. Fig 18.
There are few young gentlemen to be found at the present time who do not patronise their school or club blazer, let it be either for cricket, lawn tennis. or boating, and few garments could be more appropriate for outdoor exercise. Being thin and comparatively loose fitting, they are not oppressive in wear, and as they are made from woollen material, they do not expose the wearer to any danger of catching cold, such as would be experienced from the use of cotton. They are made from almost every conceivable colour and combination of colours, and finished in a variety of ways; it being the general custom, when a club is started, to go to their tailor, and get him to have their colors printed specially, and reserved for their exclusive use; and in a few cases they are registered. Swaisland's generally supposed to be the best printers of this class of flannel, and their goods may be obtained from most of the best wholesale houses. There is, however, a new make of woven flannel in the market, but not having tested the some we are unable to express any opinion on it. When made from striped flannels, they are generally finished in the way indicated on the diagram with three patch pockets, sleeves lined, and facings and seams felled down, although many houses make them entirely by machine, in order to reduce the price as much an possible; the buttons are usually covered with some material. Many clubs, however, adopt a self-colour, and bind it with contrasting colours of ribbon joined together, in which case they generally have the monogram or crest of their club worked on the breast pocket, A method which is very popular with the Oxford and Cambridge College Clubs. There is just one point that requires special mention in dealing with striped flannels with more than two stripes. It is necessary to treat these the some way as if they had a way of the wool to them, i.e. split and turn one part, otherwise one side of the coat will have the pattern running differently to the other, which will be much more apparent if the third stripe is of a different width from the others.
Turning to the diagram, it will be noticed the back is cut whole, and with that exception, out exactly the some as the Lounge described previously; they are not intended to fit very closely or define the waist to a nicety, as the extra size produced by the hack being left whole, just gives it a character. If, however, it is wished to follow the figure rather more than it would be in this diagram, it will be necessary to take out rather more at 61⁄2, 8, but this must not be done to excess, it being very much better to take out a fish under the arms to bring it to the size of waist desired, this being a very much safer plan than to reduce it too much at the side seam. The sleeve used would be the same as shown for the Lounge.
Diagrams 32 and 33,
Is frequently made from the same material as the Jacket, hence our giving a diagram to enable the tailor to supply every want of his customer in this direction. The stripes are generally mode to run round, although that by no means necessarily follows. The shape generally preferred is that known as the Eton; it being very largely need at this training ground of our aristocracy. The special feature in them is that they come over the back of the head miller more than ordinarily: the system for producing them in as follows: O to 111⁄2 half the circumference of the head, plus seams; this is then divided into three parts. viz. the front side and back; the front is 1⁄4 inch above line at O, and the back is lowered 3⁄4; O to 53⁄8 is half the distance O 111⁄2; point 55⁄8 is half 111⁄2 from 51⁄2; and 2 and 91⁄4 are placed rather over 1⁄9 from either end, so as to make the seam nearest to the centre piece the shortest.
May be reproduced exactly as shown, and making O 6 rather over half 111⁄2. Of course it will be readily understood this only represents the half of the peak, the part at 11⁄23l⁄2 being cut on the crease. In making up it will be as well to put a stay tape round the bottom edge, and keep it to the size of the head. The cap itself is lined with white Silesia or Silk. and the peak lined with the same material as the cap is made from, a piece of very still buckram or leather being put through the Peak to keep it firm.
THE COVERT COAT.
Dia. 34. Fig. 19.
