The Descent of Man (Darwin)/Index

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INDEX.


A.

  • Abbot, C., on the battles of seals, 500.
  • Abductor of the fifth metatarsal, presence of, in man, 42.
  • Abercrombie, Dr., on disease of the brain affecting speech, 88.
  • Abipones, marriage customs of the, 598.
  • Abou-Simbel, caves of, 168.
  • Abortion, prevalence of the practice of, 46.
  • Abstraction, power of, in animals, 83.
  • Acalles, stridulation of, 306.
  • Acanthodactylus capensis, sexual differences of colour in, 357.
  • Accentor modularis, 473.
  • Acclimatisation, difference of, in different races of men, 167.
  • Achetidæ, stridulation of the, 282, 283, 285; rudimentary stridulating organs in female, 288.
  • Acilius sulcatus, elytra of the female, 276.
  • Acomus, development of spurs in the female of, 450.
  • Acridiidæ stridulation of the, 282, 286; rudimentary stridulating organs in female, 288.
  • Acromio-basilar muscle, and quadrupedal gait, 42.
  • Acting, 178.
  • Actiniœ, bright colours of, 260.
  • Adams, Mr., migration of birds, 108; intelligence of nut-hatch, 418; on the Bombycilla carolinensis, 461.
  • Admiral butterfly, 312.
  • Adoption of the young of other animals by female monkeys, 70.
  • Advancement in the organic scale, Von Baer's definition of, 164.
  • Aeby, on the difference between the skulls of man and the quadrumana, 149.
  • Æsthetic faculty, not highly developed in savages, 93.
  • Affection, maternal, 70; manifestation of, by animals, 70; parental and filial, partly the result of natural selection, 105; mutual, of birds, 410; shewn by birds in confinement, for certain persons, 411.
  • Africa, probably the birthplace of man, 155; South, crossed population of, 174; South, retention of colour by the Dutch in, 193; South, proportion of the sexes in the butterflies of, 250; tattooing practised in, 574; Northern, coiffure of natives of, 575.
  • Agassiz, L., on conscience in dogs, 103; on the coincidence of the races of man with zoological provinces, 169; on the number of species of man, 174; on the courtship of the land-snails, 262; on the brightness of the colours of male fishes during the breeding season, 340; on the frontal protuberance of the males of Geophagus and Cichla, 340, 345; male fishes hatching ova in their mouths, 345; sexual differences in colour of chromids, 345; on the slight sexual differences of the South Americans, 561; on the tattooing of the Amazonian Indians, 576.
  • Age, in relation to the transmission of characters in birds, 463; variation in accordance with, in birds, 484.
  • Agelœus phœniceus, 225, 416.
  • Ageronia feronia, noise produced by, 307.
  • Agrion, dimorphism in, 290.
  • Agrion Ramburii, sexes of, 290.
  • Agrionidæ, difference in the sexes of, 290.
  • Agrotis exclamationis, 316.
  • Ague, tertian, dog suffering from, 8.
  • Aïthurus polytmus, young of, 487.
  • Ainos, hairiness of the, 560.
  • Albino birds, 419.
  • Alca torda, young of, 486.
  • Alces palmata, 515.
  • Alder and Hancock, MM., on the nudi-branch mollusca, 264.
  • Allen, J. A., vigour of birds earliest hatched, 212, 213; effect of difference of temperature, light, &c., on birds, 225; colours of birds, 422; on the relative size of the sexes of Callorhinus ursinus, 515; on the mane of Otaria jubata, 521; on the pairing of seals, 523; on sexual differences in the colour of bats, 534.
  • —— S., on the habits of Hoplopterus, 366; on the plumes of herons, 391; on the vernal moult of Herodias bubulcus, 393.
  • Alligator, courtship of the male, 221, 351; roaring of the male, 567.
  • Amadavat, pugnacity of male, 366.
  • Amadina Lathami, display of plumage by the male, 402.
  • —— castanotis, display of plumage by the male, 402.
  • Amazons, butterflies of the, 250; fishes of the, 343.
  • America, variation in the skulls of aborigines of, 26; wide range of aborigines of, 169; lice of the natives of, 170; general beardlessness of the natives of, 560.
  • ——, North, butterflies of, 250; Indians of, women a cause of strife among the, 561; Indians of, their notions of female beauty, 577, 580.
  • ——, South, character of the natives of, 168; population of parts of, 173; piles of stones in, 179; extinction of the fossil horse of, 191; desert-birds of, 490; slight sexual difference of the aborigines of, 561; prevalence of infanticide in, 592.
  • American languages, often highly artificial, 91.
  • Americans, wide geographical range of, 29; native, variability of, 174; and negroes, difference of, 197; aversion of, to hair on the face, 580.
  • Ammophila, on the jaws of, 275.
  • Ammotragus tragelaphus, hairy forelegs of, 531, 533.
  • Amphibia, affinity of, to the ganoid fishes, 159; vocal organs of the, 566.
  • Amphibians, 165, 348; breeding whilst immature, 485.
  • Amphioxus, 159.
  • Amphipoda, males sexually mature while young, 485.
  • Amunoph III., negro character of features of, 168.
  • Anal appendages of insects, 275.
  • Analogous variation in the plumage of birds, 385.
  • Anas, 462.
  • —— acuta, male plumage of, 393.
  • —— boschas, male plumage of, 393.
  • —— histrionica, 484.
  • —— punctata, 374.
  • Anastomus oscitans, sexes and young of, 486; white nuptial plumage of, 492.
  • Anatidæ, voices of, 374.
  • Anax junius, differences in the sexes of, 290.
  • Andaman islanders, susceptible to change of climate, 188.
  • Anderson, Dr., on the tail of Macacus brunneus, 59; the Bufo sikimmensis, 349; sounds of Echis carinata, 353.
  • Andrœna fulva, 292.
  • Anglo-Saxons, estimation of the beard among the, 581.
  • Animals, domesticated, more fertile than wild, 45; cruelty of savages to, 118; characters common to man and, 146; domestic, change of breeds of, 596.
  • Annelida, 264; colours of, 265.
  • Anobium tessellatum, sounds produced by, 306.
  • Anolis cristatellus, male, crest of, 354; pugnacity of the male, 354; throatpouch of, 354.
  • Anser canadensis, 416.
  • —— cygnoides, 415; knob at the base of the beak of, 426.
  • —— hyperboreus, whiteness of, 492.
  • Antelope, prong-horned, horns of, 234.
  • Antelopes, generally polygamous, 217; horns of, 234, 504; canine teeth of some male, 502; use of horns of 509; dorsal crests in, 530; dewlaps of, 531; winter change of two species of, 543; peculiar markings of, 543.
  • Antennæ, furnished with cushions in the male of Penthe, 276.
  • Anthidium manicatum, large male of, 279.
  • Anthocharis cardamines, 308, 312; sexual difference of colour in, 322.
  • —— genutia, 312.
  • —— sara, 312.
  • Anthophora acervorum, large male of, 279.
  • —— retusa, difference of the sexes in, 292.
  • Anthropidæ, 152.
  • Anthus, moulting of, 392.
  • Antics of birds, 380.
  • Antigua, Dr. Nicholson's observations on yellow fever in, 195.
  • Antilocapra americana, horns of, 234, 504, 507.
  • Antilope bezoartica, horned females of, 505, 506, 507; sexual difference in the colour of, 535.
  • —— Dorcas and euchore, 504.
  • —— euchore, horns of, 509.
  • —— montana, rudimentary canines in the young male of, 514.
  • —— niger, sing-sing, caama, and gorgon, sexual differences in the colours of, 536.
  • —— oreas, horns of, 234.
  • —— saiga, polygamous habits of, 217.
  • —— strepsiceros, horns of, 234.
  • —— subgutturosa, absence of suborbital pits in, 529.
  • Antipathy, shewn by birds in confinement, to certain persons, 411.
  • Ants, 147; large size of the cerebral ganglia in, 54; soldier-, large jaws of, 63; playing together, 69; memory in, 74; intcommunication of, by means of the antennæ, 89; habits of, 147; difference of the sexes in, 292; recognition of each other by, after separation, 292.
  • —— White, habits of, 291.
  • Anura, 349.
  • Apatania muliebris, male unknown, 254.
  • Apathus, difference of the sexes in, 292.
  • Apatura Iris, 307, 308.
  • Apes, difference of the young, from the adult, 8; semi-erect attitude of some, 52; mastoid processes of, 53; influences of the jaw-muscles on the physiognomy of, 54; female, destitute of large canines, 63; building platforms, 82; imitative faculties of, 129; anthropomorphous, 153; probable speedy extermination of the, 156; Gratiolet on the evolution of, 177; canine teeth of male, 502; females of some, less hairy beneath than the males, 601.
  • —— long-armed, their mode of progression, 52.
  • Aphasia, Dr. Bateman on, 88.
  • Apis mellifica, large male of, 279.
  • Apollo, Greek statues of, 581.
  • Apoplexy in Cebus Azaræ, 7.
  • Appendages, anal, of insects, 276.
  • Approbation, influence of the love of, 109, 116, 131.
  • Aprosmictus scapulatus, 457.
  • Apus, proportion of sexes, 255.
  • Aquatic birds, frequency of white plumage in, 495.
  • Aquila chrysaëtos, 408.
  • Arab women, elaborate and peculiar coiffure of, 583.
  • Arabs, fertility of crosses with other races, 171; gashing of cheeks and temples among the, 574.
  • Arachnida, 272.
  • Arakhan, artificial widening of the forehead by the natives of, 583.
  • Arboricola, young of, 468.
  • Archeopteryx, 158.
  • Arctiidæ, coloration of the, 314.
  • Ardea asha, rufescens, and cærulea, change of colour in, 494, 495.
  • —— cærulea, breeding in immature plumage, 484.
  • —— gularis, change of plumage in, 495.
  • —— herodias, love-gestures of the male, 380.
  • —— ludoviciana, age of mature plumage in, 483; continued growth of crest and plumes in the male of, 485.
  • —— nycticorax, cries of, 368.
  • Ardeola, young of, 468.
  • Ardetta, changes of plumage in, 461.
  • Argenteuil, 22.
  • Argus pheasant, 384, 403, 462; display of plumage by the male, 398; ocellated spots of the, 428; gradation of characters in the, 434.
  • Argyll, Duke of, on the physical weakness of man, 63; the fashioning of implements peculiar to man, 82; on the contest in man between right and wrong, 125; on the primitive civilisation of man, 143; on the plumage of the male Argus pheasant, 398; on Urosticte Benjamini, 442, 443; on the nests of birds, 453.
  • Argynnis, colouring of the lower surface of, 314.
  • Aricoris epitus, sexual differences in the wings of, 277.
  • Aristocracy, increased beauty of the, 586.
  • Arms, proportions of, in soldiers and sailors, 32; direction of the hair on the, 151.
  • —— and hands, free use of, indirectly correlated with diminution of canines, 53.
  • Arrest of development, 35, 36.
  • Arrow-heads, stone, general resemblance of, 179.
  • Arrows, use of, 179.
  • Arteries, variations in the course of the, 26.
  • Artery, effect of tying, upon the lateral channels, 32.
  • Arthropoda, 265.
  • Arts practised by savages, 179.
  • Ascension, coloured incrustation on the rocks of, 263.
  • Ascidia, affinity of the lancelet to, 159; tadpole-like larvæ of, 159.
  • Ascidians, 262; bright colours of some, 260.
  • Asinus, Asiatic and African species of, 548.
  • —— tœniopus, 548.
  • Ass, colour-variations of the, 547.
  • Ateles, effects of brandy on an, 7; absence of the thumb in, 51.
  • —— beelzebuth, ears of, 15.
  • —— marginatus, colour of the ruff of, 537; hair on the head of, 549.
  • Ateuchus, stridulation of, 306.
  • Ateuchus, cicatricosus, habits of, 300.
  • Athalia, proportions of the sexes in, 254.
  • Atropus pulsatorius, 291.
  • Attention, manifestations of, in animals, 73.
  • Audouin, V., on a hymenopterous parasite with a sedentary male, 221.
  • Audubon, J. J., on the pinioned goose, 105; on the speculum of Mergus cucullatus, 236; on the pugnacity of male birds, 362, 366; on Tetrao cupido, 367; on Ardea nycticorar, 368; on Sturnella ludoviciana, 368; on the vocal organs of Tetrao cupido, 371; on the drumming of the male Tetrao umbellus, 375; on sounds produced by the nightjar, 376; on Ardea herodias and Cathartes jota, 380; on Mimus polyglottus, 393; on display in male birds, 394; on the spring change of colour in some finches, 394; recognition of a dog by a turkey, 412; selection of mate by female birds, 416; on the turkey, 411, 412, 419; on variation in the male scarlet tanager, 424; on the musk-rat, 542; on the habits of Pyranga œstiva, 453; on local differences in the nests of the same species of birds, 456; on the habits of woodpeckers, 458; on Bombycilla carolinensis, 461; on young females of Tyranga œstiva acquiring male characters, 462; on the immature plumage of thrushes, 464; on the immature plumage of birds, 465 et seq.; on birds breeding in immature plumage, 484; on the growth of the crest and plumes in the male Ardea ludoviciana, 485; on the change of colour in some species of Ardea, 494.
  • Audubon and Bachman, M.M., on squirrels fighting, 500; on the Canadian lynx, 521.
  • Aughey, Prof., on rattlesnakes, 353.
  • Austen, N.L., on Anolis cristatellus, 354.
  • Australia, not the birthplace of man, 155; half-castes killed by the natives of, 170; lice of the natives of, 170; prevalence of female infanticide in, 592.
  • Australia, South, variation in the skulls of aborigines of, 26.
  • Australians, colour of newborn children of, 557; relative height of the sexes of, 559; women a cause of war among the, 561.
  • Axis deer, sexual difference in the colour of the, 537.
  • Aymaras, measurements of the, 34; no grey hair among the, 559; hairlessness of the face in the, 561; long hair of the, 580.
  • Azara, on the proportion of men and women among the Guaranys, 244; on Palamedea cornuta, 366; on the beards of the Guaranys, 561; on strife for women among the Guanas, 561; on infanticide, 577, 592; on the eradication of the eyebrows and eyelashes by the Indians of Paraguay, 580; on polyandry among the Guanas, 593; celibacy unknown among the savages of South America, 594; on the freedom of divorce among the Charruas, 598.

B.