We now come to deal with Overcoats and certainly there is no more effective style than the Covert Coat, for such purposes as riding, walking, &c. It has a natty, smart appearance, totally distinct from the longer styles. It is also made rather closer-fitting than the ordinary overcoat, but this will he gathered from the diagrams. One of the special features in this garment is the style in which the seams are finished, they are seldom left plain, but more frequently strapped with a piece of the some material out on the reverse way of the wool about 1 inch wide, which in then merged together, laid on top of the seams. and stitched close on the edge. The reason it is cut the wrong way of the wool is to make it show up more prominently than it would if the pile runs the same way. When we speak of the reverse way of the wool we do not mean upside down, but with the pile running round the figure; of course there are other ways besides this, such as slating generally used with Meltons, and such materials as will stand raw edge. Then again, there are raised seams which merely consist of turning the sewn aside and stitching it from the outside instead of pressing it open; whilst others stitched on either aide of the seam after it is pressed open. In our opinion the first style is the moat effective, especially with drab Venetians, such as Covert Coats are usually made from. The hindarm of the sleeve is frequently mode to run with the shoulder seam so that the strapping shall go in one continuous line; and when that is desired, it will be necessary to take some from the topside sleeve and add to the under, and by that means adjust the run of the sleeve at whatever position you may desire. It is frequently a difficulty to put the strapping down the forearm seam, and it may not be out of place if we give a plan whereby it is fairly easy. This consists of preparing the strapping and stitching it to the topside previous to the seam being sewn, and then stitch down the other side of the strapping also before joining the seam, after which the seam may be either lapped under the strapping or seemed in the ordinary way, after which it will be necessary to fell the undersleeve to the strapping, with as private a stitch as possible. The bottom of the cuff is invariably finished with 5 or 6 rows of sowing, which should have is piece of domett or padding underneath to throw up the sowing, which should also be done before closing the seam at forearm. The rows of stitching are usually placed the same distance apart as those on the strapping, the edges, pockets, and pocket mouths being finished with two rows of sowing in the same way. They are generally made up fly front, which is sometimes, but by no means always, stitched in with two rows of sewing, which should on no account go through the facing, as it detracts very much from the neatness of finish slits are left at the side, and a facing should be left on the forepart for this. Four out pockets, all finished with flaps, and a tab for the collar, see diagram 35, are all features of this coat. Turning to the cutting, it will be seen it is cut to a size larger than the Lounge, adding 3⁄8 to front and over shoulder measures, but of the some style, and 13⁄4 left all down the front for a button stand; extra spring is left over the hips, and, as will be seen, the front is carried down straight. If the measures have been taken on the customer as in the ordinary way, it will be necessary to make the following additions: add 1 inch a side to the chest measure, so that from 91⁄4 to 211⁄4 will be 1 inch more than for the Lounge, that being the quantity it is always safe to allow for an Overcoat when the measure has been taken on the vest, which plan we always advise, as it will be patent to all that various coats will measure differently; and as we wish to produce a garment that will suit the customer over the average style of coat, it will always be safe to get as near his actual measure as possible, and then make such allowance as experience teaches is correct. This quantity we believe to be 1 inch a side, which is divided as follows: one-fifth at back, two-fifths across chest, and two-fifths under the arms, but if that is not so easy as quarter inches, then we would give 1⁄4 inch extra across the back, 3⁄8 under the arm, and 3⁄8 across the chest. This should be increased to 11⁄4 a side extra at the waist, as owing to the pockets, &c., the waist increases faster than the chest; use the other error measures in exactly the same way as for a lounge, adding 3⁄8 to 1⁄2 inch to both front and over shoulders, and then deepen the scye 1⁄2 an inch; if 5⁄8 it will be better in a stout material. The sleeves should also be made quite 1⁄2 or 3⁄4 of an inch wider at elbow and cuff than for a Lounge, on both top and underside. It is always wise to err on the side of a too long fall edge to the collar than the reverse, for, being exposed to all inclemencies of the weather, they would soon shrink if any amount of stretching were necessary to bring them to a correct shape. Those hints are applicable to all overcoats, and as we shall have occasion to refer to them again, we wish to impress them on our readers' minds. Covert Coats are usually made from 2 to 4 inches longer than the Lounge, one of the great features being their shortness, as if made long they at once lose their distinctive character, and become a short Chesterfield.
Overcoat, Ulster, &c.
Dia. 87. Figs. 20, 21, 22, and 23.
These are produced in the same way as just described, either by falling the sectional measures for a size larger and adding 3⁄8 to the front and over shoulder measure, or if you have the opportunity of measuring the customer yourself to make the necessary addition as described for a Covert Coat. Chesterfields and Ulsters are made looser-fitting rather than the Covert Coat as as rule, so that if a very close fit is desired, it will be as well to take that as the model, and merely add to the length. It may be as well to recapitulate the variations to be made from the measures for an Overcoat:
- Allow 31⁄2 over chest.
- „ 31⁄2 over
- „ 31⁄2 waist.
- Add 1⁄4 inch to cross back measure.
- „ 1⁄3/8 „ „ „ chest measure.
- „ 1⁄3/8 „ „ „ front shoulder.
- „ 1⁄3/8 „ „ „ over shoulder.
- Deepen scye 1⁄2 an inch.