  • Babbage, C., on the greater proportion of illegitimate female births, 244.
  • Babirusa, tusks of the, 518.
  • Baboon, revenge in a, 69; rage excited in, by reading, 71; manifestation of memory by a, 74; employing a mat for shelter against the sun, 82; protected from punishment by its companions, 103.
  • ——, Cape, mane of the male, 521; Hamadryas, mane of the male, 521.
  • Baboons, effects of intoxicating liquors on, 7; ears of, 15; diversity of the mental faculties in, 27; hands of, 50; habits of, 51; variability of the tail in, 58; manifestation of maternal affection by, 70; using stones and sticks as weapons, 81; co-operation of, 101; silence of, on plundering expeditions, 104; apparent polygamy of, 217; polygamous and social habits of, 590.
  • Bachman, Dr., on the fertility of mulattoes, 171.
  • Baer, K. E. von, on embryonic development, 9.
  • Bagehot, W., on the social virtues among primitive men, 117; slavery formerly beneficial, 117; on the value of obedience, 130; on human progress, 132; on the persistence of savage tribes in classical times, 183.
  • Bailly, E. M., on the mode of fighting of the Italian buffalo, 508; on the fighting of stags, 510.
  • Bain, A., on the sense of duty, 98; aid springing from sympathy, 103; on the basis of sympathy, 106; on love of approbation, &c., 109; on the idea of beauty, 584.
  • Baird, W., on a difference in colour between the males and females of some Entozoa, 260.
  • Baker, Mr., observation on the proportion of the sexes in pheasant-chicks, 247.
  • ——, Sir S., on the fondness of the Arabs for discordant music, 380; on sexual difference in the colours of an antelope, 536; on the elephant and rhinoceros attacking white or grey horses, 540; on the disfigurements practised by the negroes, 541; on the gashing of the cheeks and temples practised in Arab countries, 574; on the coiffure of the North Africans, 575; on the perforation of the lower lip by the women of Latooka, 575; on the distinctive characters of the coiffure of central African tribes, 576; on the coiffure of Arab women, 584.
  • "Balz" of the Black-cock, 363, 405.
  • Bantam, Sebright, 211, 238.
  • Banteng, horns of, 505; sexual differences in the colours of the, 536.
  • Banyal, colour of the, 579.
  • Barbarism, primitive, of civilised nations, 143.
  • Barbs, filamentous, of the feathers, in certain birds, 385, 430.
  • Barrago, F., on the Simian resemblances of man, 3.
  • Barr, Mr., on sexual preference in dogs, 524.
  • Barrington, Daines, on the language of birds, 86; on the clucking of the hen, 368; on the object of the song of birds, 369; on the singing of female birds, 370; on birds acquiring the songs of other birds, 370; on the muscles of the larynx in song birds, 371; on the want of the power of song by female birds, 450.
  • Barrow, on the widow-bird, 403.
  • Bartels, Dr., supernumerary mammæ in men, 37.
  • Bartlett, A. D., period of hatching of birds' eggs, 165; on the tragopan, 220; on the development of the spurs in Crossoptilon auritum, 236; on the fighting of the males of Plectropterus gambensis, 364; on the knot, 391; on display in male birds, 394; on the display of plumage by. the male Polyplectron, 396; on Crossoptilon auritum and Phasianus Wallichii, 400; on the habits of Lophophorus, 420; on the colour of the mouth in Buceros bicornis, 426; on the incubation of the cassowary, 478; on the Cape Buffalo, 508; on the use of the horns of antelopes, 509; on the fighting of male wart-hogs, 520; on Ammotragus tragelaphus, 531; on the colours of Cercopithecus cephus, 537; on the colours of the faces of monkeys, 550; on the naked surfaces of monkeys, 600.
  • Bartram, on the courtship of the male alligator, 351.
  • Basque language, highly artificial, 91.
  • Bate, C. S., on the superior activity of male; crustacea, 221; on the proportions of the sexes in crabs, 255; on the chelæ of crustacea, 266; on the relative size of the sexes in crustacea, 268; on the colours of crustacea, 270.
  • Bateman, Dr., tendency to imitation in certain diseased states, 72; on Aphasia, 88.
  • Bates, H. W., on variation in the form of the head of Amazonian Indians, 28; on the proportion of the sexes among Amazonian butterflies, 250; on sexual differences in the wings of butterflies, 277; on the field-cricket, 283; on Pyrodes pulcherrimus, 294; on the horns of Lamellicorn beetles, 295, 297; on the colours of Epicaliœ&c., 309; on the coloration of tropical butterflies, 311; on the variability of Papilio Sesostris and Childrenœ, 320; on male and female butterflies inhabiting different stations, 321; on mimicry, 323; on the caterpillar of a Sphinx, 325; on the vocal organs of the umbrella-bird, 374; on the toucans, 492; on Brachyurus calvus, 550.
  • Batokas, knocking out two upper incisors, 575.
  • Batrachia, 349; eagerness of male, 221.
  • Bats, scent-glands, 529; sexual differences in the colour of, 534; fur of male frugivorous, 534.
  • Battle, law of, 144; among beetles, 299; among birds, 360; among mammals, 500 et seq.; in man, 561.
  • Beak, sexual difference in the forms of the, 359; in the colour of the, 383.
  • Beaks, of birds, bright colours of, 491.
  • Beard, development of, in man, 557; analogy of the, in man and the quadrumana, 558; variation of the development of the, in different races of men, 559; estimation of, among bearded nations, 581; probable origin of the, 602.
  • ——, in monkeys, 150; of mammals, 531.
  • Beautiful, taste for the, in birds, 410; in the quadrumana, 540.
  • Beauty, sense of, in animals, 92; appreciation of, by birds, 413; influence of, 573, 576; variability of the standard of, 596.
  • Beavan, Lieut., on the development of the horns in Cervus Eldi, 234.
  • Beaver, instinct and intelligence of the, 67, 68; voice of the, 527; castoreum of the, 529.
  • Beavers, battles of male, 500.
  • Bechstein, on female birds choosing the best singers among the males, 368; on rivalry in song-birds, 369; on the singing of female birds, 370; on birds acquiring the songs of other birds, 370; on pairing the canary and siskin, 415; on a sub-variety of the monk pigeon, 427; on spurred hens, 449.
  • Beddoe, Dr., on causes of difference in stature, 31.
  • Bee-eater, 371.
  • Bees, 99; pollen-baskets and stings of, 63; destruction of drones and queens by, 106; female, secondary sexual characters of, 208; proportion of sexes, 254; difference of the sexes in colour and sexual selection, 292.
  • Beetle, luminous larva of a, 277.
  • Beetles, 294; size of the cerebral ganglia in, 54; dilatation of the fore tarsi in male, 275; blind, 294; stridulation of, 301.
  • Belgium, ancient inhabitants of, 182.
  • Bell, Sir C., on emotional muscles in man, 3; "snarling muscles," 41; on the hand, 51.
  • ——, T., on the numerical proportion of the sexes in moles, 247; on the newts, 348; on the croaking of the frog, 350; on the difference in the coloration of the sexes in Zootoca vivipara, 357; on moles fighting, 500.
  • Bell-bird, sexual difference in the colour of the, 389.
  • Bell-birds, colours of, 492.
  • Belt, Mr., on the nakedness of tropical mankind, 57; on a spider-monkey and eagle, 102; habits of ants, 147; Lampyridæ distasteful to mammals, 277; mimicry of Leptalides, 325; colours of Nicaraguan frogs, 349; display of humming-birds, 443; on the toucans, 492; protective colouring of skunk, 543.
  • Benevolence, manifested by birds, 411.
  • Bennett, A. W., attachment of mated birds, 411; on the habits of Dromœus irroratus, 478.
  • ——, Dr., on birds of paradise, 396.
  • Berbers, fertility of crosses with other races, 171.
  • Bernicla antarctica colours of, 492.
  • Bernicle gander pairing with a Canada goose, 414.
  • Bert, M., crustaceans distinguish colours, 271.
  • Bertillon, M., arrested development and polydactylism, 37.
  • Bettoni, E., on local differences in the nests of Italian birds, 456.
  • Beyle, M., see Bombet.
  • Bhoteas, colour of the beard in, 558.
  • Bhringa, disciform tail-feathers of, 392.
  • Bianconi, Prof., on structures as explained through mechanical principles, 24.
  • Bibio, sexual differences in the genus, 280.
  • Bichat, on beauty, 585.
  • Bickes, proportion of sexes in man, 243.
  • Bile, coloured, in many animals, 261.
  • Bimana, 149.
  • Birds, imitations of the songs of other birds by, 73; dreaming, 74; killed by telegraph wires, 80; language of, 86; sense of beauty in, 92; pleasure of, in incubation, 105; male, incubation by, 163; and reptiles, alliance of, 165; sexual differences in the beak of some, 208; migratory, arrival of the male before the female, 212; apparent relation between polygamy and marked sexual differences in, 220; monogamous, becoming polygamous under domestication, 220; eagerness of male in pursuit of the female, 221; wild, numerical proportion of the sexes in, 247; secondary sexual characters of, 358; difference of size in the sexes of, 362; fights of male, witnessed by females, 367; display of male, to captivate the females, 367; close attention of, to the songs of others, 368; acquiring the song of their foster-parents, 370; brilliant, rarely good songsters, 371; love-antics and dances of, 380; coloration of, 385 et seq.; moulting of, 390 et seq.; unpaired, 407; male, singing out of season, 409; mutual affection of, 410; in confinement, distinguish persons, 411; hybrid, production of, 414; Albino, 419; European, number of species of, 422; variability of, 422; geographical distribution of colouring, 422; gradation of secondary sexual characters in, 430; obscurely coloured, building concealed nests, 454; young female, acquiring male characters, 462; breeding in immature plumage, 484; moulting of, 484; aquatic, frequency of white plumage in, 493; vocal courtship of, 567; naked skin of the head and neck in, 601.
  • Birgus latro, habits of, 270.
  • Birkbeck, Mr., on the finding of new mates by golden eagles, 408.
  • Birthplace of man, 155.
  • Births, numerical proportions of the sexes in, in animals and man, 215, 216; male and female, numerical proportion of, in England, 242.
  • Bischoff, Prof., on the agreement between the brains of man and of the orang, 6; figure of the embryo of the dog, 10; on the convolutions of the brain in the human fœtus, 11; on the difference between the skulls of man and the quadrumana, 149; resemblance between the ape's and man's, 200.
  • Bishop, J., on the vocal organs of frogs, 350; on the vocal organs of corvine birds, 370; on the trachea of the Merganser, 374.
  • Bison, American, co-operation of, 101; mane of the male, 521.
  • Bitterns, dwarf, coloration of the sexes of, 461.
  • Biziura lobata, musky odour of the male, 359; large size of male, 362.
  • Blackbird, sexual differences in the, 219; proportion of the sexes in the, 248; acquisition of a song by, 370; colour of the beak in the sexes of the, 383, 491; pairing with a thrush, 414; colours and nidification of the, 455; young of the, 487; sexual difference in coloration of the, 491.
  • Black-buck, Indian, sexual difference in the colour of the, 535.
  • Blackcap, arrival of the male, before the female, 212; young of the, 487.
  • Black-cock, polygamous, 219; proportion of the sexes in the, 248; pugnacity and love-dance of the, 363; call of the, 375; moulting of the, 392; duration of the courtship of the, 405; and pheasant, hybrids of, 414; sexual difference in coloration of the, 491; crimson eye-cere of the, 491.
  • Blacklock, Dr., on music, 572.
  • Black-grouse, characters of young, 465, 471.
  • Blackwall, J., on the speaking of the magpie, 90; on the desertion of their young by swallows, 108; on the superior activity of male spiders, 221; on the proportion of the sexes in spiders, 254; on sexual variation of colour in spiders, 272; on male spiders, 272.
  • Bladder-nose Seal, hood of the, 528.
  • Blaine, on the affections of dogs, 523.
  • Blair, Dr., on the relative liability of Europeans to yellow fever, 194.
  • Blake, C. C., on the jaw from La Naulette, 40.
  • Blakiston, Capt., on the American snipe, 377; on the dances of Tetrao phasianellus, 381.
  • Blasius, Dr., on the species of European birds, 422.
  • Bledius taurus, hornlike processes of male, 299.
  • Bleeding, tendency to profuse, 237.
  • Blenkiron, Mr., on sexual preference in horses, 524.
  • Blennies, crest developed on the head of male, during the breeding season, 338.
  • Blethisa multipunctata, stridulation of, 302.
  • Bloch, on the proportions of the sexes in fishes, 249.
  • Blood, arterial, red colour of, 261.
  • —— pheasant, number of spurs in, 364.
  • Bluebreast, red-throated, sexual differences of the, 472.
  • Blumenbach, on Man, 28; on the large size of the nasal cavities in American aborigines, 34; on the position of man, 149; on the number of species of man, 174.
  • Blyth, E., on the structure of the hand in the species of Hylobates, 51; observations on Indian crows, 102; on the development of the horns in the Koodoo and Eland antelopes, 234; on the pugnacity of the males of Gallinula cristata, 360; on the presence of spurs in the female Euplocamus erythrophthalmus, 364; on the pugnacity of the amadavat, 366; on the spoonbill, 374; on the moulting of Anthus, 392; on the moulting of bustards, plovers, and Gallus bankiva, 392; on the Indian honey-buzzard, 424; on sexual differences in the colour of the eyes of hornbills, 425; on Oriolus melanocephalus, 460; on Palœornis javanicus, 461; on the genus Ardetta, 461; on the peregrine falcon, 461; on young female birds acquiring male characters, 461; on the immature plumage of birds, 465; on representative species of birds, 468; on the young of Turnix, 476; on anomalous young of Lanius rufus and Colymbus glacialis, 482; on the sexes and young of the sparrows, 483; on dimorphism in some herons, 484; on the ascertainment of the sex of nestling bullfinches by pulling out breast-feathers, 484; on orioles breeding in immature plumage, 484; on the sexes and young of Buphus and Anastomus, 486; on the young of the blackcap and blackbird, 487; on the young of the stonechat, 487; on the white plumage ofAnastomus, 493; on the horns of Bovine animals, 505; on the horns of Antilope bezoartica, 507; on the mode of fighting of Ovis cycloceros, 508; on the voice of the Gibbons, 527; on the crest of the male wild goat, 531; on the colours of Portax picta, 535; on the colours of Antilope bezoartica, 536; on the colour of the Axis deer, 536; on sexual difference of colour in Hylobates hoolock, 537; on the hog-deer, 546; on the beard and whiskers in a monkey becoming white with age, 559.
  • Boar, wild, polygamous in India, 217; use of the tusks by the, 513; fighting of, 518.
  • Boardman, Mr., Albino birds in U. S., 419.
  • Boitard and Corbié, MM., on the transmission of sexual peculiarities in pigeons, 230; on the antipathy shewn by some female pigeons to certain males, 418.
  • Bold, Mr., on the singing of a sterile hybrid canary, 369.
  • Bombet, on the variability of the standard of beauty in Europe, 596.
  • Bombus, difference of the sexes in, 292.
  • Bombycidæ, coloration of, 313; pairing of the, 318; colours of, 318.
  • Bombycilla carolinensis, red appendages of, 461.
  • Bombyx cynthia, 278; proportion of the sexes in, 250, 253; pairing of, 318.
  • —— mori, difference of size of the male and female cocoons of, 278; pairing of, 318.
  • —— Pernyi, proportion of sexes of, 253.
  • —— Yamamai, 278; M. Personnat on, 251; proportion of sexes of, 253.
  • Bonaparte, C. L., on the call-notes of the wild turkey, 375.
  • Bond, F., on the finding of new mates by crows, 408.
  • Bone, implements of, skill displayed in making, 49.
  • Boner, C., on the transfer of male characters to an old female chamois, 504; on the habits of stags, 515; on the pairing of red deer, 522.
  • Bones, increase of, in length and thickness, when carrying a greater weight, 32.
  • Bonizzi, P., difference of colour in sexes of pigeons, 230.
  • Bonnet monkey, 151.
  • Bonwick, J., extinction of Tasmanians, 183, 184.
  • Boomerang, 145.
  • Boreus hyemalis, scarcity of the male, 254.
  • Bory St. Vincent, on the number of species of man, 174; on the colours of Labrus pavo, 342.
  • Bos etruscus, 505.
  • —— gaurus, horns of, 505.
  • —— moschatus, 529.
  • —— primigenius, 501.
  • —— sondaicus, horns of, 505; colours of, 536.
  • Botocudos, 144; mode of life of, 197; disfigurement of the ears and lower lip of the, 575.
  • Boucher de Perthes, J. C. de, on the antiquity of man, 2.
  • Bourbon, proportion of the sexes in a species of Papilio from, 250.
  • Bourien, on the marriage-customs of the savages of the Malay Archipelago, 598.
  • Bovidæ, dewlaps of, 531.
  • Bower-birds, 406; habits of the, 381; ornamented playing-places of, 92, 413.
  • Bows, use of, 179.
  • Brachycephalic structure, possible explanation of, 56.
  • Brachyura, 268.
  • Brachyurus calvus, scarlet face of, 550.
  • Bradley, Mr., abductor ossis metatarsi quinti in man, 42.
  • Brain, of man, agreement of the, with that of lower animals, 6; convolutions of, in the human fœtus, 11; influence of development of mental faculties upon the size of the, 54; influence of the development of, on the spinal column and skull, 55; larger in some existing mammals than in their tertiary prototypes, 81; relation of the development of the, to the progress of language, 87; disease of the, affecting speech, 88; difference in the convolutions of, in different races of men, 167; supplement on, by Prof. Huxley, 199; development of the gyri and sulci, 204.
  • Brakenridge, Dr., on the influence of climate, 32.
  • Brandt, A., on hairy men, 19.
  • Braubach, Prof., on the quasi-religious feeling of a dog towards his master, 96; on the self-restraint of dogs, 103.
  • Brauer, F., on dimorphism in Neurothemis, 291.
  • Brazil, skulls found in caves of, 168; population of, 173; compression of the nose by the natives of, 583.
  • Break between man and the apes, 156.
  • Bream, proportion of the sexes in the, 249.
  • Breeding, age of, in birds, 484.
  • —— season, sexual characters making their appearance in the, in birds, 390.
  • Brehm, on the effects of intoxicating liquors on monkeys, 7; on the recognition of women by male Cynocephali, 8; on the diversity of the mental faculties of monkeys, 27; on the habits of baboons, 51; on revenge taken by monkeys, 69; on manifestations of maternal affection by monkeys and baboons, 70; on the instinctive dread of monkeys for serpents, 71; on the use of stones as missiles by baboons, 81; on a baboon using a mat for shelter from the sun, 82; on the signal-cries of monkeys, 87; on sentinels posted by monkeys, 101; on co-operation of animals, 101; on an eagle attacking a young Cercopithecus, 101; on baboons in confinement protecting one of their number from punishment, 103; on the habits of baboons when plundering, 104; on polygamy in Cynocephalus and Cebus, 217; on the numerical proportion of the sexes in birds, 247; on the love-dance of the black-cock, 363; on Palamedea cornuta, 366; on the habits of the Black-grouse, 366; on sounds produced by birds of paradise, 376; on assemblages of grouse, 405; on the finding of new mates by birds, 409; on the fighting of wild boars, 518; on the habits of Cynocephalus hamadryas, 590.
  • Brent, Mr., on the courtship of fowls, 417.
  • Breslau, numerical proportion of male and female births in, 243.
  • Bridgman, Laura, 88.
  • Brimstone butterfly, 312; sexual difference of colour in the, 322.
  • British, ancient, tattooing practised by, 574,
  • Broca, Prof., on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the human humerus, 22; anthropomorphous apes more bipedal than quadrupedal, 53; on the capacity of Parisian skulls at different periods, 55; comparison of modern and mediæval skulls, 55; on tails of quadrupeds, 58; on the influence of natural selection, 61; on hybridity in man, 170; on human remains from Les Eyzies, 181; on the cause of the difference between Europeans and Hindoos, 192.
  • Brodie, Sir B., on the origin of the moral sense in man, 98.
  • Bronn, H. G., on the copulation of insects of distinct species, 275.
  • Bronze period, men of, in Europe, 128.
  • Brown, R., sentinels of seals generally females, 100; on the battles of seals, 500; on the narwhal, 502; on the occasional absence of the tusks in the female walrus, 502; on the bladder-nose seal, 528; on the colours of the sexes in Phoca Grœnlandica, 535; on the appreciation of music by seals, 569; on plants used as love-philters, by North American women, 577.
  • Brown, Dr. Crichton, injury to infants during parturition, 244.
  • Brown-Séquard, Dr., on the inheritance of the effects of operations by guinea-pigs, 60, 603.
  • Bruce, on the use of the elephant's tusks, 507.
  • Brulerie, P. de la, on the habits of Ateuchus cicatricosus, 300; on the stridulation of Ateuchus, 306.
  • Brünnich, on the pied ravens of the Feroe islands, 424.
  • Bryant, Dr., preference of tame pigeon for wild mate, 418.
  • ——, Capt, on the courtship of Callorhinus ursinus, 522,
  • Bubas bison, thoracic projection of, 298.
  • Bucephalus capensis, difference of the sexes of, in colour, 351.
  • Buceros, nidification and incubation of, 454.
  • —— bicornis, sexual differences in the colouring of the casque, beak, and mouth in, 425,
  • —— corrugatus, sexual differences in the beak of, 383.
  • Büchner, L., on the origin of man, 3; on the use of the human foot as a prehensile organ, 52; on the mode of progression of the apes, 52; on want of self-consciousness, &c., in savages, 83.
  • Bucholz, Dr., quarrels of chamæleons, 357.
  • Buckland, F., on the numerical proportion of the sexes in rats, 247; on the proportion of the sexes in the trout, 249; on Chimœra monstrosa, 338.
  • Buckland, W., on the complexity of crinoids, 91.
  • Buckler, W., proportion of sexes of Lepidoptera reared by, 253.
  • Buckinghamshire, numerical proportion of male and female births in, 242.
  • Bucorax abyssinicus, inflation of the neck-wattle of the male during courtship, 383.
  • Budytes Raü, 212.
  • Buffalo, Cape, 508.
  • ——, Indian, horns of the, 505.
  • ——, Italian, mode of fighting of the, 508.
  • Buffon, on the number of species of man, 174.
  • Bufo sikimmensis, 349.
  • Bugs, 281.
  • Buist, R., on the proportion of the sexes in salmon, 249; on the pugnacity of the male salmon, 332.
  • Bulbul, pugnacity of the male, 360; display of under tail-coverts by the male, 402.
  • Bull, mode of fighting of the, 508; curled frontal hair of the, 531.
  • Buller, Dr., on the Huia, 208; the attachment of birds, 410.
  • Bullfinch, sexual differences in the, 219; piping, 369; female, singing of the, 370; courtship of the, 401; widowed, finding a new mate, 408; attacking a reed-bunting, 412; nestling, sex ascertained by pulling out breast-feathers, 484,
  • Bullfinches distinguishing persons, 412; rivalry of female, 420.
  • Bulls, two young, attacking an old one, 101; wild, battles of, 501.
  • Bull-trout, male, colouring of, during the breeding season, 340.
  • Bunting, reed, head feathers of the male, 402; attacked by a bullfinch, 412.
  • Buntings, characters of young, 464.
  • Buphus coromandus, sexes and young of, 486; change of colour in, 494, 495.
  • Burchell, Dr., on the zebra, 545; on the extravagance of a bushwoman in adorning herself, 577; celibacy unknown among the savages of South Africa, 594; on the marriage-customs of the Bushwomen, 598.
  • Burke, on the number of species of man, 174.
  • Burmese, colour of the beard in, 558.
  • Burton, Capt., on negro ideas of female beauty, 579; on a universal ideal of beauty, 582.
  • Bushmen, 64.
  • Bushwoman, extravagant ornamentation of a, 577.
  • Bushwomen, hair of, 167; marriage-customs of, 598.
  • Bustard, throat-pouch of the male, 373; humming noise produced by a male, 377; Indian, ear-tufts of, 384.
  • Bustards, occurrence of sexual differences and of polygamy among the, 219; love-gestures of the male, 380; double moult in, 390, 392.
  • Butler, A. G., on sexual differences in the wings of Aricoris epitus, 277; courtship of butterflies, 307; on the colouring of the sexes in species of Thecla, 310; on the resemblance of Iphias glaucippe to a leaf, 313; on the rejection of certain moths and caterpillars by lizards and frogs, 326.
  • Butterfly, noise produced by a, 307; Emperor, 307, 308; meadow brown, instability of the ocellated spots of, 428.
  • Butterflies, proportion of the sexes in, 250; forelegs atrophied in some male, 277; sexual difference in the neuration of the wings of, 277; pugnacity of male, 307; protective resemblances of the lower surface of, 311; display of the wings by, 314; white, alighting upon bits of paper, 317; attracted by a dead specimen of the same species, 317; courtship of, 317; male and female, inhabiting different stations, 321.
  • Buxton, C., observations on macaws, 102; on an instance of benevolence in a parrot, 411.
  • Buzzard, Indian honey-, variation in the crest of, 424.