Make natural waist 1⁄4 inch lower, and make sleeve 1⁄2 inch wider at elbow and cuff and 1⁄2 inch longer. The spring over the hips in this case is arranged by coming in from the waist at side 6, and dropping 1 inch, and then drawing the lower part of sideseam at right angles to this as shown; this may either be used in units or inches, as it makes no difference, both producing the same angle. It will be noticed that in addition to the allowance of 1 inch a-side for being an Overcoat, 21⁄2 inches is allowed for making up, which will be found about right for all Winter goods, but too much for thin Worsteds and Venetians as used for Summer Overcoats, 2 inches will be quite enough for these. The solid outline of this diagram illustrates the allowance usually left beyond the centre line for a fly front, such as figure 20, being 2 to 21⁄4 inches, and which will necessitate the buttons Standing 3 to 31⁄2 inches back from the edge of the right forepart, or the same distance behind the breast-line as the eye of the whole is in front of it. For a button through coat, single breasted, as on figure 20, it will only be necessary to allow 11⁄2 inches beyond the breast line, whilst for a D.B. illustrated by the dash line in front of diagram 37, it will be necessary to allow 3 to 3½ inches, and find the position of buttons as just described. The slit at back should start 9 inches down from the natural waist, and the back ticking allowed as shown; marking out 1¼ from the back at that part, and drawing a straight line from O at top through the 1¼. This will give the correct run to the back lacking. As worn at present, it is turned in to run level with the back seam, which is certainly much neater than when they were made with a step at that part. The fish under the arm may be omitted for Ulsters, and the sidearm hardly so much suppressed, as it is not intended to fit as close as the Chester, the length being continued by adding on at the bottom to the desired extent. In order to get the front of a length sufficient to agree with the back, it will be necessary to make it ¾ of an inch longer than the back, measuring from line 9½ downwards, and independent of any variation which may exist from that line upwards and which would arise from the various positions of different customers. Care should be taken not to put the pockets too low, as that makes it inconvenient for the wearer; at the same time it is advisable to guard against them being too high, as that does not look in accordance with good taste. Some of our best firms, Poole's, for instance, of Savile Row. leave these till the garment is tried on, when they mark the position they consider the most suitable when the garment is on, and this is certainly a very capital plan Others again take a measure for this purpose, in order that they may be put in before the garment is tried on, as when trying on it is out of the question to alter their position. Others put the sleeve with the forearm at the forearm pitch, and mark the pocket mouth about 3½ inches above the bottom of sleeve, whilst the majority leave it to their individual judgment and taste, fixing them in some such a position as shown. It will he noticed the ticket pocket of this is brought more forward than the hip pocket, but this is by no means a regulation style, there being an many put in with ticket pocket level with the front of those at hip, and in some cases they are put very near the front, so that they are under the fly and so out of sight. The position of the breast pocket is found in the same manner as for a Lounge. In putting in the hip and ticket pocket, it is always as well to put a back and front facing, as that takes most of the wear.
Conveys a capital idea of how these coats are made up inside. the shaded part slung the bottom being an inlay to which the lining is folded. A linen bridle is put along the crease row at B, and in some firms the ends of the shoulders are built up with two or three thicknesses of canvas nicely graded as at A, but in such a ease it will be necessary to cut rather more on the shoulder end. It will be noticed that pleats are put in the lining down the front shoulder under the arm, and down the back, and the fly kept a seam behind the front edge, the stay for the hip pocket; being either carried in to the scye or to the sideseam; either plan will do, but it is scarcely necessary to use both. A V of silk is put in the front of scye to allow ample room at that part, the in breast pockets should be jeated top and bottom, and faced. The two hip pockets of an Overcoat should always be either cloth or chamois leather, as silesia feels poor and cold to put the hands in. The lining as represented is a woollen plaid, which should always be well shrunk before being put in, or it will give good deal of trouble.
Is produced on precisely the same lines as described previously, the only variation being the increased width of both elbow and wrist by 3⁄4 of an inch, and the cuff stitched as shown. It should always be made at point to flash-baste the lining to both seams in all coats, but more especially is this necessary with Overcoats, for it relieves the drag which is sure to occur in putting on or taking off the coat, and especially so when silk sleeve linings are not used, either on account of expense or wear. If Italian cloth is need it should be cut with sleeve running across the material, not lengthways.