C.

  • Cabbage butterflies, 312.
  • Cachalot, large head of the male, 502.
  • Cadences, musical, perception of, by animals, 569.
  • Cæcum, 20; large, in the early progenitors of man, 160.
  • Cairina moschata, pugnacity of the male, 362.
  • Californian Indians, decrease of, 258.
  • Callianassa, chelæ of, figured, 267.
  • Callidryas, colours of sexes, 318.
  • Callionymus lyra, characters of the male, 335.
  • Callorhinus ursinus, relative size of the sexes of, 515; courtship of, 522.
  • Calotes maria, 358.
  • —— nigrilabris, sexual difference in the colour of, 357.
  • Cambridge, O. Pickard, on the sexes of spiders, 255; on the size of male Nephila, 273.
  • Camel, canine teeth of male, 502, 514.
  • Campbell, J., on the Indian elephant, 218; on the proportion of male and female births in the harems of Siam, 245.
  • Campylopterus hemileucurus, 248.
  • Canaries distinguishing persons, 412.
  • Canary, polygamy of the, 220; change of plumage in, after moulting, 238; female, selecting the best singing male, 268; sterile hybrid, singing of a, 369; female, singing of the, 370; selecting a greenfinch, 415; and siskin, pairing of, 415.
  • Canestrini, G., on rudimentary characters and the origin of man, 3; on rudimentary characters, 11; on the movement of the ear in man, 14; on the variability of the vermiform appendage in man, 21; on the abnormal division of the malar bone in man, 39; on abnormal conditions of the human uterus, 39; on the persistence of the frontal suture in man, 39; on the proportion of the sexes in silk-moths, 250, 251; secondary sexual characters of spiders, 272.
  • Cancer pagurus, 266.
  • Canfield, Dr., on the horns of the Antilocapra 234.
  • Canine teeth in man, 46; diminution of, in man, 53; diminution of, in horses, 53; disappearance of, in male ruminants, 53; large, in the early progenitors of man, 160.
  • Canines, and horns, inverse development of, 514.
  • Canoes, use of, 48, 180.
  • Cantharis, difference of colour in the sexes of a species of, 294.
  • Cantharus lineatus, 341.
  • Capercailzie, polygamous, 219; proportion of the sexes in the, 248; pugnacity of the male, 363; pairing of the, 367; autumn meetings of the, 370; call of the, 375; duration of the courtship of, 405; behaviour of the female, 419; inconvenience of black colour to the female, 444; sexual difference in the coloration of the, 491; crimson eye-cere of the male, 491.
  • Capitonidæ, colours and nidification of the, 455.
  • Capra œgagrus, 508; crest of the male, 531; sexual difference in the colour of, 536.
  • Capreolus Sibiricus subecaudatus, 542.
  • Caprice, common to man and animals, 93.
  • Caprimulgus, noise made by the males of some species of, with their wings, 376.
  • —— virginianus, pairing of, 366.
  • Carabidæ, 302.
  • Carbonnier, on the natural history of the pike, 249; on the relative size of the sexes in fishes, 335; courtship of Chinese Macropus, 341.
  • Carcineutes, sexual difference of colour in, 457.
  • Carcinus mœnas, 268, 269.
  • Cardinalis virginianus, 225.
  • Carduelis elegans, sexual differences of the beak in, 360.
  • Carnivora, marine, polygamous habits of, 218; sexual differences in the colours of, 534.
  • Carp, numerical proportion of the sexes in the, 249.
  • Carr, R., on the peewit, 366.
  • Carrier pigeon, late development of the wattle in the, 238.
  • Carrion beetles, stridulation of, 302.
  • Carus, Prof. V., on the development of the horns in merino sheep, 235.
  • Cassowary, sexes and incubation of the, 478.
  • Castina, mode of holding wings, 315.
  • Castoreum, 529.
  • Casuarius galeatus, 478.
  • Cat, convoluted body in the extremity of the tail of a, 23; sick, sympathy of a dog with a, 103.
  • Cataract in Cebus Azarœ, 7.
  • Catarrh, liability of Cebus Azarœ to, 7.
  • Catarrhine monkeys, 153.
  • Caterpillars, bright colours of, 325.
  • Cathartes aura, 416.
  • —— jota, love-gestures of the male, 380.
  • Catlin, G., correlation of colour and texture of hair in the Mandans, 197; on the development of the beard among North American Indians, 560; on the great length of the hair in some North American tribes, 580.
  • Caton, J. D., on the development of the horns in Cervus virginianus and strongyloceros, 234; on the presence of traces of horns in the female wapiti, 504; on the fighting of deer, 510; on the crest of the male wapiti, 531; on the colours of the Virginian deer, 535; on sexual differences of colour in the wapiti, 536; on the spots of the Virginian deer, 546.
  • Cats, dreaming, 74; tortoise-shell, 230, 232, 237; enticed by valerian, 530; colours of, 543,
  • Cattle, rapid increase of, in South America, 47; domestic, lighter in winter in Siberia, 229; horns of, 234, 505; domestic, sexual differences of, late developed, 238; numerical proportion of the sexes in, 246.
  • Caudal vertebræ, number of, in macaques and baboons, 58; basal, of monkeys, imbedded in the body, 59.
  • Cavolini, observations on Serranus, 162.
  • Cebus, maternal affection in a, 70; gradation of species of, 175.
  • —— Apella, 205.
  • —— Azarœ, liability of, to the same diseases as man, 7; distinct sounds produced by, 84; early maturity of the female, 558.
  • —— capucinus, polygamous, 217; sexual differences of colour in, 537; hair on the head of, 549.
  • Cebus vellerosus, hair on the head of, 549.
  • Cecidomyidæ, proportions of the sexes in, 354.
  • Celibacy, unknown among the savages of South Africa and South America, 594.
  • Centipedes, 274.
  • Cephalopoda, absence of secondary sexual characters in, 263.
  • Cephalopterus ornatus, 373.
  • —— penduliger, 374.
  • Cerambyx heros, stridulant organ of, 303.
  • Ceratodus, paddle of, 37.
  • Ceratophora aspera, nasal appendages of, 355.
  • —— Stoddartii, nasal horn of, 355.
  • Cerceris, habits of, 291.
  • Cercocebus œthiops, whiskers, &c., of, 550.
  • Cercopithecus, young, seized by an eagle and rescued by the troop, 101; definition of species of, 175.
  • —— cephus, sexual difference of colour in, 537, 552.
  • —— cynosurus and griseoviridis, colour of the scrotum in, 537.
  • —— Diana, sexual differences of colour in, 537, 552, 553.
  • —— griseo-viridis, 101.
  • —— petaurista, whiskers, &c., of, 550.
  • Ceres, of birds, bright colours of, 491.
  • Ceriornis Temminckii, swelling of the wattles of the male during courtship, 383.
  • Cervulus, weapons of, 514.
  • —— moschatus, rudimentary horns of the female, 504.
  • Cervus alces, 234.
  • —— campestris, odour of, 529.
  • —— canadensis, traces of horns in the female, 504; attacking a man, 511; sexual difference in the colour of, 536.
  • —— elaphus, battles of male, 501; horns of, with numerous points, 510.
  • —— Eldi, 234.
  • —— mantchuricus, 546.
  • —— paludosus, colours of, 536.
  • —— strongyloceros, 234.
  • —— virginianus, 234; horns of, in course of modification, 511.
  • Ceryle, male black-belted in some species of, 457.
  • Cetacea, nakedness of, 56.
  • Ceylon, frequent absence of beard in the natives of, 560.
  • Chaffinch, proportion of the sexes in the, 248; courtship of the, 401.
  • Chaffinches, 369; new mates found by, 408.
  • Chalcophaps indicus, characters of young, 465.
  • Chalcosoma atlas, sexual differences of, 295.
  • Chamœleo, sexual differences in the genus, 356.
  • —— bifurcus, 356, 357.
  • —— Owenii, 357.
  • —— Pumilus, 357.
  • Chamœpetes unicolor, modified wing-feather in the male, 377.
  • Chameleons, 354.
  • Chamois, danger-signals of, 100; transfer of male characters to an old female, 504.
  • Champneys, Mr., acromio-basilar muscle and quadrupedal gait, 42.
  • Chapuis, Dr., on the transmission of sexual peculiarities in pigeons, 230; on streaked Belgian pigeons, 238, 446.
  • Char, male, colouring of, during the breeding season, 340.
  • Characters, male, developed in females, 227; secondary sexual, transmitted through both sexes, 227; natural, artificial, exaggeration of, by man, 582.
  • Charadrius hiaticula and pluvialis, sexes and young of, 485.
  • Chardin on the Persians, 586.
  • Charms, worn by women, 577.
  • Charruas, freedom of divorce among the, 598.
  • Chasmorhynchus, difference of colour in the sexes of, 389; colours of, 492.
  • —— niveus, 389.
  • —— tricarunculatus, 389.
  • Chastity, early estimation of, 119.
  • Chatterers, sexual differences in, 219.
  • Cheever, Rev. H. T., census of the Sandwich Islands, 257.
  • Cheiroptera, absence of secondary sexual characters in, 218.
  • Chelæ of crustacea, 266, 271.
  • Chelonia, sexual differences in, 350.
  • Chenalopex ægyptiacus, wing-knobs of, 364.
  • Chera progne, 392, 419.
  • Chest, proportions of, in soldiers and sailors, 32; large, of the Quechua and Aymara Indians, 34-.
  • Chevrotains, canine teeth of, 514.
  • Chiasognathus, stridulation of, 306.
  • —— Grantii, mandibles of, 300.
  • Children, legitimate and illegitimate, proportion of the sexes in, 243.
  • Chiloe lice of the natives of, 170; population of, 173.
  • Chimæra monstrosa, bony process on the head of the male, 338.
  • Chimæroid fishes, prehensile organs of male, 331.
  • Chimpanzee, 561; ears of the, 14; representatives of the eyebrows in the, 19; hands of the, 50; absence of mastoid processes in the, 53; platforms built by the, 66; cracking nuts with a stone, 81; direction of the hair on the arms of the, 151; supposed evolution of the, 177; polygamous and social habits of the, 590.
  • China, North, idea of female beauty in, 578.
  • ——, Southern. inhabitants of, 197
  • Chinese, use of flint tools by the, 145; difficulty of distinguishing the races of the, 167; colour of the beard in, 558; general beardlessness of the, 560; opinions of the, on the appearance of Europeans and Cingalese, 578; compression of the feet of, 583.
  • Chinsurdi, his opinion of beards, 576, 581.
  • Chalumydera maculata, 382.
  • Chloëon, pedunculated eyes of the male of, 274.
  • Chloephagya, coloration of the sexes in, 460.
  • Chlorocœlus Tanana (figured), 285.
  • Chorda Dorsalis, 161.
  • Chough, rod beak of the, 491.
  • Chromidæ, frontal protuberance in male, 340; sexual differences in colour of, 345.
  • Chrysemys picta, long claws of the male, 350.
  • Chrysococcyx, characters of young of, 465.
  • Chrysonzelidæ, stridulation of, 302.
  • Cicada pruinosa, 282.
  • —— septendecim, 282.
  • Cicadæ, songs of the, 281; rudimentary sound-organs in females of, 288.
  • Cicatrix of a burn, causing modification of the facial bones, 55.
  • Cichla, frontal protuberance of male 340.
  • Cimetière du Sud, Paris, 22.
  • Cincloramplius cruralis, large size of male, 362.
  • Cinclus aquaticus, 455.
  • Cingalese, Chinese opinion of the appearance of the, 578.
  • Cirripedes, complemental males of, 208.
  • Civilisation, effects of, upon natural selection, 133; influence of, in the competition of nations, 183.
  • Clanging of geese, &c., 368.
  • Claparède, E., on natural selection applied to man, 49.
  • Clarke, on the marriage-customs of the Kalmucks, 598.
  • Classification, 1-18.
  • Claus, C., on the sexes of Saphirina, 271.
  • Cleft-palate, inherited, 35.
  • Climatcius erythrops, sexes of, 479.
  • Climate, 31; cool, favourable to human progress, 133; power of supporting extremes of, by man, 182; want of connexion of, with colour, 192.
  • Cloaca, existence of a, in the early progenitors of man, 161.
  • Cloacal passage existing in the human embryo, 9.
  • Clubs, used as weapons before dispersion of mankind, 180.
  • Clucking of fowls, 368.
  • Clythra 4-punctata, stridulation of, 302.
  • Coan, Mr., Sandwich-islanders, 187.
  • Cobbe, Miss, on morality in hypothetical bee-community, 99.
  • Cobra, ingenuity of a, 352.
  • Coccus, 147.
  • Coccyx, 22, 23; in the human embryo, 9; convoluted body at the extremity of the, 23; imbedded in the body, 59.
  • Cochin-China, notions of beauty of the inhabitants of, 578, 580.
  • Cock, blind, fed by its companions, 103; game, killing a kite, 363; comb and Wattles of the, 403; preference shewn by the, for young hens, 420; game, transparent zone in the hackles of a, 430
  • Cock of the rock, 405.
  • Cockatoos, 491, 492, 493; nestling, 411; black, immature plumage of, 467.
  • Cœlenterata, absence of secondary sexual characters in, 260.
  • Coffee, fondness of monkeys for, 7.
  • Cold, supposed effects of, 32; power of supporting, by man, 182.
  • Coleoptera, 294; stridulation of, 284; stridulant organs of, discussed, 303.
  • Colias edusa and hyale, 319.
  • Collingwood, C., on the pugnacity of the butterflies of Borneo, 307; on butterflies being attracted by a dead specimen of the same species, 317.
  • Colobus, absence of the thumb, 51.
  • Colombia, flattened heads of savages of, 575.
  • Colonists, success of the English as, 142.
  • Coloration, protective, in birds, 489.
  • Colour, supposed to be dependent on light and heat, 32; correlation of, with immunity from certain poisons and parasites, 193; purpose of, in lepidoptera, 316; relation of, to sexual functions, in fishes, 343; difference of, in the sexes of snakes, 351; sexual differences of, in lizards, 357; influence of, in the pairing of birds of different species, 415; relation of, to nidification, 453, 456; sexual differences of, in mammals, 533, 540; recognition of, by quadrupeds, 540; of children in different races of man, 537; of the skin in man, 604.
  • Colours, admired alike by man and animals, 93; bright, due to sexual selection, 261; bright, among the lower animals, 261, 262; bright, protective to butterflies and moths, 313; bright, in male fishes, 335, 340; transmission of, in birds, 448.
  • Colquhoun, example of reasoning in a retriever, 78.
  • Columba passerina, young of, 467.
  • Colymbus glacialis, anomalous young of, 482.
  • Comb, development of, in fowls, 239.
  • Combs and wattles in male birds, 403.
  • Community, preservation of variations useful to the, by natural selection, 62.
  • Compositæ, gradation of species among the, 175.
  • Comte, C., on the expression of the ideal of beauty by sculpture, 581.
  • Conditions of life, action of changed, upon man, 30; influence of, on plumage of birds, 472.
  • Condor, eyes and comb of the, 472.
  • Conjugations, origin of 91.
  • Conscience, 114, 126; absence of, in some criminals, 116.
  • Constitution, difference of, in different races of men, 168.
  • Consumption, liability of Cebus Azaræ to, 7; connexion between complexion and, 194.
  • Convergence of characters, 177.
  • Cooing of pigeons and doves, 374.
  • Cook, Capt., on the nobles of the Sandwich Islands, 586.
  • Cope, E. D., on the Dinosauria, 158.
  • Cophotis celyanica, sexual differences of, 354, 357.
  • Cupris, 295.
  • —— Isidis, sexual differences of, 296
  • —— lunaris, stridulation of, 303.
  • Corals, bright colours of, 260.
  • Coral-snakes, 353.
  • Cordylus, sexual difference of colour in a species of. 357.
  • Corfu, habits of the Chaffinch in, 248.
  • Cornelius, on the proportions of the sexes in Lucanus Cervus, 253.
  • Corpora Wolffiana, 161; agreement of, with the kidneys of fishes, 11.
  • Correlated variation, 43.
  • Correlation, influence of, in the production of races, 197.
  • Corse, on the mode of fighting of the elephant, 514.
  • Corvus corone, 408.
  • —— graculus, red beak of, 491.
  • —— pica, nuptial assembly of, 406.
  • Corydalis cornutus, large jaws of the male, 275.
  • Cosmetornis, 462.
  • Cosmetornis vexillarius, elongation of wing-feathers in, 384, 403.
  • Cotingidæ, sexual differences in, 219; coloration of the sexes of, 460; resemblance of the females of distinct species of, 470.
  • Cottus scorpius, sexual differences in, 337.
  • Coulter, Dr., on the Californian Indians, 258.
  • Counting, origin of, 114; limited power of, in primeval man, 180.
  • Courage, variability of, in the same species, 69; universal high appreciation of, 118; importance of, 130; characteristic of men, 564.
  • Courtship, greater eagerness of males in, 221; of fishes, 331, 341; of birds, 367, 405.
  • Cow, winter change of colour, 542.
  • Crab, devil, 269.
  • ——, shore, habits of, 268.
  • Crabro cribrarius, dilated tibiæ of the male, 276.
  • Crabs, proportions of the sexes in, 255.
  • Cranz, on the inheritance of dexterity in seal catching, 33.
  • Crawfurd, on the number of species of man, 174.
  • Crenilabrus massa and C. melops, nests built by, 345.
  • Crest, origin of, in Polish fowls, 231.
  • Crests, of birds, difference of, in the sexes, 467; dorsal hairy, of mammals, 530.
  • Cricket, field-, stridulation of the, 283; pugnacity of male, 289.
  • ——, house-, stridulation of the 283, 234.
  • Crickets, sexual differences in, 289.
  • Crioceridæ, stridulation of the, 302.
  • Crinoids, complexity of, 91.
  • Croaking of frogs, 350.
  • Crocodiles, musky odour of, during the breeding season, 351.
  • Crocodilia, 351.
  • Crossbills, characters of young, 464
  • Crosses in man, 173.
  • Crossing of races, effects of the, 192.
  • Crossoaptilon auritum, 400, 452, 472 adornment of both sexes of, 235; sexes alike in, 460.
  • Crotch. G. R., on the stridulation of beetles, 302, 304; on the stridulation of Heliopathes, 305; on the stridulation of Acalles, 306; habit of female deer at breeding time, 503.
  • Crow Indians, long hair of the, 580.
  • ——, young of the, 481.
  • Crows, 491 ; vocal organs of the, 370; living in triplets, 409.
  • ——, carrion, new mates found by, 407.
  • ——, Indian, feeding their blind companions, 103.
  • Cruelty of savages to animals, 118.
  • Crustacea, parasitic, loss of limbs by female, 208; prehensile feet and antennae of, 209; male, more active than female, 221; parthenogenesis in, 255; secondary sexual characters of, 265; amphipod, males sexually mature while young, 485; auditory hairs of, 568.
  • Crystal worn in the lower lip by some Central African women, 575.
  • Cuckoo fowls, 238.
  • Culicidæ, 208, 280; attracted by each other’s humming, 280.
  • Cullen, Dr., on the throat-pouch of the male bustard, 373.
  • Cultivation of plants, probable origin of, 133.
  • Cupples, Mr., on the numerical proportion of the sexes in dogs, sheep, and cattle, 246; on the Scotch deerhound, 516; on sexual preference in dogs, 524.
  • Curculionidæ, sexual difference in length of snout in some, 208; hornlike processes in male, 299; musical, 301, 302.
  • Curiosity, manifestations of, by animals, 71.
  • Curlews, double moult in, 390.
  • Cursores, comparative absence of sexual differences among the, 219.
  • Curtis, J., on the proportion of the sexes in Athalia, 254.
  • Curier, F., on the recognition of women by male quadrumana, 8.
  • ——, G., on the number of canudal vertebræ in the mandrill, 58; on instinct and intelligence, 67; views of, as to the position of man, 149; on the position of the seals, 150; on Hectocotyle, 263.
  • Cyanecula suecica, sexual differences of, 472.
  • Cyaxalcyon, sexual difference in colours of, 457; immature plumage of, 467.
  • Cychurs, sounds produced by, 304.
  • Cycnia mendica, sexual difference of, in colour, 316.
  • Cygnus ferus, trachea of, 374.
  • —— olor, white young of, 482.
  • Cyllo Lela, instability of the ocellatcd spots of, 428.
  • Cynanthus, variation in the genus, 423.
  • Cyinipidæ, proportions of the sexes in, 254.
  • Cynocephalus, difference of the young from the adult, 8; male, recognition of women by, 8; polygamons habits of species of, 217.
  • —— chacma. 70.
  • —— gelada, 81.
  • —— hamadryas, 81, 590; sexual difference of colour in, 537.
  • —— leucophus, colours of the sexes of, 533.
  • —— mormon, colours of the male, 538, 540, 5.30.
  • —— porcarius, mane of the male, 521.
  • Cypridina, proportions of the sexes in, 255.
  • Cyprinidæ, proportion of the sexes in the, 249.
  • ——, Indian, 343.
  • Cyprinodontidæ, sexual differences in the, 335, 337.
  • Cyprinus auratus, 342.
  • Cypris, relations of the sexes in, ‘255.
  • Cyrtodactylus rubidus, 354.
  • Cystophara cristata, hood of, 528.

D.

  • Dacelo, sexual difference of colour in, 457.
  • —— Guudichaudi, young male of, 457.
  • Dal-ripa, a kind of ptarmigan, 248.
  • Damalis albifrons, peculiar markings of, 544.
  • —— pygarga, peculiar markings of, 543.
  • Dampness of climate, supposed influence of, on the colour of the skin, 32, 193.
  • Danaidæ, 308.
  • Dances of birds, 380.
  • Dancing, universality of, 178.
  • Daniell, Dr., his experience of residence in West Africa, 195.
  • Darfur, protuberances artificially produced by natives of, 574.
  • Darwin, F., on the stridulation of Dermestes murinus, 302.
  • Dasychira pulibunda, sexual difference of colour in, 316.
  • Davis, A. H., on the pugnacity of the male stag-beetle, 300.
  • ——, J. B., on the capacity of the skull in various races of men, 54; on the beards of the Polynesians, 560.
  • Death-rate higher in towns than in rural districts, 139.
  • Death-tick, 306.
  • De Candolle, Alph., on a case of inherited power of moving the scalp, 13.
  • Declensions, origin of, 91.
  • Decoration in birds, 381.
  • Decticus, 285.
  • Deer, 233; development of the horns in, 233; spots of young, 464, 546; horns of, 503, 506; use of horns of, 510, 518; horns of a, in course of modification, 511; size of the horns of, 515; female, pairing with one male, whilst others are fighting for her, 522; male, attracted by the voice of the female, 537; male, odour emitted by, 529.
  • ——, Axis, sexual difference in the colour of the, 537.
  • ——, fallow, different coloured herds of, 540.
  • ——, Mantchurian, 546.
  • ——, Virginian, 546; Colour of the, not affected by castration, 535; colours of, 536.
  • Deerhound, Scotch, greater size of the male, 237, 516.
  • Defensive organs of mammals, 518.
  • De Geer, C., on a female spider destroying a male, 273.
  • Dekay, Dr., on the bladder-nose seal, 528.
  • Delorcnzi, G., division of malar bone, 39.
  • Demerara, yellow fever in, 194.
  • Dendrocygna, 465.
  • Dendropila frontalis, young of, 487.
  • Denison, Sir W., manner of ridding themselves of vermin among the Australians, 57; extinction of Tasmanians, 184.
  • Denny, H., on the lice of domestic animals, 169.
  • Dermestes murinus, stridulation of, 302.
  • Descent traced through the mother alone, 588.
  • Deserts, protective colouring of animals inhabiting, 489.
  • Desmarest, on the absence of suborbital pits in Antilope subgutturosa, 529; on the whiskers of Macacus, 531; on the colour of the opossum, 534; on the colours of the sexes of Mus minutus, 534; on the colouring of the ocelot, 534; on the colours of seals, 535; on Antilope caama, 536; on the colours of goats, 536; on sexual difference of colour in Ateles marginatus, 537; on the mandrill, 539; on Macacus cynomolgus, 558.
  • Desmoulins, on the number of species of man, 174; on the musk-deer, 530.
  • Desor, on the imitation of man by monkeys, 72.
  • Despine, P., on criminals destitute of conscience, 116.
  • Development, embryonic, of man, 9, 11; correlated, 426.
  • Devil, not believed in by the Fuegians, 95.
  • Devil-crab, 269.
  • Devonian, fossil insect from the, 289.
  • Dewlaps, of cattle and antelopes, 531.
  • Diadema, sexual differences of colouring in the species of, 309.
  • Diamond-beetles, bright colours of, 294.
  • Diastema, occurrence of, in man, 35.
  • Diastylidæ, proportion of the sexes in, 255.
  • Dicrurus, racket-shaped feathers in, 384; nidification of, 453.
  • —— macrocercus, change of plumage in, 461.
  • Didelphis opossum, sexual difference in the colour of, 533.
  • Differences, comparative, between different species of birds of the same sex, 470.
  • Digits, supernumerary, more frequent in men than in women, 223; supernumerary, inheritance of, 232; supernumerary, early development of, 237.
  • Dimorphism in females of waterbeetles, 276; in Neurothemis and Agrion, 291.
  • Diodorus, on the absence of beard in the natives of Ceylon, 560.
  • Dipelicus Cantori, sexual differences of, 296.
  • Diplopoda, prehensile limbs of the male, 274.
  • Dipsas cynodon, sexual difference in the colour of, 351.
  • Diptera, 280.
  • Disease, generated by the contact of distinct peoples, 183.
  • Diseases common to man and the lower animals, 7; difference of liability to, in different races of men, 167; new, effects of, upon savages, 182; sexually limited, 237.
  • Display, coloration of Lepidoptera for, 314; of plumage by male birds, 394, 402.
  • Distribution, wide, of man, 48; geographical, as evidence of specific distinctness in man, 169.
  • Disuse, effects of, in producing rudimentary organs, 12; and use of parts, effects of, 32; of parts, influence of, on the races of men, 197.
  • Divorce, freedom of, among the Charruas, 598.
  • Dixon, E. S., on the pairing of different species of geese, 415; on the courtship of peafowl, 419.
  • Dobrizhoffer, on the marriage-customs of the Abipones, 599.
  • Dobson, Dr., on the Cheiroptera, 218; scent-glands of bats, 529; frugivorous bats, 534.
  • Dogs, suffering from Tertian ague, 8; memory of, 74; dreaming, 74; diverging when drawing sledges over thin ice, 75; exercise of reasoning faculties by, 78; domestic, progress of, in moral qualities, 80; distinct tones uttered by, 84; parallelism between his affection for his master and religious feeling, 96; sociability of the, 100; sympathy of, with a sick cat, 103; sympathy of, with his master, 103; their possession of conscience, 103; possible use of the hair on the fore-legs of the, 151; races of the, 176; numerical proportion of male and female births in, 246; sexual affection between individuals of, 524; howling at certain notes, 569; rolling in carrion, 530.
  • Dolichocephalic structure, possible cause of, 56.
  • Dolphins, nakedness of, 56.
  • Domestic animals, races of, 176; change of breeds of, 596.
  • Domestication, influence of, in removing the sterility of hybrids, 172
  • D'Orbigny, A., on the influence of dampness and dryness on the colour of the skin, 193; on the Yuracaras, 582.
  • Dotterel, 477.
  • Doubleday, E., on sexual differences in the wings of butterflies, 277.
  • ——, H. on the proportion of the sexes in the smaller moths, 251; males of Lasiocampa quercus and on the attraction of the Saturnia carpini by the female 252; on the proportion of the sexes in the Lepidoptera, 252; on the ticking of Anobium tesselatum, 306; on the structure of Ageronia feronia, 307; on white butterflies alighting upon paper, 317.
  • Douglas, J. W., on the sexual differences of the Hemiptera, 281; on the colours of British Homoptera, 282.
  • Down, of birds, 390.
  • Draco, gular appendages of, 355.
  • Dragonet, Gemmeons, 336.
  • Dragon-flies, caudal appendages of male, 276; relative size of the sexes of, 279; difference in the sexes of, 290; want of pugnacity by the male, 291.
  • Drake, breeding plumage of the, 393.
  • Dreams, 74; a possible source of the belief in spiritual agencies, 94.
  • Drill, sexual difference of colour in the, 538.
  • Dromœus, irroratus, 478.
  • Dromolœa, Saharan species of, 456.
  • Drongo shrike, 461.
  • Drongos, racket-shaped feathers in the tails of, 384, 392.
  • Dryness, of climate, supposed influence of, on the colour of the skin, 193.
  • Dryopithecus, 155.
  • Duck, harlequin, age of mature plumage in the, 483; breeding in immature plumage 484.
  • ——, long-tailed, preference of male, for certain females, 420.
  • ——, pintail, pairing with a wigeon, 414.
  • ——, voice of the, 374; pairing with a shield-drake, 414; immature plumage of the, 466.
  • ——, wild, sexual differences in the 219; speculum and male characters of, 236; pairing with a pintail drake, 415.
  • Ducks, wild, becoming polygamous under partial domestication, 219; dogs and cats recognised by, 412.
  • Dufossé, Dr., sounds produced by fish, 347.
  • Dugong, nakedness of, 56; tusks of, 502.
  • Dujardin, on the relative size of the cerebral ganglia in insects, 54.
  • Duncan, Dr., on the fertility of early marriages, 138; comparative health of married and single, 140.
  • Dupont, M., on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the humerus of man, 22.
  • Durand, J. P., on causes of variation, 30.
  • Dureau de la Malle, on the songs of birds, 86; on the acquisition of an air by blackbirds, 370.
  • Dutch, retention of their colour by the, in South Africa, 193.
  • Duty, sense of, 97.
  • Duvaucel, female Hylobates washing her young, 70.
  • Dyaks, pride of, in mere homicide, 117.
  • Dynastes, large size of males of, 279.
  • Dynastini, stridulation of, 303.
  • Dytiscus, dimorphism of females of, 276; grooved elytra of the female, 276.

E.

  • Eagle, young Cercopithecus rescued from, by the troop, 101.
  • ——, white-headed, breeding in immature plumage, 484.
  • Eagles, golden, new mates found by, 408.
  • Ear, motion of the, 13; external shell of the, useless in man, 14; rudimentary point of the, in man, 15.
  • Ears, more variable in men than women, 224; piercing and ornamentation of the, 575.
  • Earwigs, parental feeling in, 106.
  • Echidna, 156.
  • Echini, bright colours of some, 260.
  • Echinodermata, absence of secondary sexual characters in, 260.
  • Echis carinata, 353.
  • Ecker, figure of the human embryo, 10; on the development of the gyri and sulci of the brain, 204; on the sexual differences in the pelvis in man, 557; on the presence of a sagittal crest in Australians, 558.
  • Edentata, former wide range of, in America, 169; absence of secondary sexual characters in, 218.
  • Edolius, racket-shaped feathers in, 384.
  • Edwards. Mr., on the proportion of the sexes in North American species of Papilio, 250.
  • Eels, hermaphroditism of, 162.
  • Egerton, Sir P., on the use of the antlers of deer, 510; on the pairing of red deer, 522; on the bellowing of stags, 526.
  • Eggs, hatched by male fishes, 345.
  • Egret, Indian, sexes and young of, 486.
  • Egrets, breeding plumage of, 391; white, 492.
  • Ehrenberg, on the mane of the male Hamadryas baboon, 521.
  • Ekström, M., on Harelda glacialis, 420.
  • Elachista rufocinerea, habits of male, 252.
  • Eland, development of the horns of the, 234.
  • Elands, sexual differences of colour in 535
  • Elaphomyia, sexual differences in, 280.
  • Elaphrus uliginosus, stridulation of, 302.
  • Elaps, 353.
  • Elateridæ, proportions of the sexes in, 253.
  • Elaters, luminous, 278.
  • Elephant, 156; rate of increase of the, 47; nakedness of the, 57; Indian, forbearance to his keeper, 104; polygamous habits of the, 218; pugnacity of the male, 501; tusks of, 502, 503, 507, 515; Indian, mode of fighting of the, 513; male, odour emitted by the, 529; attacking white or grey horses, 540.
  • Elevation of abode, modifying influence of, 35.
  • Elimination of inferior individuals, 137.
  • Elk, 507; winter change of the, 542.
  • ——, Irish, horns of the, 515.
  • Ellice Islands, beards of the natives, 560, 581.
  • Elliot, R., on the numerical proportion of the sexes in young rats, 247; on the proportion of the sexes in sheep, 246.
  • ——, D. G., on Pelecanus erythrorhynchus, 390.
  • ——, Sir W., on the polygamous habits of the Indian wild boar, 218.
  • Ellis, on the prevalence of infanticide in Polynesia, 592.
  • Elphinstone, Mr., on local differences of stature among the Hindoos, 31; on the difficulty of distinguishing the native races of India, 167.
  • Elytra, of the females of Dytiscus, Acilius, Hydroporus, 276.
  • Emberiza, characters of young, 464.
  • —— miliaria, 464.
  • —— schœniclus, 412; head-feathers of the male, 402.
  • Embryo of man, 9, 10; of the dog, 10.
  • Embryos of mammals, resemblance of the, 25.
  • Emigration, 137.
  • Emotions experienced by the lower animals in common with man, 69; manifested by animals, 71.
  • Emperor moth, 315.
  • Emulation of singing-birds, 369.
  • Emu, sexes and incubation of, 478.
  • Endurance, estimation of, 118.
  • Energy, a characteristic of men, 565.
  • England, numerical proportion of male and female births in, 242.
  • Engleheart, Mr., on the finding of new mates by starlings, 408.
  • English, success of, as colonists, 142.
  • Engravers, short-sighted, 33.
  • Entomostraca, 268.
  • Entozoa, difference of colour between the males and females of some, 260.
  • Envy, persistence of, 112.
  • Eocene period, possible divergence of man during the, 156.
  • Eolidæ, colours of, produced by the biliary glands, 261.
  • Epeira nigra, small size of the male of, 273
  • Ephemeræ, 274.
  • Ephemeridæ, 290.
  • Ephippiger vitium, stridulating organs of, 284, 288.
  • Epicalia, sexual differences of colouring in the species of, 309.
  • Equus hemionus, winter change of, 542.
  • Erateina, coloration of, 315.
  • Ercolani, Prof., hermaphroditism in eels, 162.
  • Erect attitude of man, 51, 52.
  • Eristalis, courting of, 280.
  • Eschricht, on the development of hair in man, 18; on a lanuginous moustache in a female fœtus, 19; on the want of definition between the scalp and the forehead in some children, 151; on the arrangement of the hair in the human fœtus, 152; on the hairiness of the face in the human fœtus of both sexes, 602, 603.
  • Esmeralda, difference of colour in the sexes of, 294.
  • Esox lucius, 249.
  • —— reticulatus, 340.
  • Esquimaux, 64, 133; their belief in the inheritance of dexterity in seal-catching, 33; mode of life of, 197.
  • Estrelda amandava, pugnacity of the male, 366.
  • Eubagis, sexual differences of colouring in the species of, 309.
  • Euchirus longimanus, sound produced by, 304.
  • Eudromias morinellus, 477.
  • Eulampis jugularis, colours of the female, 454.
  • Euler, on the rate of increase in the United States, 44.
  • Eumomota superciliaris, racket-shaped feathers in the tail of, 384.
  • Eupetomena macroura, colours of the female, 453.
  • Euphema splendida, 457.
  • Euplocamus erythrophthalmus, possession of spurs by the female, 364.
  • Europe, ancient inhabitants of, 181.
  • Europeans, difference of, from Hindoos, 192; hairiness of, probably due to reversion, 601.
  • Eurostopodus, sexes of, 479.
  • Eurygnathus, different proportions of the head in the sexes of, 276.
  • Eustephanus, sexual differences of species of, 359; young of, 487.
  • Exaggeration of natural characters by man, 582.
  • Exogamy, 588, 591.
  • Expression, resemblances in, between man and the apes, 150.
  • Extinction of races, causes of, 181.
  • Eye, destruction of the, 32; change of position in, 55; obliquity of, regarded as a beauty by the Chinese and Japanese, 578.
  • Eyebrows, elevation of, 13; development of long hairs in, 19; in monkeys, 151; eradicated in parts of South America and Africa, 575; eradication of, by the Indians of Paraguay, 580.
  • Eyelashes, eradication of, by the Indians of Paraguay, 580.
  • Eyelids, coloured black, in part of Africa, 574.
  • Eyes, pillared, of the male of Chloëon, 274; difference in the colour of, in the sexes of birds, 425.
  • Eyton, T. C., observations on the development of the horns in the fallow-deer, 234.
  • Eyzies, Les, human remains from, 181.