if we may judge by the number of applications for a really reliable Cape System, we must come to the conclusion there are very few who can cut a good-fitting Cape. We trust this one will be of service to them; it has answered our purpose and given satisfaction to hundreds: and being very simple and reliable, we have no doubt it will be a valuable addition. Draw a square as per dotted lines, or rather two lines at right angles, and place the back with the beck seam on one line, and then place the forepart down with the breast line on the dotted line, so that the shoulder points are at least 1 inch apart. Mark round the neck and shoulder of back, and the gorge and shoulder of forepart, taking out a V as at 3⁄4 The inch of fulness should be fulled on to the forepart in the same style as a sleeve. Now continue the shoulder seam right through to bottom, and make the width of back on a level with the natural waist at about 3⁄4 of breast; a trifle more or less is of no consequence. Take out a V of 3 or 4 inches at bottom according to the degree of closeness it is desired to make the Cape to fit. Make the length of back to customer's wishes, and then deduct the distance the shoulder seam is below the level of neck (as O 31⁄3 diagram 37) from this, and get the length of side by applying this measure from the end of shoulder seem at X, Make the front length 3⁄4 of an inch longer from O than back, and draw the bottom edge by these points. Add on a button stand if it is desired it should button over up the fronts, or if it is wished to wear it with a collar and turn as in figure 18, cut it to the dot and dash line, which should be about 11⁄2 or 2 inches behind the breast line. Some may ask the reason of the V at 13⁄4 it is necessary to provide sufficient room for the shoulder and avoid surplus width at the bottom, and this is the only method of producing this unless the back is made much wider, and the seam made to run exactly over the shoulder, which does not give nearly such a stylish appearance as this method. In cutting from the cloth the back should be cut on the crease. and the pattern (cheek or stripe) made to run straight with the front edge of forepart, so that it is only cut through at the shoulder seems. This may be continued to any length desired by merely adjusting the length as described above. If a fuller Cape is desired. swing the forepart more forward by reducing the distance between A O, still keeping the shoulders in the same position; this may be done till the shoulders are brought together, end there is no seam at A X, which then produces a very full Cape known as the Three-quarter Circular Cape.
Hoods are produced in a very similar way to capes, and we here illustrate two different styles, the dot and dash line being the jelly-bag hood. and the longer and solid outline being the cape hood. The back and forepart are placed together, with the ends of the shoulders touching as per dotted linen, and the run of the neck is thus obtained; this is really the only part of the hood that fits, all the other being purely a question of taste and style. The cape hood is very suitable for gentlemen; F G H being sewn together up to G, and I H is sewn to the corresponding part on the other side, the V at neck C B D is sewn up, and that part up from I to E is drawn in with elastic or cord. If wanted to put on or off, it will be best to sew the neck to a narrow band and fasten it to the stand of the collar with holes and buttons, the seam coming just on the top of the collar seam. They are sometimes lined but not often, that plan being more frequently adopted for ladies. The jelly-bag is a much smaller style of hood, and is pointed at the bottom, it makes up in the same way, and is very close-fitting to the head in wear. These are the two principal styles of hoods worn by gentlemen. Other types being more of a fancy nature, are more suitable for ladies.
THE INVERNESS CAPE.
Dias. 43 and 44. Figs. 24 and 25.
The easiest way of producing this very comfortable style of garment is by a Chesterfield block, which is shown on diagram 35, by the dotted lines. The old style of Inverness was very loose and baggy, but the present style ls to have it much closer fitting, with just enough room in the cape to allow of the arms being put "akimbo"
The great feature in dealing with an Inverness is to avoid a wide back, as that is very apt to produce a dragging in the wing. The back is cut on the crease, it being drawn by going out 1 inch from the natural waist of a Chester, and drawing from top of neck through it to the bottom; the sideseam of back is squared down the some width as at the top, quite straight.
The forepart is out exactly the some as the forepart of the Chester in front, but with additional width at sideseam, it being made to overlap the back at waist, according to the degree of fulness desired in the back. If wanted to fit moderately easy it should overlap about11⁄2 or 2 inches, and be continued through to the bottom by drawing a straight line from the shoulder point of back; if, however, it is required to fit into the waist and define the figure at that part, it will then be necessary to shape the sideseam, as for a Chesterfield, and taking out about 1 inch at natural waist, then springing over the seat as described for that garment; but it should always be home in mind that the closer the body of the coat fits, the more spring will be required in the wing, in order to produce the necessary ease for the arms. If it is desired to put sleeves to this garment, it will be best to cut all the scye in one with the forepart, making the shoulder the full width, and carrying it round to the two dots at back, so that the sideseam may still run up to the shoulder, and allow of the cape being sewn in with it. When worn without sleeves, the armhole may be enlarged to any extent, but if it is desired to be fairly close-fitting, it is advisable to keep it about 1 or 2 inches above the natural waist; a 11⁄4 inch button stand is generally added, it being customary to make this garment to button through.