F.

  • Fabre, M., on the habits of Cerceris, 291.
  • Facial bones, causes of modification of the, 55.
  • Faculties, diversity of, in the same race of men, 26; inheritance of, 27; diversity of, in animals of the same species, 28; mental, variation of, in the same species, 66; of birds, 410.
  • Fakirs, Indian, tortures undergone by, 118.
  • Falco leucocephalus, 484.
  • —— peregrinus, 408, 461.
  • —— tinnunculus, 408.
  • Falcon, peregrine, new mate found by, 408.
  • Falconer, H., on the mode of fighting of the Indian elephant, 513; on canines in a female deer, 514; on Hyomoschus aquaticus, 547.
  • Falkland Islands, horses of, 181.
  • Fallow-deer, different coloured herds of, 540.
  • Famines, frequency of, among savages, 46.
  • Farr, Dr., on the structure of the uterus, 38; on the effects of profligacy, 137; on the influence of marriage on mortality, 139, 140.
  • Farrar, F. W., on the origin of language, 87; on the crossing or blending of languages, 91; on the absence of the idea of God in certain races of men, 93; on early marriages of the poor, 138; on the middle ages, 141.
  • Fashions, long prevalence of, among savages, 576, 584.
  • Faye, Prof., on the numerical proportion of male and female births in Norway and Russia, 243; on the greater mortality of male children at and before birth, 243.
  • Feathers, modified, producing sounds, 377 et seq., 450; elongated, in male birds, 383, 403; racket-shaped, 384; barbless and with filamentous barbs in certain birds, 385; shedding of margins of, 393.
  • Feeding, high, probable influence of, in the pairing of birds of different species, 415.
  • Feet, thickening of the skin on the soles of the, 33; modification of, in man, 52.
  • Felis canadensis, throat-ruff of, 521.
  • —— pardalis and F. mitis, sexual differences in the colouring of, 534.
  • Female, behaviour of the, during courtship, 222.
  • —— birds, differences of, 470.
  • Females, presence of rudimentary male organs in, 162; preference of, for certain males, 214; pursuit of, by males, 221; occurrence of secondary sexual characters in, 225; development of male characters by, 227.
  • Females and males, comparative numbers of, 213, 215; comparative mortality of, while young, 216.
  • Femur and tibia, proportions of, in the Aymara Indians, 34.
  • Fenton, Mr., decrease of Maories, 184; infanticide amongst the Maories, 256.
  • Ferguson, Mr., on the courtship of fowls, 417.
  • Fertility lessened under changed conditions, 188.
  • Fertilisation, phenomena of, in plants, 222; in the lower animals, 222.
  • Fevers, immunity of Negroes and Mulattoes from, 193.
  • Fiber zibethicus, protective colouring of it, 542.
  • Fick, H., effect of conscription for military service, 134.
  • Fidelity of savages to one another, 118; importance of, 124.
  • Field-slaves, difference of, from house-slaves, 196.
  • Fijians, burying their old and sick parents alive, 102; estimation of the beard among the, 581; admiration of, for a broad occiput, 583.
  • Fiji Archipelago, population of the, 173.
  • —— Islands, beards of the natives, 560, 581; marriage-customs of the, 598.
  • Filial affection, partly the result of natural selection, 105.
  • Filum terminale, 23.
  • Finch, racket-shaped feathers in the tail of a, 384.
  • Finches, spring change of colour in, 393; British, females of the, 460.
  • Fingers, partially coherent, in species of Hylobates, 51.
  • Finlayson, on the Cochin Chinese, 578.
  • Fire, use of, 49, 145, 180.
  • Fischer, on the pugnacity of the male of Lethrus cephalotes, 300.
  • Fish, eagerness of male, 221; proportion of the sexes in, 249; sounds produced by, 347.
  • Fishes, kidneys of, represented by Corpora Wolffiana in the human embryo, 11; male, hatching ova in their mouths, 163; receptacles for ova possessed by, 208; relative size of the sexes in, 335; freshwater, of the tropics, 343; protective resemblances in, 344; change of colour in, 344; nest-building, 345; spawning of, 345; sounds produced by, 347, 566; continued growth of, 485.
  • Flamingo, age of mature plumage, 483.
  • Flexor pollicis longus, similar variation of, in man, 42.
  • Flint tools, 145.
  • Flints, difficulty of chipping into form, 49.
  • Floresuga mellivora, 443.
  • Florida, Quiscalus major in, 248.
  • Flounder, coloration of the, 344.
  • Flower, W. H., on the abductor of the fifth metatarsal in apes, 42; on the position of the Seals, 150; on the Pithecia monachus, 201; on the throat-pouch of the male bustard, 373.
  • Fly-catchers, colours and nidification of, 455.
  • Fœtus, human, woolly covering of the, 19; arrangement of the hair on, 152.
  • Food, influence of, upon stature, 31.
  • Foot, prehensile power of the, retained in some savages, 52; prehensile, in the early progenitors of man, 160.
  • Foramen, supra-condyloid, exceptional occurrence of in the humerus of man, 21, 43; in the early progenitors of man, 160.
  • Forbes, D., on the Aymara Indians, 34; on local variation of colour in the Quichuas, 196; on the hair-lessness of the Aymaras and Quichuas, 561; on the long hair of the Aymaras and Quichuas, 559, 580.
  • Forel, F., on white young swans, 282.
  • Formica rufa, size of the cerebral ganglia in, 54.
  • Fossils, absence of, connecting man with the apes, 156.
  • Fowl, occurrence of spurs in the female, 227; game, early pugnacity of, 239; Polish, early development of cranial peculiarities of, 239; variations in plumage of, 385; examples of correlated development in the, 426; domestic, breeds and subbreeds of, 460.
  • Fowls, spangled Hamburgh, 229, 238; inheritance of changes of plumage by, 229; sexual peculiarities in, transmitted only to the same sex, 230; loss of secondary sexual characters by male, 231; Polish, origin of the crest in, 231; period of inheritance of characters by, 238; cuckoo-, 238; development of the comb in, 239; numerical proportion of the sexes in, 247; courtship of, 417; mongrel, between a black Spanish cock and different hens, 427; pencilled Hamburgh, difference of the sexes in, 447; Spanish, sexual differences of the comb in, 447; spurred, in both sexes, 449.
  • Fox, W. D., on some half-tamed wild ducks becoming polygamous, and on polygamy in the guinea-fowl and canary-bird, 220; on the proportion of the sexes in cattle, 247; on the pugnacity of the peacock, 364; on a nuptial assembly of magpies, 406; on the finding of new mates by crows, 407; on partridges living in triplets, 409; on the pairing of a goose with a Chinese gander, 415.
  • Foxes, wariness of young, in hunting districts, 80; black, 540.
  • Fraser, C., on the different colours of the sexes in a species of Squilla, 271.
  • ——, G., colours of Thecla, 312.
  • Frere, Hookham, quoting Theognis on selection in mankind, 29.
  • Fringilla cannabina, 394.
  • —— ciris, age of mature plumage in, 483.
  • —— cyanea, age of mature plumage in, 483.
  • —— leucophrys, young of, 486.
  • —— spinus, 415.
  • —— tristis, change of colour in, in spring, 393; young of, 485.
  • Fringillidæ, rssemblance of the females of distinct species of, 470.
  • Frogs, 349; male, temporary receptacles for ova possessed by, 208; ready to breed before the females, 212; fighting of, 349; vocal organs of, 350.
  • Frontal bone, persistence of the suture in, 39.
  • Fruits, poisonous, avoided by animals, 66.
  • Fuegians, 133, 143; difference of stature among the, 31; power of sight in the, 33; skill of, in stone-throwing, 49; resistance of the, to their severe climate, 63, 182; mental capacity of the, 65; quasi-religious sentiments of the, 95; resemblance of, in mental characters, to Europeans, 178; mode of life of the, 197; aversion of, to hair on the face, 580; said to admire European women, 582.
  • Fulgoridæ, songs of the, 281.
  • Fur, whiteness of, in arctic animals, in winter, 229.
  • Fur-bearing animals, acquired sagacity of, 80.

G.

  • Gallicrex, sexual difference in the colour of the irides in, 425.
  • —— cristatus, pugnacity of male, 360; red caruncle occurring in the male during the breeding-season, 389.
  • Gallinaceæ, frequency of polygamous habits and of sexual differences in the, 219; love-gestures of, 380; decomposed feathers in, 385; stripes of young, 464; comparative sexual differences between the species of, 470, 471; plumage of, 472.
  • Gallinaceous birds, weapons of the male, 362; racket-shaped feathers on the heads of, 384.
  • Gallinula chloropus, pugnacity of the male, 360.
  • —— cristata, pugnacity of the male, 360.
  • Galloperdix, spurs of, 364; development of spurs in the female, 450.
  • Gallophasis, young of, 468.
  • Gallus bankiva, 447; neck-hackles of, 392.
  • —— Stanleyi, pugnacity of the male, 363.
  • Galls, 60.
  • Galton, Mr., on hereditary genius, 28; gregariousness and independence in animals, 104; on the struggle between the social and personal impulses, 125; on the effects of natural selection on civilised nations, 133; on the sterility of sole daughters, 135; on the degree of fertility of people of genius, 136; on the early marriages of the poor, 138; on the ancient Greeks, 140; on the Middle Ages, 141; on the progress of the United States, 142; on South African notions of beauty, 579.
  • Gammarus, use of the chelæ of, 268.
  • —— marinus, 270.
  • Gannets, white only when mature, 492.
  • Ganoid fishes, 159, 165.
  • Gaour, horns of the, 505.
  • Gap between man and the apes, 156.
  • Gaper, sexes and young of, 486.
  • Gardner, on an example of rationality in a Gelasimus, 270.
  • Garrulus glandarius, 407.
  • Gärtner, on sterility of hybrid plants, 172.
  • Gasteropoda, 272; pulmoniferous, courtship of, 262.
  • Gasterosteus, 220; nidification of, 345.
  • —— leiurus, 331, 340, 345.
  • —— trachurus, 332.
  • Gastrophora, wings of, brightly coloured beneath, 315.
  • Gauchos, want of humanity among the, 123.
  • Gaudry, M., on a fossil monkey, 154.
  • Gavia, seasonal change of plumage in, 493.
  • Geese, clanging noise made by, 368 pairing of different species of, 415; Canada, selection of mates by, 416.
  • Gegenbaur, C., on the number of digits in the Ichthyopterygia, 37; on the hermaphroditism of the remote progenitors of the vertebrata, 161; two types of nipple in mammals, 162.
  • Gelasimus, proportions of the sexes in a species of, 254; use of the enlarged chelæ of the male, 268; pugnacity of males of, 269; rational actions of a, 270; difference of colour in the sexes of a species of, 271.
  • Gemmules, dormant in one sex, 231.
  • Genius, 28; hereditary, 564.
  • ——, fertility of men and women of, 136.
  • Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire, Isid., on the recognition of women by male quadrumana, 8; on monstrosities, 30; coincidences of arrested development with polydactylism, 37; on animal-like anomalies in the human structure, 40; on the correlation of monstrosities, 44; on the distribution of hair in man and monkeys, 57; on the caudal vertebræ of monkeys, 58; on correlated variability, 60; on the classification of man, 147; on the long hair on the heads of species of Semnopithecus, 151; on the hair in monkeys, 152; on the development of horns in female deer, 504; and F. Cuvier, on the mandrill, 539; on Hylobates, 558, 559.
  • Geographical distribution, as evidence of specific distinctions in man, 169.
  • Geometræ, brightly coloured beneath, 315.
  • Geophagus, frontal protuberance of male, 340, 345; eggs hatched by the male, in the mouth or branchial cavity, 345.
  • Georgia, change of colour in Germans settled in, 196.
  • Geotrupes, stridulation of, 303, 304.
  • Gerbe, M., on the nest-building of Crenilabrus massa and C. melops, 345.
  • Gerland, Dr., on the prevalence of infanticide, 117, 577, 592; on the extinction of races, 182.
  • Gervais, P., on the hairiness of the gorilla, 57; on the mandrill, 538.
  • Gesture-language, 178.
  • Ghost-moth, sexual difference of colour in the, 316.
  • Gibbs, Sir D., on differences of the voice in different races of men, 566.
  • Gibbon, Hoolock, nose of, 150.
  • Gibbons, voice of, 527.
  • Gill, Dr., male seals larger than females, 219; sexual differences in seals, 515.
  • Giraffe, its mode of using the horns, 508; mute, except in the rutting season, 526.
  • Girard, M., disputes descent of vertibrates from Ascidians, 160; colour of sponges and Ascidians, 261; musky odour of Sphinx, 308.
  • Giraud-Teulon, on the cause of short sight, 34.
  • Glanders, communicable to man from the lower animals, 7.
  • Glands, odoriferous, in mammals, 529, 530.
  • Glareola, double moult in, 390.
  • Glomeris limbata, difference of colour in the sexes of, 274.
  • Glow-worm, female, apterous, 208; luminosity of the, 277.
  • Gnats, dances of, 280; auditory powers of, 569.
  • Gnu, sexual differences in the colour of the, 536.
  • Goat, male, wild, falling on his horns, 508; male, odour emitted by, 529; male, wild, crest of the, 531; Berbura, mane, dewlap, &c., of the male, 532; Kemas, sexual difference in the colour of the, 536.
  • Goats, sexual differences in the horns of, 230; horns of, 235, 505; mode of fighting of, 508; domestic, sexual differences of, late developed, 237; beards of, 531.
  • Goatsucker, Virginian, pairing of the, 366.
  • Gobies, nidification of 345.
  • God, want of the idea of, in some races of men, 93.
  • Godron, M., on variability, 29; on difference of stature, 31; on the want of connexion between climate and the colour of the skin, 192; on the odour of the skin, 198; on the colour of infants, 558.
  • Goldfinch, 371, 394; proportion of the sexes in the, 248; sexual differences of the beak in the, 359; courtship of the, 401.
  • ——, North American, young of, 485 Gold-fish, 342.
  • Gomphus, proportions of the sexes in, 254; difference in the sexes of, 290.
  • Gonepteryx Rhamni, 312; sexual difference of colour in, 322.
  • Goodsir, Prof., on the affinity of the lancelet to the ascidians, 159.
  • Goosander, young of, 467.
  • Goose, Antarctic, colours of the, 492.
  • ——, Canada, pairing with a Bernicle gander, 414.
  • ——, Chinese, knob on the beak of the, 426.
  • ——, Egyptian, 364.
  • ——, Sebastopol, plumage of, 385.
  • ——, Snow-, whiteness of the, 492.
  • ——, Spur-winged, 364.
  • Gorilla, 561; semi-erect attitude of the, 52; mastoid processes of the, 53; direction of the hair on the arms of the, 151; manner of sitting, 151; supposed to be a kind of mandrill, 177; polygamy of the 217, 590, 591; voice of the, 527; cranium of, 558; fighting of male, 562.
  • Gosse, P. H., on the pugnacity of the male Humming-bird, 360.
  • ——, M., on the inheritance of artificial modifications of the skull, 603.
  • Gould, B. A., on variation in the length of the legs in man, 26; measurements of American soldiers, 30, 32; on the proportions of the body and capacity of the lungs in different races of men, 167; on the the inferior vitality of mulattoes, 171.
  • ——, J., on migration of swifts, 108; on the arrival of male snipes before the females, 212; on the numerical proportion of the sexes in birds, 247; on Neomorpha Grypus, 359; on the species of Eustephanus, 359; on the Australian musk-duck, 359; on the relative size of the sexes in Briziura lobata and Cincloramphus cruralis, 362; on Lobivanellus lobatus, 366; on the habits of Menura Alberti, 371; on the rarity of song in brilliant birds, 371; on Selasphorus platycercus, 378; on the Bower-birds, 381, 406; on the ornamental plumage of the Humming-birds, 387; on the moulting of the ptarmigan, 392; on the display of plumage by the male Humming-birds, 394; on the shyness of adorned male birds, 403; on the decoration of the bowers of Bower-birds, 413; on the decoration of their nests by Humming-birds, 413; on variation in the genus Cynanthus, 423; on the colour of the thighs in a male parakeet, 424; on Urosticte Benjamini, 442, 443; on the nidification of the Orioles, 454; on obscurely-coloured birds building concealed nests, 454; on trogons and kingfishers, 456; on Australian parrots, 458; on Australian pigeons, 458; on the moulting of the ptarmigan, 462; on the immature plumage of birds, 466 et seq.; on the Australian species of Turnix, 473; on the young of Aïthurus polytmus, 487; on the colours of the bills of toucans, 491; on the relative size of the sexes in the marsupials of Australia, 515; on the colours of the Marsupials, 533.
  • Goureaux, on the stridulation of Mutilla europœa, 293.
  • Gout, sexually transmitted, 237.
  • Graba, on the Pied Ravens of the Feroe Islands, 424; variety of the Guillemot, 424.
  • Gradation of secondary sexual characters in birds, 430.
  • Grallatores, absence of secondary sexual characters in, 219; double moult in some, 390.
  • Grallina, nidification of, 454.
  • Grasshoppers, stridulation of the, 286.
  • Gratiolet, Prof., on the anthropomorphous apes, 154; on the evolution of the anthropomorphous apes, 177; on the difference in the development of the brains of apes and of man, 203.
  • Gray, Asa, on the gradation of species among the Compositæ, 175.
  • ——, J. E., on the caudal vertebræ of monkeys, 58; on the presence of rudiments of horns in the female of Cerculus moschatus, 504; on the horns of goats and sheep, 505; on the beard of the ibex, 531; on the Berbura goat, 533; on sexual differences in the coloration of Rodents, 534; ornaments of male sloth, 534; on the colours of the Elands, 535; on the Sing-sing antelope, 536; on the colours of goats, 536; on the hog-deer, 546.
  • "Greatest happiness principle," 120, 121.
  • Greeks, ancient, 140.
  • Green, A. H., on beavers fighting, 500; on the voice of the beaver, 527.
  • Greenfinch, selected by a female canary, 415.
  • Greg, W. R., on the effects of natural selection on civilised nations, 133; on the early marriages of the poor, 138; on the Ancient Greeks, 141.
  • Grenadiers, Prussian, 29.
  • Grey, Sir G., on female infanticide in Australia, 592.
  • Greyhounds, numerical proportion of the sexes in, 215, 216; numerical proportion of male and female births in, 246, 258.
  • Grouse, red, monogamous, 219; pugnacity of young male, 366; producing a sound by scraping their wings upon the ground, 374; duration of courtship of, 405; colours and nidification of, 455.
  • Gruber, Dr., on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the humerus of man, 21; on division of malar bone, 39; stridulation of locust, 284.
  • Grus americanus, age of mature plumage in, 483; breeding in immature plumage, 484.
  • —— virgo, trachea of, 374.
  • Gryllus campestris, 284; pugnacity of male, 289.
  • —— domesticus, 284.
  • Grypus, sexual differences in the beak in, 359.
  • Guanacoes, battles of, 500; canine teeth of, 514.
  • Guanas, strife for women among the, 562; polyandry among the, 593.
  • Guanche skeletons, occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the humerus of, 22.
  • Guaranys, proportion of men and women among, 244; colour of newborn children of the, 557; beards of the, 561.
  • Guenée, A., on the sexes of Hyperythra, 251
  • Guilding, L., on the stridulation of the Locustidæ, 283.
  • Guillemot, variety of the, 424.
  • Guinea, sheep of, with males only horned, 234.
  • Guinea-fowl, monogamous, 219; occasional polygamy of the, 220; markings of the, 429.
  • Guinea-pigs, inheritance of the effects of operations by, 603.
  • Gulls, seasonal change of plumage in, 492; white, 492.
  • Günther, Dr., on paddle of Ceratodus, 37; on hermaphroditism in Serranus, 162; on male fishes hatching ova in their mouths, 163, 345; on mistaking infertile female fishes for males, 249; on the prehensile organs of male Plagiostomous fishes, 331; spines and brushes on fishes, 331; on the pugnacity of the male salmon and trout, 332; on the relative size of the sexes in fishes, 335; on sexual differences in fishes, 336 et seq.; on the genus Callionymus, 337; on a protective resemblance in a pipe-fish, 344; on the genus Solenostoma, 346; on the coloration of frogs and toads, 349; combats of Testudo elegans, 351; on the sexual differences in the Ophidia, 351; on differences of the sexes of lizards, 354 et seq.
  • Gynanisa Isis, ocellated spots of, 428.
  • Gypsies, uniformity of, in various parts of the world, 193.

H.

  • Habits, bad, facilitated by familiarity, 123; variability of the force of, 125.
  • Häckel, E., on the origin of man, 3; on rudimentary characters, 11; on death caused by inflammation of the vermiform appendage, 21; on the canine teeth in man, 40; on the steps by which man became a biped, 52; on man as a member of the Catarrhine group, 155; on the position of the Lemuridæ, 157; on the genealogy of the Mammalia, 158; on the lancelet, 159; on the transparency of pelagic animals, 261; on the musical powers of women, 573.
  • Hagen, H., and Walsh, B. D., on American Neuroptera, 254.
  • Hair, development of, in man, 18; character of, supposed to be determined by light and heat, 32; distribution of, in man, 57, 600; possibly removed for ornamental purposes, 58; arrangement and direction of, 151; of the early progenitors of man, 160; different texture of, in distinct races, 167; and skin, correlation of colour of, 197; development of, in mammals, 530; management of, among different peoples, 575; great length of, in some North American tribes, 580; elongation of the, on the human head, 603.
  • Hairiness, difference of, in the sexes in man, 559; variation of, in races of men, 559.
  • Hairs and excretory pores, numerical relation of, in sheep, 198.
  • Hairy family, Siamese, 601.
  • Halbertsma, Prof., hermaphroditism in Serranus, 162.
  • Hamadryas baboon, turning over stones, 101; mane of the male, 521.
  • Hamilton, C., on the cruelty of the Kaffirs to animals, 118; on the engrossment of the women by the Kaffir chiefs, 595.
  • Hammering, difficulty of, 49.
  • Hancock, A., on the colours of the nudibranch Mollusca, 261, 264.
  • Hands, larger at birth, in the children of labourers, 33; structure of, in the quadrumana, 50; and arms, freedom of, indirectly correlated with diminution of canines, 53.
  • Handwriting, inherited, 88.
  • Handyside, Dr., supernumerary mammæin men, 37.
  • Harcourt, E. Vernon, on Fringilla cannabina 394.
  • Harelda glacialis, 420.
  • Hare, protective colouring of the, 542.
  • Hares, battles of male, 500.
  • Harlan, Dr., on the difference between field- and house-slaves, 196.
  • Harris, J. M., on the relation of complexion to climate, 195.
  • ——, T. W., on the Katy-did locust, 283; on the stridulation of the grasshoppers, 286; on Œcanthus nivalis, 289; on the colouring of Lepidoptera, 314; on the colouring of Saturnia Io, 316.
  • Harting, spur of the Ornithorhynchus, 502.
  • Hartman, Dr., on the singing of Cicada septendecim, 282.
  • Hatred, persistence of, 112.
  • Haughton, S., on a variation of the flexor pollicis longus in man, 42.
  • Hawks, feeding orphan nestling, 409.
  • Hayes, Dr., on the diverging of sledge dogs on thin ice, 75.
  • Haymond, R., on the drumming of the male Tetrao umbellus, 375; on the drumming of birds, 376.
  • Head, altered position of, to suit the erect attitude of man, 55; hairiness of, in man, 57; processes of, in male beetles, 295; artificial alterations of the form of the, 583.
  • Hearne, on strife for women among the North American Indians, 361; on the North American Indians' notion of female beauty, 578; repeated elopements of a North American woman, 597.
  • Heart, in the human embryo, 9.
  • Heat, supposed effects of, 32.
  • Hectocotyle, 263.
  • Hedge-warbler, 473; young of the, 481.
  • Heel, small projection of, in the Aymara Indians, 35.
  • Hegt, M., on the development of the spurs in peacocks, 236.
  • Heliconidæ, 308; mimicry of, by other butterflies, 323.
  • Heliopathes, stridulation peculiar to the male, 305.
  • Heliothrix auriculata, young of, 467, 468.
  • Helix pomatia, example of individual attachment in, 263.
  • Hellins, J., proportions of sexes of Lepidoptera reared by, 253.
  • Helmholtz, on pleasure derived from harmonies, 92; on the vibration of the auditory hairs of crustacea, 568; the physiology of harmony, 659.
  • Hemiptera, 281.
  • Hemitragus, beardless in both sexes, 531.
  • Hemsbach, M. von, on medial mamma in man, 37.
  • Hepburn, Mr., on the autumn song of the water-ouzel, 370.
  • Hepialus humuli, sexual difference of colour in the, 316.
  • Herbs, poisonous, avoided by animals, 66.
  • Hermaphroditism of embryos, 161.
  • Herodias bubulcus, vernal moult of, 393.
  • Heron, Sir R., on the habits of peafowl, 418, 419, 443.
  • —— love-gestures of a, 380
  • Herons, decomposed feathers in, 385; breeding plumage of, 391, 392; young of the, 481; sometimes dimorphic, 484; continued growth of crest and plumes in the males of some, 485; change of colour in some, 494.
  • Hesperomys cognatus, 568.
  • Hetœrina, proportion of the sexes in, 254; difference in the sexes of, 290.
  • Heterocerus, stridulation of, 302.
  • Hewitt, Mr., on a game-cock killing a kite, 363; on the recognition of dogs and cats by ducks, 412; on the pairing of a wild duck with a pintail drake, 415; on the courtship of fowls, 417; on the coupling of pheasants with common hens, 420.
  • Hilgendorf, sounds produced by crustaceans, 274.
  • Hindoo, his horror of breaking his caste, 122, 124.
  • Hindoos, local difference of stature among, 31; difference of, from Europeans, 192; colour of the beard in, 558.
  • Hipparchia Janira, 319; instability of the ocellated spots of, 428.
  • Hippocampus, development of, 163; marsupial receptacles of the male, 346.
  • —— minor, 202.
  • Hippopotamus, nakedness of, 56.
  • Hips, proportions of, in soldiers and sailors, 32.
  • Hodgson, S., on the sense of duty, 97.
  • Hoffberg, on the horns of the reindeer, 503; on sexual preferences shown by reindeer, 525.
  • Hoffman, Prof., protective colours, 281; fighting of frogs, 350.
  • Hog-deer, 546
  • Hog, wart-, 519; river-, 520.
  • Holland, Sir H., on the effects of new diseases, 182.
  • Homologous structures, correlated variation of, 43.
  • Homoptera, 281; stridulation of the, and Orthoptera, discussed, 288.
  • Honduras, Quiscalus major in, 248.
  • Honey-buzzard of India, variation in the crest of, 424.
  • Honey-suckers, moulting of the, 392; Australian, nidification of, 454.
  • Honour, law of, 121.
  • Hooker, Dr., forbearance of elephant to his keeper, 104; on the colour of the beard in man, 558.
  • Hookham, Mr., on mental concepts in animals, 83.
  • Hoolock Gibbon, nose of, 150.
  • Hoopoe, 371; sounds produced by the male, 376.
  • Hoplopterus armatus, wing-spurs of, 366.
  • Hornbill, African, inflation of the neck-wattle of the male during courtship, 383.
  • Hornbills, sexual difference in the colour of the eyes in, 425; nidification and incubation of, 454.
  • Horne, C., on the rejection of a brightly-coloured locust by lizards and birds, 289.
  • Horns, sexual differences of, in sheep and goats, 230; loss of, in female merino sheep, 231; development of, in deer, 233; development of, in antelopes, 234; from the head and thorax, in male beetles, 297; of deer, 503, 506, 515; and canine teeth, inverse development of, 514.
  • Horse, fossil, extinction of the, in South America, 191; polygamous, 217; canine teeth of male, 502; winter change of colour, 542.
  • Horses, rapid increase of, in South America, 47; diminution of canine teeth in, 53; dreaming, 74; of the Falkland Islands and Pampas, 181; numerical proportion of the sexes in, 215, 216; lighter in winter in Siberia, 229; sexual preferences in, 524; pairing preferently with those of the same colour, 540; numerical proportion of male and female births in, 245; formerly striped, 547.
  • Hottentot women, peculiarities of, 174.
  • Hottentots, lice of, 170; readily become musicians, 570; notions of female beauty of the, 578; compression of nose by, 583.
  • Hough, Dr. S., men's temperature more variable than women's, 224; proportion of sexes in man, 243.
  • House-slaves, difference of, from field-slaves, 196.
  • Houzeau, on the baying of the dog, 75; on reason in dogs, 76; birds killed by telegraph wires, 80; on the cries of domestic fowls and parrots, 85, 87; animals feel no pity, 102; suicide in the Aleutian islands, 117.
  • Howorth, H. H., extinction of savages, 183.
  • Huber, P., on ants playing together, 69; on memory in ants, 74; on the intercommunication of ants, 89; on the recognition of each other by ants after separation, 292.
  • Huc, on Chinese opinions of the appearance of Europeans, 578.
  • Huia, the, of New Zealand, 208.
  • Human, man classed alone in a, kingdom, 147.
  • —— sacrifices, 96.
  • Humanity, unknown among some savages, 118; deficiency of, among savages, 123.
  • Humboldt, A. von, on the rationality of mules, 78; on a parrot preserving the language of a lost tribe, 181; on the cosmetic arts of savages, 574; on the exaggeration of natural characters by man, 582; on the red painting of American Indians, 583.
  • Hume, D., on sympathetic feelings, 109.
  • Humming-bird, racket-shaped feathers in the tail of a, 384; display of plumage by the male, 394.
  • Humming-birds, ornament their nests, 92, 413; polygamous, 219; proportion of the sexes in, 248, 488; sexual differences in, 359, 442; pugnacity of male, 360; modified primaries of male, 378; coloration of the sexes of, 387; display by, 443; nidification of the, 453; colours of female, 453; young of, 487.
  • Humphreys, H. N., on the habits of the stickle-back, 220, 332.
  • Hunger, instinct of, 112.
  • Huns, ancient, flattening of the nose by the, 583.
  • Hunter, J., on the number of species of man, 174; on secondary sexual characters, 207; on the general behaviour of female animals during courtship, 222; on the muscles of the larynx in song-birds, 371; on the curled frontal hair of the bull, 531; on the rejection of an ass by a female zebra, 540.
  • Hunter, W. W., on the recent rapid increase of the Santali, 45; on the Santali, 192.
  • Huss, Dr. Max, on mammary glands, 162.
  • Hussey, Mr., on a partridge distinguishing persons, 412.
  • Hutchinson, Col., example of reasoning in a retriever, 78.
  • Hutton, Capt., on the male wild goat falling on his horns, 507.
  • Huxley, T. H., on the structural agreement of man with the apes, 2; on the agreement of the brain in man with that of lower animals, 6; on the adult age of the orang, 8; on the embryonic development of man, 9; on the origin of man, 3, 11; on variation in the skulls of the natives of Australia, 26; on the abductor of the fifth metatarsal in apes, 42; on the nature of the reasoning power, 77; on the position of man, 150; on the sub-orders of primates, 152; on the Lemuridæ, 157; on the Dinosauria, 158; on the amphibian affinities of the Iohthyosaurians, 159; on variability of the skull in certain races of man, 174; on the races of man, 176; supplement on the brain, 199.
  • Hybrid birds, production of, 414.
  • Hydrophobia communicable between man and the lower animals, 7.
  • Hydroporus, dimorphism of females of, 276.
  • Hyelaphus porcinus, 546.
  • Hygrogonus, 345.
  • Hyla, singing species of, 350.
  • Hylobates, absence of the thumb in, 51; upright progression of some species of, 52; maternal affection in a, 70; direction of the hair on the arms of species of, 151; females of, less hairy below than males, 558.
  • —— agilis, 51; hair on the arms of, 151; musical voice of the, 527; superciliary ridge of, 558; voice of, 567.
  • —— hoolock, sexual difference of colour in, 537.
  • —— lar, 51; hair on the arms of, 151.
  • —— leuciscus, 51; song of, 568.
  • —— syndactylus, 51; laryngeal sac of, 527.
  • Hylophila prasinana, 308.
  • Hymenoptera, 291; large size of the cerebral ganglia in, 54; classification of, 148; sexual differences in the wings of, 277; aculeate, relative size of the sexes of, 279.
  • Hymenopteron, parasitic, with a sedentary male, 221.
  • Hyomoschus aquaticus, 547.
  • Hyperythra, proportion of the sexes in, 251.
  • Hypogymna dispar, sexual difference of colour in, 316.
  • Hypopyra, coloration of, 315.

I.

  • Ibex, male, falling on his horns, 508; beard of the, 531.
  • Ibis, white, change of colour of naked skin in, during the breeding season, 389; scarlet, young of the, 481.
  • —— tantalus, age of mature plumage in, 483; breeding in immature plumage, 484.
  • Ibises, decomposed feathers in, 385; white, 492; and black, 493.
  • Ichneumonidæ, difference of the sexes in, 292.
  • Ichthyopterygia, 37.
  • Ichthyosaurians, 159.
  • Idiots,. microcephalous, their characters and habits, 35; hairiness and animal nature of their actions, 36; microcephalous, imitative faculties of, 87.
  • Iguana tuberculata, 354.
  • Iguanas, 354.
  • Illegitimate and legitimate children, proportion of the sexes in, 244.
  • Imagination, existence of, in animals, 74.
  • Imitation, 68; of man by monkeys, 72; tendency to, in monkeys, microcephalous idiots and savages, 87; influence of, 129.
  • Immature plumage of birds, 463, 466.
  • Implacentata, 157.
  • Implements, employed by monkeys, 81; fashioning of, peculiar to man, 82.
  • Impregnation, period of, influence of, upon sex, 245.
  • Improvement, progressive, man alone supposed to be capable of, 79.
  • Incisor teeth, knocked out or filed by some savages, 575.
  • Increase, rate of, 44; necessity of checks in, 47.
  • Indecency, hatred of, a modern virtue, 119.
  • India, difficulty of distinguishing the native races of, 167; Cyprinidæ of, 343; colour of the beard in races of men of, 558.
  • Indian, North American, honoured for scalping a man of another tribe, 117.
  • Individuality, in animals, 83.
  • Indopicus carlotta, colours of the sexes of, 458.
  • Infanticide, prevalence of, 46, 117, 256; supposed cause of, 577; prevalence and causes of, 591 et seq.
  • Inferiority, supposed physical, of man, 64.
  • Inflammation of the bowels, occurrence of, in Cebus Azaræ, 7.
  • Inheritance, 27; of long and short sight, 33; of effects of use of vocal and mental organs, 88; of moral tendencies, 123, 126; laws of, 227; sexual, 232; sexually limited, 444.
  • Inquisition, influence of the, 141.
  • Insanity, hereditary, 28.
  • Insect, fossil, from the Devonian, 289.
  • Insectivora, 534; absence of secondary sexual characters in, 218.
  • Insects, relative size of the cerebral gauglia in, 54; male, appearance of, before the females, 212; pursuit of female, by the males, 221; period of development of sexual characters in, 236; secondary sexual characters of, 274; stridulation, 566.
  • Insessores, vocal organs of, 370.
  • Instep, depth of, in soldiers and sailors, 32.
  • Instinct and intelligence, 67.
  • ——, migratory, vanquishing the maternal, 107, 113.
  • Instinctive actions, the result of inheritance, 105.
  • —— impulses, difference of the force of, 110, 111; and moral impulses, alliance of, 110.
  • Instincts, 66; complex origin of, through natural selection, 67; possible origin of some, 67; acquired, of domestic animals, 104; variability of the force of, 107; difference of force between the social and other, 111, 126; utilised for new purposes, 571.
  • Instrumental music of birds, 375, 378.
  • Intellect, influence of, in natural selection in civilised society, 136.
  • Intellectual faculties, their influence on natural selection in man, 127; probably perfected through natural selection, 128.
  • Intelligence, Mr. H. Spencer on the dawn of, 67.
  • Intemperance, no reproach among savages, 119; its destructiveness, 137.
  • Intoxication in monkeys, 7.
  • Iphias glaucippe, 313.
  • Iris, sexual difference in the colour of the, in birds, 383, 425.
  • Ischio-public muscle, 41.
  • Ithajinis cruentus, number of spurs in, 364.
  • Iulus, tarsal suckers of the males of, 274.

J.