Patch pockets are generally looked upon as the correct thing, and are made large and roomy, usually being placed in the position shown.
We will now describe the special feature of this garment.
A very great latitude is allowed in the amount of spring given to this, but it should be borne in mind that the closer the body of this garment is cut, the fuller it is necessary to cut the wing in order to avoid that contraction so frequently experienced in these when the arms are raised. The diagrams show a wing arranged to agree with the body as illustrated on diagram 43; it is cut by placing the back and forepart down as shown by dotted lines, and then taking the sleeve and placing it with the forearm at the forearm pitch, allowing it to overlap about 1 inch, so that it touches the scye up to midway between the top of front shoulder and the forearm pitch. Now mark round the top of sleeve. and make a mark as at * * where the hindarm comes, so that it may be put in to the back pitch of sleeve. Now put the finger on this spot, and swing the sleeve round till the amount of spring desired is obtained; in this instance it is brought to the level of scye line on back, or say 21⁄2 to 31⁄2 inches over the half breast, from centre line of front, and the wing is drawn to that point by the hindarm of sleeve; the lower part requires a little additional spring as shown; one of the best guides being to turn the sleeve over, so that the forearm rests on that part of the wing already found, and then draw the lower portion by it. The comer is rounded off and left loose from the sideseam for a few inches as illustrated, to where the stitching of edge terminates. The length of the wing is also arranged by the sleeve, it being usual to let them come to just cover the coat sleeve; so the back part of wing is found by the sleeve when swung round, as per the most backward dotted lines, and the side with the sleeve laid in the position in which it was first laid, and whence it is continued across almost straight; 11 inches of spring is added on the front beyond the forepart as shown, to prevent any tendency to open at that part. The fulness at top of wing should be put in exactly the same as with a sleeve head, and if necessary the V may be cut a little deeper. In making a stay should be put at the part where the wing is finished at sideseam, and also at the terminating point at neck, it being frequently left loose 2 or 3 inches from the centre line, so that it may be easier thrown back over the shoulder. The wing is generally lined with silk, which is sometimes brought to the edge, and in others the front is faced. The Cape may be either made to button through or fasten with a fly. The general rule with Inverness Capes is to make them to button to the throat with a Prussian collar.
Which is produced as follows; all garments that are finished with this style of collar fastening up to the throat, it is not necessary to take the gorge into consideration beyond its length, hence the diagram may be taken as a standard pattern for this collar. Draw line O 8, which is perfectly straight, and make it the length of the gorge; come up from 8 1 inch, and draw the sewing to edge of the collar, as from 1 to O; O should just above 13⁄4 at the other end of line 8. Now mark the stand upwards from this, say 11⁄4 at back, and from 1⁄2 to 3⁄4 in front, and draw the crease edge; the fell may then be added to taste, in this case being made 13⁄4 inches at back, and 11⁄2 in front; hollow the centre of back about 1⁄4 inch, and spring it forward at 11⁄2 as shown. Many Invernersses, however are worn with a small turn, and to some this is a bit of a puzzle. There are two (if not more) ways of doing this: the one is to cut the forepart of diagram 43 off in the shape of a no-collar vest, and in making up make the turn on the wing, fastening the forepart to it to within about one inch of the centre or breast line, that being sufficient to steady the wing and at the same time allows plenty of case for buttoning both. The other method is to cut the Cape away to about 1 inch behind the breast, the disadvantage to this way being that it does not allow of the Cape being buttoned across the front, which is overcome to a certain extent by putting tabs at the bottom corner to fasten it to buttons put on the forepart. There is another style of Inverness worn at present, with the Cape coming all round the back, but we shall refer to this later on under the title of the Scarborough, so that we will proceed with the next garment, viz.
THE DRESSING GOWN.
Diagrams 46 and 47. Figure 26.