  • Jackals learning from dogs to bark, 73.
  • Jack-snipe, coloration of the, 491
  • Jacquinot, on the number of species of man, 174.
  • Jaeger, Dr., length of bones increased from carrying weights, 32; on the difficulty of approaching herds of wild animals, 100; male Silver-pheasant, rejected when his plumage was spoilt, 419.
  • Jaguars, black, 539.
  • Janson, E. W., on the proportions of the sexes in Tomicus villosus, 253; on stridulant beetles, 302.
  • Japan, encouragement of licentiousness in, 46.
  • Japanese, general beardlessness of the, 560; aversion of the, to whiskers, 581.
  • Jardine, Sir W., on the Argus pheasant, 384, 403.
  • Jarrold, Dr., on modifications of the skull induced by unnatural position, 56.
  • Jarves, Mr., on infanticide in the Sandwich Islands, 257.
  • Javans, relative height of the sexes of, 559; notions of female beauty, 580.
  • Jaw, influence of the muscles of the, upon the physiognomy of the apes, 54.
  • Jaws, smaller proportionately to the extremities, 33; influence of food upon the size of, 33; diminution of, in man, 53; in man, reduced by correlation, 562.
  • Jay, young of the, 481; Canada, young of the, 481.
  • Jays, new mates found by, 407; distinguishing persons, 412.
  • Jeffreys, J. Gwyn, on the form of the shell in the sexes of the Gasteropoda, 262; on the influence of light upon the colours of shells, 263.
  • Jelly-fish, bright colours of some, 260.
  • Jenner, Dr., on the voice of the rook, 375; on the finding of new mates by magpies, 407; on retardation of the generative functions in birds, 409.
  • Jenyns, L., on the desertion of their young by swallows, 108; on male birds singing after the proper season, 409.
  • Jerdon, Dr., on birds dreaming, 74; on the pugnacity of the male bulbul, 360; on the pugnacity of the male Ortygornis gularis, 363; on the spurs of Galloperdix, 364; on
  • the habits of Lobivanellus, 366; on the spoonbill, 374; on the drumming of the Kalij-pheasant, 376; on Indian bustards, 378; on Otis bengalensis, 381; on the ear-tufts of Sypheotides auritus, 384; on the double moults of certain birds, 391; on the moulting of the honey-suckers, 392; on the moulting of bustards, plovers, and drongos, 393; on the spring change of colour in some finches, 393; on display in male birds, 394; on the display of the under-tail coverts by the male bulbul, 402; on the Indian honey-buzzard, 424; on sexual differences in the colour of the eyes of hornbills, 425; on the markings of the Tragopan pheasant, 428; on the nidification of the Orioles, 453; on the nidification of the hornbills, 454; on the Sultan yellow-tit, 458; onPalœornis javanicus, 461; on the immature plumage of birds, 465 et seq.; on representative species of birds, 468; on the habits of Turnix, 476; on the continued increase of beauty of the peacock, 485; on coloration in the genus Palœornis, 494.
  • Jevons, W. S., on the migrations of man, 47.
  • Jews, ancient use of flint tools by the, 145; uniformity of, in various parts of the world, 193; numerical proportion of male and female births among the, 243; ancient, tattooing practised by, 574.
  • Johnstone, Lieut., on the Indian elephant, 218.
  • Jollofs, fine appearance of the, 587.
  • Jones, Albert, proportion of sexes of Lepidoptera, reared by, 253.
  • Juan Fernandez, humming-birds of, 487.
  • Junonia, sexual differences of colouring in species of, 310.
  • Jupiter, comparison with Assyrian effigies, 581.

K.

  • Kaffir skull, occurrence of the diastema in a, 40.
  • Kaffirs, their cruelty to animals, 118; lice of the, 170; colour of the, 579; engrossment of the handsomest women by the chiefs of the, 595; marriage-customs of the, 598.
  • Kalij-pheasant, drumming of the male, 375; young of, 468.
  • Kallima, resemblance of, to a withered leaf, 311.
  • Kalmucks, general beardlessness of, 560; aversion of, to hairs on the face, 581; marriage-customs of the, 598.
  • Kangaroo, great red, sexual difference in the colour of, 533.
  • Kant, Imm., on duty, 97; on selfrestraint, 110; on the number of species of man, 174.
  • Katy-did, stridulation of the, 283.
  • Keen, Dr., on the mental powers of snakes, 352.
  • Keller, Dr., on the difficulty of fashioning stone implements, 49.
  • Kent, W. S., elongation of dorsal fin of Callionymus lyra, 336; courtship of Labrus mixtus, 341; colours and courtship of Cantharus lineatus, 341.
  • Kestrels, new mates found by, 408.
  • Kidney, one, doing double work in disease, 32.
  • King, W. R., on the vocal organs of Tetrao cupido, 371; on the drumming of grouse, 376; on the reindeer, 503; on the attraction of male deer by the voice of the female, 526.
  • King and Fitzroy, on the marriage-customs of the Fuegians, 599.
  • King-crows, nidification of, 453.
  • Kingfisher, 371; racket-shaped feathers in the tail of a, 384.
  • Kingfishers, colours and nidification of the, 455, 457, 459; immature plumage of the, 467, 468; young of the, 481.
  • King Lory, 457; immature plumage of the, 467.
  • Kingsley, C., on the sounds produced by Umbrina, 347.
  • Kirby and Spence, on sexual differences in the length of the snout in Curculionidæ, 208; on the courtship of insects, 221; on the elytra of Dytiscus, 276; on peculiarities in the legs of male insects, 276; on the relative size of the sexes in insects, 279; on the Fulgoridæ, 281; on the habits of Termites, 291; on difference of colour in the sexes of beetles, 294; on the horns of the male lamellicorn beetles, 297; on hornlike processes in male Curculionidæ, 299; on the pugnacity of the male stag-beetle, 299.
  • Kite, killed by a game-cock, 363.
  • Knot, retention of winter plumage by the, 391.
  • Knox, R., on the semilunar fold, 17; on the occurrence of the supracondyloid foramen in the humerus of man, 21; on the features of the young Memnon, 168.
  • Koala, length of the cœcum in, 20.
  • Kobus ellipsiprymnus, proportion of the sexes in, 247.
  • Kölreuter, on the sterility of hybrid plants, 172.
  • Koodoo, development of the horns of the, 234; markings of the, 543.
  • Köppen, F. T., on the migratory locust, 283.
  • Kordofan, protuberances artificially produced by natives of, 574.
  • Koraks, marriage customs of, 598.
  • Körte, on the proportion of sexes in locusts, 254; Russian locusts, 283.
  • Kovalevsky, A., on the affinity of the Ascidia to the Vertebrata, 159, 160.
  • ——, W., on the pugnacity of the male capercailzie, 363; on the pairing of the capercailzie, 367.
  • Krause, on a convoluted body at the extremity of the tail in a Macacus and a cat, 23.
  • Kupffer, Prof., on the affinity of the Ascidia to the Vertebrata, 160.

L.

  • Labidocera Darwinii, prehensile organs of the male, 266
  • Labrus, splendid colours of the species of, 342.
  • —— mixtus, sexual differences in, 337, 341.
  • —— paxo, 342.
  • Lacertilia, sexual differences of, 354.
  • Lafresnaye, M. de, on birds of paradise, 385.
  • Lamarck, on the origin of man, 3.
  • Lamellibranchiata, 262.
  • Lamellicorn beetles, horn-like processes from the head and thorax of, 295, 298; influence of sexual selection on, 301.
  • Lamellicornia, stridulation of, 303.
  • Lamont, Mr., on the tusks of the walrus, 502; on the use of its tusks by the walrus, 513; on the bladder-nose seal, 528.
  • Lampornis porphyrurus, colours of the female, 454.
  • Lampyridæ, distasteful to mammals, 277.
  • Lancelet, 159, 165.
  • Landois, H., gnats attracted by sound, 280; on the production of sound by the Cicadæ, 281; on the stridulating organ of the crickets, 284; on Decticus, 285; on the stridulating organs of the Acridiidæ, 286; stridulating apparatus in Orthoptera, 288; sounds produced: by Atropus, 291; on the stridulation of Necrophorus, 302; on the stridulant organ of Cerambyx heros, 303; on the stridulant organ of Geotrupes, 303; on the stridulating organs in the Coleoptera, 304; on the ticking of Anobium, 306.
  • Landor, Dr., on remorse for not obeying tribal custom, 114.
  • Language an art, 86; articulate, origin of, 86; relation of the progress of, to the development of the brain, 87; effects of inheritance in production of, 88; complex structure of, among barbarous nations, 91; natural selection in, 91; gesture, 178; primeval, 180; of a lost tribe preserved by a parrot, 181.
  • Languages, presence of rudiments in, 90; classification of, 90; variability of, 90; crossing or blending of, 90; complexity of, no test of perfection or proof of special creation, 92; resemblance of, evidence of community of origin, 148.
  • —— and species, identity of evidence of their gradual development, 90.
  • Lanius, 462; characters of young, 464.
  • —— rufus, anomalous young of, 482.
  • Lankester, E. R., on comparative longevity, 133, 136; on the destructive effects of intemperance, 137.
  • Lanugo, of the human fœtus, 19, 600.
  • Lapponian language, highly artificial, 91.
  • Lark, proportion of the sexes in the, 248; female, singing of the, 370.
  • Larks, attracted by a mirror, 413.
  • Lartet, E., comparison of cranial capacities of skulls of recent and tertiary mammals, 55; on the size of the brain in mammals, 81; on Dryopithecus, 155; on pre-historic flutes, 570.
  • Larus, seasonal change of plumage in, 492.
  • Larva, luminous, of a Brazilian beetle, 278.
  • Larynx, muscles of the, in song-birds, 371.
  • Lasiocampa quercus, attraction of males by the female, 252; sexual difference of colour in, 316.
  • Latham, R. G., on the migrations of man, 48.
  • Latooka, perforation of the lower lip by the women of, 576.
  • Laurillard, on the abnormal division of the malar bone in man, 39.
  • Lawrence, W., on the superiority of savages to Europeans in power of sight, 33; on the colour of negro infants, 558; on the fondness of savages for ornaments, 578; on beardless races, 581; on the beauty of the English aristocracy, 586.
  • Layard, E. L., on an instance of rationality in a cobra, 352; on the pugnacity of Gallus Stanleyi, 363.
  • Laycock, Dr., on vital periodicity, 8; theroid nature of idiots, 36.
  • Leaves, autumn, tints useless, 262.
  • Lecky, Mr., on the sense of duty, 97; on suicide, 117; on the practice of celibacy, 119; his view of the crimes of savages, 119; on the gradual rise of morality, 125.
  • Leconte, J. L., on the stridulant organ in the Coprini and Dynastini, 303.
  • Lee, H., on the numerical proportion of the sexes in the trout, 249.
  • Leg, calf of the, artificially modified, 574.
  • Legitimate and illegitimate children, proportion of the sexes in, 244.
  • Legs, variation of the length of the, in man, 26; proportions of, in soldiers and sailors, 32; front, atrophied in some male butterflies, 277; peculiarities of, in male insects, 277.
  • Leguay, on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the humerus of man, 22.
  • "Lek" of the black-cock and capercailzie, 405.
  • Lemoine, Albert, on the origin of language, 87.
  • Lemur macaco, sexual difference of colour in, 537.
  • Lemuridæ, 152; ears of the, 15; variability of the muscles in the, 41; position and derivation of the, 157; their origin, 165.
  • Lemurs, uterus in the, 38.
  • Lenguas, disfigurement of the ears of the, 575.
  • Leopards, black, 539.
  • Lepidoptera, 307; numerical proportions of the sexes in the, 250; colouring of, 308; ocellated spots of, 427.
  • Lepidosiren, 159, 165.
  • Leptalides, mimicry of, 325.
  • Leptorhynchus angustatus, pugnacity of male, 299.
  • Leptura testacea, difference of colour in the sexes of, 294.
  • Leroy, on the wariness of young foxes in hunting-districts, 80; on the desertion of their young by swallows, 108.
  • Leslie, D., marriage customs of Kaffirs, 598.
  • Lesse, valley of the, 22.
  • Lesson, on the birds of paradise, 219, 403; on the sea-elephant, 528.
  • Lessona, M., observations on Serranus, 162.
  • Lethrus cephalotes, pugnacity of the males of, 297, 300.
  • Leuckart, R., on the vesicula prostatica, 24; on the influence of the age of parents on the sex of offspring, 245.
  • Levator claviculœ muscle, 42.
  • Libellula depressa, colour of the male, 290.
  • Libellulidæ, relative size of the sexes of, 279; difierence in the sexes of, 290.
  • Lice of domestic animals and man, 169.
  • Licentiousness, a check upon population, 46; prevalence of, among savages, 119.
  • Lichtenstein, on Chera progne, 419.
  • Life, inheritance at corresponding periods of, 228, 232.
  • Light, effects on complexion, 32; influence of, upon the colours of shells, 263.
  • Lilford, Lord, the ruff attracted by bright objects, 413.
  • Limosa lapponica, 478.
  • Linaria, 462.
  • —— montana, 248.
  • Lindsay, Dr. W. L., diseases communicated from animals to man, 7; madness in animals, 79; the dog considers his master his God, 96.
  • Linnæus, views of, as to the position of man, 149.
  • Linnet, numerical proportion of the sexes in the, 248; crimson forehead and breast of the, 394; courtship of the, 401.
  • Lion, polygamous, 218; mane of the, defensive, 521; roaring of the, 526.
  • Lions, stripes of young, 464.
  • Lips, piercing of the, by savages, 575.
  • Lithobius, prehensile appendages of the female, 274.
  • Lithosia, coloration in, 314.
  • Littorina littorea, 262.
  • Livingstone, Dr., manner of sitting of gorilla, 151; on the influence of dampness and dryness on the colour of the skin, 193; on the liability of negroes to tropical fevers after residence in a cold climate, 194; on the spur-winged goose, 364; on weaver-birds, 376; on an African night-jar, 384, 403; on the battle-scars of South African male mammals, 500; on the removal of the upper incisors by the Batokas, 575; on the perforation of the upper lip by the Makalolo, 576; on the Banyai, 579.
  • Livonia, numerical proportion of male and female births in, 215, 243.
  • Lizards, relative size of the sexes of, 354; gular pouches of, 354.
  • Lloyd, L., on the polygamy of the capercailzie and bustard, 219; on the numerical proportion of the sexes in the capercailzie and black-cock, 248; on the salmon, 333; on the colours of the sea-scorpion, 337; on the pugnacity of male grouse, 364; on the capercailzie and black-cock, 366, 370; on the call of the capercailzie, 375; on assemblages of grouse and snipes, 405; on the pairing of a shield-drake with a common duck, 414; on the battles of seals, 500; on the elk, 507.
  • Lobivanellus, wing-spurs in, 366.
  • Local influences, effect of, upon stature, 31.
  • Lockwood, Mr., on the development of Hippocampus, 163.
  • ——, Rev. S., musical mouse, 568.
  • Locust, bright-coloured, rejected by lizards and birds, 289.
  • ——, migratory, 283; selection by female, 283.
  • Locusts, proportion of sexes in; 254; stridulation of, 284.
  • Locustidæ, stridulation of the, 282, 284; descent of the, 285.
  • Longicorn beetles, difference of the sexes of, in colour, 294; stridulation of, 303.
  • Lonsdale, Mr., on an example of personal attachment in Helix pomatia, 263.
  • Lophobranchii, marsupial receptacles of the males, 346.
  • Lophophorus, habits of, 420.
  • Lophorina atra, sexual difference in coloration of, 491.
  • Lophornis ornatus, 387.
  • Lord, J. K., on Salmo lycaodon, 333.
  • Lory, King, 457; immature plumage of the, 467.
  • Love-antics and dances of birds, 380.
  • Lowne, B. T., on Musca vomitoria, 54, 280.
  • Loxia, characters of young of, 464.
  • Lubbock, Sir J., on the antiquity of man, 2; on the origin of man, 3; on the mental capacity of savages, 65; on the origin of implements, 82; on the simplification of languages, 92; on the absence of the idea of God among certain races of men, 94; on the origin of the belief in spiritual agencies, 95; on superstitions, 96; on the sense of duty, 97; on the practice of burying the old and sick among the Fijians, 102; on the immorality of savages, 119; on Mr. Wallace's claim to the origination of the idea of natural selection, 49; on the absence of remorse among savages, 131; on the former barbarism of civilised nations, 143; on improvements in the arts among savages, 144; on resemblances of the mental characters in different races of men, 178; on the arts practised by savages, 179; on the power of counting in primeval man, 180; on the prehensile organs of the male Labidocera Darwinii, 266; on Chloëon, 274; on Smynthurus luteus, 279; finding of new mates by jays, 407; on strife for women among the North American Indians, 561; on music, 570; on the ornamental practices of savages, 574; on the estimation of the beard among the Anglo-Saxons, 581; on artificial deformation of the skull, 583; on "communal marriages," 587, 588; on exogamy, 589, 592; on the Veddahs, 591; on polyandry, 593.
  • Lucanidæ, variability of the mandibles in the male, 300.
  • Lucanus, large size of males of, 278.
  • —— cervus, numerical proportion of sexes of, 253; weapons of the male, 299.
  • —— elaphus, use of mandibles of, 300; large jaws of male, 275.
  • Lucas, Prosper, on pigeons, 418; on sexual preference in horses and bulls, 525.
  • Lunar periods, 8, 164.
  • Lund, Dr., on skulls found in Brazilian caves, 168
  • Lungs, enlargement of, in the Quichua and Aymara Indians, 34; a modified swim-bladder, 161; different capacity of in races of man, 167.
  • Luminosity in insects, 277.
  • Luschka, Prof., on the termination of the coccyx, 23.
  • Luxury, expectation of life uninfluenced by, 136.
  • Lycœna, sexual differences of colouring in species of, 310.
  • Lyell, Sir C., on the antiquity of man, 2; on the origin of man, 3; on the parallelism of the development of species and languages, 90; on the extinction of languages, 90; on the Inquisition, 141; on the fossil remains of vertebrata, 157; on the fertility of mulattoes, 171.
  • Lynx, Canadian, throat-ruff of the, 521.
  • Lyre-bird, assemblies of, 406.

M.