The diagram for this is very nearly self-explanatory, as it shows the style in which these are not only cut but made. Of course a great variety of styles exist in the manner in which they are trimmed, but them are few more effective or popular than our illustrations. As will be seen, the cuffs and collars are finished with quilted satin, usually of a contrasting colour, and the edges corded to match the satin, which terminate at the bottom with a crow's toe, this method is also used for the trimming of the cuff above the satin; as will he noticed, the collar is of the roll form, a style which is invariably adopted for Dressing Gowns, although occasionally we see them fastening to the throat with a stand collar, but this is the exception rather than the rule. The fronts and pockets are also trimmed with cord, the latter being corded round and terminated with a crow's toe, the same style of ornament is also adopted for the cords across the breast, together with an eye on either side in the centre; the cord is left in loops beyond on the left side, so that it may go over the barrels or olivets placed on, or a little distance from, the crow's toe. A wollen girdle is put through loops placed one on either side, which are sometimes supplemented by one at the back; this is also of the same colour as the satin and cord. Turning our attention to the cutting. They are cut to the easy side at breast, and decidedly loose-fitting at the waist. They are out with 21⁄2 inches allowance for making up et client, and are made 1 inch wider at back then dotted line, and the forepart is made to overlap the back also 1 inch at the natural waist, which lines are carried straight through to the bottom; the amount of overlap in this case is 3 inches, which may be reduced if desired. It will be noticed all the other points are produced in the same way as the Lounge, and the scye deepened a trifle, say 1⁄4 of an inch. The sleeve should be made to the easy side, at least 1⁄2 inch wider at both elbow and wrist than for a Lounge. The roll collar ls cut by the same system as explained in diagram 30, with the exception that no step is taken out, the collar being made to form one continuous run with the front. These garments are required more for ease than closeness of fit, so that the only part at which it will be necessary to pay special attention will be the shoulders and neck; the back, as will be seen. is cut on the crease. The fronts are generally faced a little way back, and the pockets are patched on the inside.
THE CHORISTERS CASSOCK.
Diagrams 48 and 49. Figure 21.
This is a garment the tailor is frequently called upon to make, it being used rather extensively, and is the some as worn by the verger, pew-opener and sometimes the clergy themselves wear the same style. It is out as a very long Chester, with full skirts, and sufficient left on for box plaits at the centre of back and side seams. It should be made rather easy fitting, in fact, may be treated exactly as is Chester, with the exception taut it is only worn over the vest, The waist ls only intended to slightly define the figure, so that it is not made at all close to the measures, and, as will be seen, only 1 inch of suppression taken out between the back and forepart at sideseam. The spring of sideseam at, bottom is got by coming in from it on either side of natural waistline 6 inches, and dropping down 1 or 11⁄4, and than drawing this seam at right angles; this will readily be gathered from the diagram. A pocket is sometimes put in the pleats at side, and a small ticket or cash pocket is invariably put in the fore-part. The one great feature about the garment is to keep it close up at the neck, as any excess of size at that part would detract from the fit. The collar is of the ordinary stand form, and the cuff either left plain or made to form a gauntlet style of cuff as shown on diagram 49. A button stand of 11⁄4 inches is allowed on, so that the buttons may come just down the centre. These run somewhere about 40 for a run of 5ft, 8in.; some contend they should be just 39 to agree with the 39 articles, but this is not looked upon as regulations; they, are, however, placed very close together, very little over 11⁄4 inches apart, and are generally arranged for every one to button down to a little below waist, say the first 15, and below that every other one. They are usually lined low enough to cover the top of the pleats, which thus brings it to about the hip. A facing is put down the front from the neck point to about 3 or 4 inches wide at bottom; this takes the holes and buttons. The bottom are usually a 28 line flexible, sometimes oval top, this size being about midway between a coat and vest size. The materials generally used for these are fine Serge, Russel Cord, Worsted Diagonal, or Alpaca. A small space shows between the collar ends, when finished, say of about 1 or 11⁄2 inches, although a variation of opinion exists as to this. To get the correct length for these, we know some of the London specialists in this branch make it a rule to take the total height of the customer, and deduct 10 inches; they also ask the customer the size linen collar he wears, and adjusts the Cassock collar to agree with it. We now come to another semi-clerical garment, viz.,
THE CHORISTER'S SURPLICE.
Diagram 50. Figure 28.
This is a garment tailors are not often called upon to make, for two reasons: one is, they are more generally supplied ready made by firms who devote themselves to this particular branch, and secondly to the fact that those who have them make them last a very long time, as being made of linen they wear out very slowly. However, we fell it would be adding very greatly to the value of the present work, if we gave diagrams and instructions how these are made as it being only an occasional garment, few tailors would have the necessary knowledge at their finger ends, and so would be glad of any information obtainable on this topic. The cutting of a surplice is a very easy matter, it being the usual custom to use one pattern for all medium sizes; and merely adjusting its length at the bottom, so that it will be better to reproduce this one by the aid of graduated tapes, to agree with the chest measure. We think the diagram is fully explanatory, and we have placed the various parts exactly as they go together. It does not come close round the neck, but shows the cassock above some 3 or 4 inches. The sleeve as will be seen is cut upon the crease from 8 to 29, and goes up into and forms part of the neck, as with the old Raglan sleeve. The top part is cut much shorter than the back as illustrated at 2. The back and front are both cut on the crease, but as the linen is only 36 inches wide on the single, it will he found necessary to put wheel pieces on the back, the front just coming out of the width.
The sleeve will be able to be got out of the material if it is opened out, but if any piecing is necessary, it must be done at the bottom of the sleeve. In making up, the sideseams are first sewn, and then the sleeves put in from the neck end in the same manner in which they are placed on the diagram. When about 4 inches from the sideseam, a gusset 4 inches square, as diagram 51, is inserted, and the remainder of sleeve sewn together, and so forming an underarm seam to the sleeve. The bottom sleeves are finished with a 1⁄2 or 5⁄8 inch hem, and the bottom is finished in like manner, but rather wider, the neck being done ditto; but in this case it is necessary to sew on a piece, and so form a false hem in the same way we case trouser bottoms. In order to get sufficient spring on the outside edge, it will he necessary to out this piece on the bias, or, of course, it may be cut exactly the same as neck of surplice, but in any case it must be made so that it lies quite smooth and fair all round. The seams of this are sewn in the same way as a shirt is usually done, viz., seamed and turned over, and felled or stitched The neck being out so large, enables the garment being put on or off with ease, so that holes and buttons are not necessary, as in the case of those styles for clergymen, that fasten right up to the neck. There are many styles of surplice, but this is the one generally known as the Chroister's
For the sake of economy, the back is arranged with the selvedge edges sown together and coming down the back, and so saving material as mentioned.
The material generally used for these is linen.
We now come to deal with mother speciality, viz., those garments warn by the page boy, and the tiger or groom, and illustrated on
Diagrams 52, 58, 64 and 65.
Figures 29 and 80.
Taking first the Page's Jacket, we find it is cut very much in the shape of an Eton Jacket, but made to fasten up the front and the neck finished with a stand collar, the principal variation being a rather wider back than for the Eton. As this is made to it quite close, care must be taken to form ample spring over the hips, it being decidedly preferable to err on the side of too much rather than too little spring. As these jackets are seldom worn with a vest, care must be taken not to cut them too large, for although they are usually interlined with wedding and quilted all over the forepart, and occasionally the back, too, yet this hardly makes up for the want of the vest, so that we have found 13⁄4 a-side over the breast measure to be quite sufficient. It will of course be noticed that the back in cut on the crease, and like the Eton, cut with a point at bottom, which usually runs about 31⁄2 inches below the waist. Like all garments that button up the front, this should be cut with only about 5⁄8 or 3⁄4 of an inch beyond the breast line on the button-hole side, and an extra button stand allowed on; by this arrangement the buttons come exactly up the centre of the figure when buttoned, as the eye of the hole comes just on the breast line. Care should be taken to get the gorge the right size of neck, as it is a very unsightly fault, and a tedious alteration when it is too large. The collar is generally fastened at the neck with hooks and eyes, and sometimes a button and notched hole is put in the end, as illustrated on the midshipman's diagram 23. The buttons down the front are arranged so that there are about 16, but sometimes there are three rows of studs, in which case they are plugged through the foreparts, both up the front and over the shoulder, the garment being actually fastened with hooks and eyes, and the buttons or studs down the front for ornament only. One of the points connected with these buttons is to put them just thick enough to preserve one unbroken line, but there is a danger of putting them too thick, which must be specially guarded against, as in such case they present a very crooked appearance. When these jackets are edged they are usually edged up the front, round the collar and cuffs, and sometimes, but by no means always. round the bottom. The style of cuff varies somewhat, but that shown on diagram 54 is the one more generally adopted, and which may be justly looked upon as the livery cuff, as it is universally used for all kinds of Livery Coats. As will be seen it is either a cuff formed, or a row of stitching 2 inches from the bottom, and a hole and button put above and one below, so that when the edges are piped, there is a piping also along the top of this cuff. The other Style which is occasionally adopted, is the pointed cuff, the front being brought up rather nearer the forearm than the back, and along the top of which the piping runs. When this style ls adopted, it is customary to dispense with holes and buttons at the cuff.
Garments that have a stand collar invariably button up to the throat, so that it is not necessary to take the gorge into consideration here, hence one pattern of stand collar does for all sizes by merely varying the Width at top and the length at back. The system for producing them is as follows: Draw line O 8 the length collar is desired, and measure up from 8, 1 inch, and drew sewing-to-edge by points thus obtained, letting it join line O 8 about halfway across from O to 11⁄2 is the depth of collar required at the back, and 1, 21⁄4 is the depth of collar required in the front; come in from 21⁄2 1⁄2 an inch, and draw the top edge as shown. As a rule it is immaterial whether these collars have a seam up the beck as at O 11⁄2, but when, as in the present instance, the back has no seam in it, the collar should be arranged to follow suit, as it is by no means a necessity. We find buckram is very much better than canvas to put through these, as it is highly essential they should retain their stiffness, otherwise they have a very sloppy appearance. An inlay is left all along the bottom of a Pages Jacket, and the breast pocket, which is usually pieced in the left breast, should have the mouth to run vertically, that is, up and down; this enables the hand to use it with greater ease; when the edges are not piped they are left bluff, that being the universal custom with Liveries.
The Page's trousers are of the ordinary close-fitting type, and may be made rather smarter fitting than is the rule for other Liveries, and as the seat is fully exposed to view, care must be taken to avoid having any surplus materiel, either in width or length, although of course sufficient width must be left for ease or stooping, &c.; they are always made fly front, and when the edges of jacket are piped, the sideseam of trousers are done to match.
The Groom's Frock.
This, as will be seen, is a close-fitting single-breasted Frock, to button 6 up the front; this number is sometimes reduced to 5, but the first is generally looked upon as the regulation number. It is produced exactly as previously described for the Morning Coat, with the exception that it is made to fasten right down the front, and the waist is mode to fit tight, as any excess of width at that part would readily show itself when worn with a belt as they generally are. The variation in the skirt is done to produce more fulness, and as will be readily gathered from an examination of the diagram, no difference exists behind the sidebody from the system, as laid down for the Morning Coat skirt, it being readily followed that both styles should fit exactly the same at the pleats. The variation then takes place at the front, where it is allowed to overlap the forepart 2 inches at least: if a very full skirt is required this quantity may be increased to 3 inches, but as a general rule 2 inches will be sufficient for this class of skirt, the run of the front may than be obtained by placing the square with one arm resting on the hip button at bottom corner of sidebody, and the other end raised as much above the level of the skirt seam in front as that part overlaps the forepart; this will give the correct angle at which the front should be drown. Another way is to put the forepart in a closing position with the skirt, and draw the front by tint; either method will produce satisfactory results, so that our readers may adopt which plan they consider best. A short pointed side edge is put at the pleats 9 inches long in the form shown on diagram, with the centre button a trifle nearer the top than the bottom one. This at one time was used as an entrance to the pocket, but the present custom is to put the pockets in the pleats. The edges are either left bluff or piped with a contrasting colour. When the latter course is adopted, the fronts, collars, cuffs, buck skirt, end side edges are piped, the bottom edge being left plain; seemed and pressed open, always makes a neater bluff edge than a felled one, both of which methods are in vogue by first class Livery houses. The style of cuff used is the some as shown on diagram 54. It may be as well to mention in connection with these that it is the custom to put all linings of's very plain character, and for this reason wadding or padding of any description is only flash-baisted in; this applies to all Livery garments except Page's. Groom's vests are generally made of the roll collar style, often with sleeves, the material used being either the some as the coat, or a striped Valencia; and when the in adopted the stripes run up and down the figure.
The Breeches are generally made from white Buckskin cloth, and in style of cut resemble the Gent's Riding Breeches shown on diagram 74, but are not so extreme if the line by which to draw the front is dropped from 12 at side from 3⁄4 to 1 inch, instead of 11⁄2, that will be quite sufficient. Like the Gent's, the Groom's Breeches button to the front of knee, and the top button should be just about the small, the tack being placed 1 inch below the knee, and the top button 1 inch below that, three buttons show above the top boots and two above the leggings. An inch should be allowed for fulness on the topsides at knee, and a similar amount allowed on the undersides above the level of crutch to allow of it being fulled on to form a receptacle for the seat. They are generally made close fitting as regards the size of thigh and leg, and the fronts made in whole fall style, but this must by no means be taken for granted, as fly fronts are made for this class of servant.
Although top boots are generally worn, yet gaiters are often adopted, diagrams of which will be found in the Federation Prize Essay on Trouser Cutting. The instructions laid down up to this point, although applied more particularly to Youths' Jackets, Coats, &c., embody principles which may be applied with equal success to all sizes both large and small, the working of the system making all the necessary changes of its own accord, with the exception of corpulency; hints on the treatment of which and other abnormalities will be found in the "Cutter's Practical Guide," Part II., at the end of the volume.