  • Macacus, ears of, 15; convoluted body in the extremity of the tail of, 23; variability of the tail in species of, 58; whiskers of species of, 531.
  • —— brunneus, 59.
  • —— cynomolgus, superciliary ridge of, 558; beard and whiskers of, becoming white with age, 559.
  • —— ecaudatus, 60.
  • —— lasiotus, facial spots of, 550.
  • —— radiatus, 151.
  • —— rhesus, sexual difference in the colour of, 539, 550.
  • Macalister, Prof., on variations of the palmaris accessorius muscle, 27; on muscular abnormalities in man, 42, 43; on the greater variability of the muscles in men than in women, 223.
  • Macaws, Mr. Buxton's observations on, 102; screams of, 375.
  • McCann, J., on mental individuality, 84.
  • McClelland, J., on the Indian Cyprinidæ, 343.
  • Macculloch, Col., on an Indian village without any female children, 592.
  • ——, Dr., on tertian ague in a dog, 8.
  • Macgillivray, W., on the vocal organs of birds, 90; on the Egyptian goose, 365; on the habits of woodpeckers, 376; on the habits of the snipe, 377; on the whitethroat, 381; on the moulting of the snipes; 391; on the moulting of the Anatidæ, 393; on the finding of new mates by magpies, 407; on the pairing of a blackbird and thrush, 414; on pied ravens, 424; on the guillemots, 424; on the colours of the tits, 458; on the immature plumage of birds, 466 et seq.
  • Machetes, sexes and young of, 485;
  • —— pugnax, supposed to be polygamous, 219; numerical proportion of the sexes in, 248; pugnacity of the male, 360; double moult in, 390.
  • McIntosh, Dr. colours of the Nemertians, 265.
  • McKennan, marriage customs of Koraks, 598.
  • Mackintosh, on the moral sense, 97.
  • MacLachlan, R., on Apatania muliebris and Boreus hyemalis, 254; on the anal appendages of male insects, 275; on the pairing of dragon-flies, 279; on dragon-flies, 290, 291; on dimorphism in Agrion, 291; on the want of pugnacity in male dragon-flies, 291; colour of ghost-moth in the Shetland Islands, 316.
  • McLennan, Mr., on infanticide, 46, 591; on the origin of the belief in spiritual agencies, 94; on the prevalence of licentiousness among savages, 119, 588; on the primitive barbarism of civilised nations, 143; on traces of the custom of the forcible capture of wives, 144, 592; on polyandry, 593.
  • Macnamara, Mr., susceptibility of Andaman islanders and Nepâlese to change, 188.
  • McNeill, Mr., on the use of the antlers of deer, 510; on the Scotch deerhound, 516; on the long hairs on the throat of the stag, 522; on the bellowing of stags, 526.
  • Macropus, courtship of, 341.
  • Macrorhinus proboscideus, structure of the nose of, 528.
  • Magpie, power of speech of, 90; nuptial assemblies of, 406; new mates found by, 407; stealing bright objects, 413; young of the, 481; coloration of the, 493.
  • Magpies, vocal organs of the, 370.
  • Maillard, M., on the proportion of the sexes in a species of Papilio from Bourbon, 250.
  • Maine, Sir Henry, on the absorption of one tribe by another, 128; a desire for improvement not general, 132.
  • Major, Dr. C. Forsyth, on fossil Italian apes, 155; skull of Bos etruscus, 505; tusks of miocene pigs, 521.
  • Makalolo, perforation of the upper lip by the, 576.
  • Malar bone, abnormal division of, in man, 39.
  • Malay, Archipelago, marriage-customs of the savages of the, 598.
  • Malays, line of separation between the Papuans and the, 169; general beardlessness of the, 560; staining of the teeth among, 574; aversion of some, to hairs on the face, 581.
  • —— and Papuans, contrasted characters of, 168.
  • Male animals, struggles of, for the possession of the females, 212, 213; eagerness of, in courtship, 221, 222; generally more modified than female, 221, 223; differ in the, same way from females and young, 232.
  • —— characters, developed in females, 227; transfer of, to female birds, 471.
  • ——, sedentary, of a hymenopterous parasite, 221.
  • Malefactors, 137.
  • Males, presence of rudimentary female organs in, 162.
  • —— and females, comparative numbers of, 213, 215; comparative mortality of, while young, 216.
  • Malherbe, on the woodpeckers, 458.
  • Mallotus peronii, 331.
  • —— villosus, 331.
  • Malthus, T., on the rate of increase of population, 44, 45, 46.
  • Maluridæ, nidification of the, 454.
  • Malurus, young of, 485.
  • Mammæ, 208; rudimentary, in male mammals, 11, 23, 161, 162, 163; supernumerary, in women, 36; of male human subject, 37.
  • Mammalia, Prof. Owen's classification of, 148; genealogy of the, 158.
  • Mammals, recent and tertiary, comparison of cranial capacity of, 55; nipples of, 162; pursuit of female, by the males, 221; secondary sexual characters of, 500; weapons of, 501; relative size of the sexes of, 515; parallelism of, with birds in secondary sexual characters, 541; voices of, used especially during the breeding season, 567.
  • Man, variability of, 26; erroneously regarded as more domesticated than other animals, 28; migrations of, 47; wide distribution of, 48; causes of the nakedness of, 57; supposed physical inferiority of, 64; a member of the Catarrhine group, 155; early progenitors of, 160; transition from ape indefinite, 180; numerical proportions of the sexes in, 215; difference between the sexes, 223; proportion of sexes amongst the illegitimate, 244; different complexion of male and female negroes, 556; secondary sexual characters of, 556; primeval condition of, 594.
  • Mandans, correlation of colour and texture of hair in the, 197.
  • Mandible, left, enlarged in the male of Taphroderes distortus, 276.
  • Mandibles, use of the, in Ammophila, 275; large, of Corydalis cornutus, 275; large, of male Lucanus elaphus, 275.
  • Mandrill, number of caudal vertebræ in the, 58; colours of the male, 538, 541, 550.
  • Mantegazza, Prof., on last molar teeth of man, 20; bright colours in male animals, 224; on the ornaments of savages 573 et seq.; on the beardlessness of the New Zealanders, 581; on the exaggeration of natural characters by man, 582.
  • Mantell, W., on the engrossment of pretty girls by the New Zealand chiefs, 595.
  • Mantis, pugnacity of species of, 289.
  • Maories, mortality of, 184; infanticide and proportion of sexes, 256; distaste for hairiness amongst men, 581.
  • Marcus Aurelius, on the origin of the moral sense, 98; on the influence of habitual thoughts, 123.
  • Mareca penelope, 414.
  • Marks, retained throughout groups of birds, 427.
  • Marriage, restraints upon, among savages, 46; influence of, upon morals, 119; influence of, on mortality, 139; development of, 590.
  • Marriages, early, 138, 139; communal, 587, 589.
  • Marshall, Dr. W., protuberances on birds' heads, 235, 383; on the moulting of birds, 393; advantage to older birds of paradise, 485.
  • ——, Col., interbreeding amongst Todas, 189; infanticide and proportion of sexes with Todas, 255; choice of husbands amongst Todas, 593.
  • ——, Mr., on the brain of a Bush-woman, 167.
  • Marsupials, 157; development of the nictitating membrane in, 17; uterus of, 39; possession of nipples by, 162; their origin from Monotremata, 165; abdominal sacks of, 208; relative size of the sexes of, 515; colours of, 533.
  • Marsupium, rudimentary, in male marsupials, 161.
  • Martin, W. C. L., on alarm manifested by an orang at the sight of a turtle, 72; on the hair in Hylobates, 152; on a female American deer, 514; on the voice of Hylobates agilis, 527; onSemnopithecus nemœus, 552.
  • ——, on the beards of the inhabitants of St. Kilda, 560.
  • Martins deserting their young, 108.
  • ——, C., on death caused by inflammation of the vermiform appendage, 21.
  • Mastoid processes in man and apes, 53.
  • Maudsley, Dr., on the influence of the sense of smell in man, 18; on idiots smelling their food, 36; on Laura Bridgman, 88; on the development of the vocal organs, 89; moral sense failing in incipient madness, 124; change of mental faculties at puberty in man, 565.
  • Mayers, W. F., on the domestication of the goldfish in China, 343.
  • Mayhew, E., on the affection between individuals of different sexes in the dog, 523.
  • Maynard, C. J., on the sexes of Chrysemys picta, 351.
  • Meckel, on correlated variation of the muscles of the arm and leg, 44.
  • Medicines, effect produced by, the same in man and in monkeys, 7.
  • Medusœ, bright colours of some, 260.
  • Megalithic structures, prevalence of, 179.
  • Megapicus validus, sexual difference of colour in, 458.
  • Megasoma, large size of males of, 279.
  • Meigs, Dr. A., on variation in the skulls of the natives of America, 26.
  • Meinecke, on the numerical proportion of the sexes in butterflies, 250.
  • Melanesians, decrease of, 185.
  • Meldola, Mr., colours and marriage flight of Colias and Pieris, 319.
  • Meliphagidæ, Australian, nidification of, 454.
  • Melita, secondary sexual characters of, 268.
  • Meloë, difference of colour in the sexes of a species of, 294.
  • Memory, manifestations of, in animals, 74.
  • Memnon, young, 168.
  • Mental characters, difference of, in different races of men, 167.
  • —— faculties, diversity of, in the same race of men, 26; inheritance of, 27; variation of, in the same species, 27, 66; similarity of the in different races of man, 178; of birds, 410.
  • —— powers, difference of, in the two sexes in man, 563.
  • Menura Alberti, 406; song of, 371.
  • —— superba, 406; long tails of both sexes of, 451.
  • Merganser, trachea of the male, 374.
  • —— serrator, male plumage of, 393.
  • Mergus cucullatus, speculum of, 236.
  • —— merganser, young of, 467.
  • Metallura, splendid tail-feathers of, 443.
  • Methoca ichneumonides, large male of, 279.
  • Meves, M., on the drumming of the snipe, 377.
  • Mexicans, civilisation of the, not foreign, 145.
  • Meyer, on a convoluted body at the extremity of the tail in a Macacus and a cat, 23.
  • ——, Dr. A., on the copulation of Phryganidæ of distinct species, 275.
  • ——, Prof. L., on development of helix of ear, 15, 16; men's ears more variable than women's, 224; antennæ serving as ears, 280.
  • Migrations of man, effects of, 47.
  • Migratory instinct of birds, 105; vanquishing the maternal, 107, 113.
  • Mill, J. S., on the origin of the moral sense, 98; on the "greatest happiness principle," 120; on the difference of the mental powers in the sexes of man, 564.
  • Millipedes, 274.
  • Milne-Edwards, H., on the use of the enlarged chelæ of the male Gelasimus, 267.
  • Milvago leucurus, sexes and young of, 479.
  • Mimicry, 323.
  • Mimus polyglottus, 411.
  • Mind, difference of, in man and the highest animals, 126; similarity of the, in different races, 178.
  • Minnow, proportion of the sexes in the, 249.
  • Mirror, larks attracted by, 413.
  • Mitchell, Dr., interbreeding in the Hebrides, 189.
  • Mitford, selection of children in Sparta, 29.
  • Mivart, St. George, on the reduction of organs, 12; on the ears of the lemuroidea, 15; on variability of the muscles in lemuroidea, 41, 48; on the caudal vertebræ of monkeys, 58; on the classification of the primates, 153; on the orang and on man, 154; on differences in the lemuroidea, 155; on the crest of the male newt, 348.
  • Möbius, Prof., on reasoning powers in a pike, 75.
  • Mocking-thrush, partial migration of, 411; young of the, 487.
  • Modifications, unserviceable, 62.
  • Moggridge, J. T., on habits of spiders, 69; on habits of ants, 147.
  • Moles, numerical proportion of the sexes in, 247; battles of male, 500.
  • Mollienesia petenensis, sexual difference in, 337.
  • Mollusca, beautiful colours and shapes of, 263; absence of secondary sexual characters in the, 262.
  • Molluscoida, 159, 262.
  • Monacanthus scopas and M. Peronii, 331.
  • Mongolians, perfection of the senses in, 34.
  • Monkey, protecting his keeper from a baboon, 103, 110; bonnet-, 151; rhesus-, sexual difference in colour of the, 539, 550; moustache-, colours of the, 537.
  • Monkeys, liability of, to the same diseases as man, 7; male, recognition of women by, 8; diversity of the mental faculties in, 27; breaking hard fruits with stones, 50; hands of the, 50, 51; basal caudal vertebræ of, imbedded in the body, 59; revenge taken by, 69; maternal affection in, 70; variability of the faculty of attention in, 74; American, manifestation of reason in, 77; using stones and sticks, 81; imitative faculties of, 87; signal-cries of, 87; mutual kindnesses of, 101; sentinels posted by, 101; human characters of, 150; American, direction of the hair on the arms of some, 151; gradation of species of, 175; beards of, 531; ornamental characters of, 549; analogy of sexual differences of, with those of man, 558; different degrees of difference in the sexes of, 561; expression of emotions by, 572; generally monogamous habits of, 590; polygamous habits of some, 590; naked surfaces of, 600.
  • Monogamy, not primitive, 144.
  • Monogenists, 176.
  • Mononychus pseudacori, stridulation of, 305.
  • Monotremata, 157; development of the nicitating membrane in, 17; lactiferous glands of, 162; connecting mammals with reptiles, 165.
  • Monstrosities, analogous, in man and lower animals, 30; caused by arrest of development, 35; correlation of, 44; transmission of, 173.
  • Montagu, G., on the habits of the black and red grouse, 219; on the pugnacity of the ruff, 361; on the singing of birds, 368; on the double moult of the male pintail, 393.
  • Monteiro, Mr., on Bucorax abyssinicus, 383.
  • Montes de Oca, M., on the pugnacity of male Humming-birds, 360.
  • Monticola cyanea, 456.
  • Monuments, as traces of extinct tribes, 181.
  • Moose, battles of, 501; horns of the, an incumbrance, 515.
  • Moral and instinctive impulses, alliance of, 111.
  • —— faculties, their influence on natural selection in man, 127.
  • —— rules, distinction between the higher and lower, 122.
  • —— sense, so-called, derived from the social instincts, 120, 121; origin of the, 124.
  • —— tendencies, inheritance of, 124.
  • Morality, supposed to be founded in selfishness, 120; test of, the general welfare of the community, 121; gradual rise of, 125; influence of a high standard of, 132.
  • Morgan, L. H., on the beaver, 67; on the reasoning powers of the beaver, 75; on the forcible capture of wives, 144; on the castoreum of the beaver, 529; marriage unknown in primeval times, 588; on polyandry, 593.
  • Morley, J., on the appreciation of praise and fear of blame, 146.
  • Morris, F. O., on hawks feeding an orphan nestling, 409.
  • Morse, Dr., colours of mollusca, 264.
  • Morselli, E., division of the malar bone, 39.
  • Mortality, comparative, of females and males, 216, 243.
  • Morton, on the number of species of man, 174.
  • Moschkau, Dr. A., on a speaking starling, 85.
  • Moschus moschiferus, odoriferous organs of, 529.
  • Motacillæ, Indian, young of, 468.
  • Moths, 313; absence of mouth in some males, 208; apterous female, 208; male, prehensile use of the tarsi by, 209; male, attracted by females, 252; coloration of, 315; sexual differences of colour in, 316.
  • Motmot, inheritance of mutilation of tail feathers, 60, 603; racket-shaped feathers in the tail of a, 384.
  • Moult, double, 463; double annual, in birds, 390.
  • Moulting of birds, 484.
  • Moults, partial, 392,
  • Mouse, song of, 568.
  • Moustache-monkey, colours of the, 537, 552.
  • Moustaches, in monkeys, 150.
  • Mud-turtle, long claws of the male, 350.
  • Mulattoes, persistent fertility of, 171; immunity of, from yellow fever, 193.
  • Mule, sterility and strong vitality of the, 171.
  • Mules, rational, 78.
  • Müller, Ferd., on the Mexicans and Peruvians, 145.
  • ——,Fritz, on astomatous males of Tanais, 208; on the disappearance of spots and stripes in adult mammals, 547; on the proportions of the sexes in some Crustacea, 255; on secondary sexual characters in various Crustaceans, 265 et seq.; musical 'contest between male Cicadœ, 282; mode of holding wings in Castnia, 315; on birds shewing a preference for certain colours, 317; on the sexual maturity of young amphipod Crustacea, 485.
  • ——,Hermann, emergence of bees from pupa, 214; pollen-gathering of bees, 228; proportion of sexes in bees, 254; courting of Eristalis, 280; colour and sexual selection with bees, 292.
  • ——, J., on the nictitating membrane and semilunar fold, 17.
  • ——, Max, on the origin of language, 87; language implies power of general conception, 88; struggle for life among the words, &c., of languages, 91.
  • ——, S., on the banteng, 536; on the colours of Semnopithecus chrysomelas, 537.
  • Muntjac-deer, weapons of the, 514.
  • Murie, J., on the reduction of organs, 12; on the ears of the Lemuroidea, 15; on variability of the muscles in the Lemuroidea, 41, 48; basal caudal vertebræ of Macacus brunneus imbedded in the body, 59; on the manner of sitting in short-tailed apes, 59; on differences in the Lemuroidea, 155; on the throat-pouch of the male bustard, 373; on the mane of Otaria jubata, 521; on the sub-orbital pits of Ruminants, 529; on the colours of the sexes in Otaria nigrescens, 535.
  • Murray, A., on the Pediculi of different races of men, 169.
  • —— T. A., on the fertility of Australian women with white men, 170.
  • Mus coninga, 80.
  • —— minutus, sexual difference in the colour of, 534.
  • Musca vomitoria, 54.
  • Muscicapa grisola, 455.
  • —— luctuosa, 455.
  • —— ruticilla, breeding in immature plumage, 484.
  • Muscle, ischio-public, 41.
  • Muscles, rudimentary, occurrence of, in man, 12; variability of the, 26; effects of use and disuse upon, 32; animal-like abnormalities of, in man, 41; correlated variation of, in the arm and leg, 44; variability of, in the hands and feet, 48; of the jaws, influence of, on the physiognomy of the Apes, 54; habitual spasms of, causing modifications of the facial bones, 55; of the early progenitors of man, 160; greater variability of the, in men than in women, 223.
  • Musculus sternalis, Prof. Turner on the, 13.
  • Music, 178; of birds, 368; discordant, love of savages for, 380; reason of power of perception of notes in animals, 568; power of distinguishing notes, 569; its connection with primeval speech, 570; different appreciation of, by different peoples, 570; origin of, 569, 573; effects of, 571.
  • Musical cadences, perception of, by animals, 569; powers of man, 566 et seq.
  • Musk-deer, canine teeth of male, 502, 513, 514; male, odiferous organs of the, 529; winter change of the, 542.
  • Musk-duck, Australian, 359; large size of male, 362; of Guiana, pugnacity of the male, 362.
  • Musk-ox, horns of, 505.
  • Musk-rat, protective resemblance of the, to a clod of earth, 542.
  • Musophagœ, colours and nidification of the, 455; both sexes of, equally brilliant, 460.
  • Mussels opened by monkeys, 50.
  • Mustela, winter change of two species of, 542.
  • Musters, Capt., on Rhea Darwinii, 479; marriages amongst Patagonians, 598.
  • Mutilations, healing of, 8; inheritance of, 60.
  • Mutilla europœa, stridulation of, 292.
  • Mutillidæ, absence of ocelli in female, 275.
  • Mycetes caraya, polygamous, 217; vocal organs of, 527; beard of, 531; sexual differences of colour in, 537; voice of, 567.
  • —— seniculus, sexual differences of colour in, 537.
  • Myriapoda, 274.

N.

  • Nägeli, on the influence of natural selection on plants, 61; on the gradation of species of plants, 175.
  • Nails, coloured yellow or purple in part of Africa, 574.
  • Narwhal, tusks of the, 502, 507.
  • Nasal cavities, large size of, in American aborigines, 34.
  • Nascent organs, 12.
  • Nathusius, H. von, on the improved breeds of pigs, 177; male domesticated animals more variable than females, 223; horns of castrated sheep, 506; on the breeding of domestic animals, 596.
  • Natural selection, its effects on the early progenitors of man, 47; influence of, on man, 60, 62; limitation of the principle, 61; influence of, on social animals, 62; Mr. Wallace on the limitation of, by the influence of the mental faculties in man, 127; influence of, in the progress of the United States, 142; in relation to sex, 259.
  • Natural and sexual selection contrasted, 226.
  • Naulette, jaw from, large size of the canines in, 40.
  • Neanderthal skull, capacity of the, 55.
  • Neck, proportion of, in soldiers and sailors, 32.
  • Necrophorus, stridulation of, 302, 304.
  • Nectarinia, young of, 468.
  • Nectariniœ, moulting of the, 392; nidification of, 454.
  • Negro, resemblance of a, to Europeans, in mental characters, 178.
  • Negro-women, their kindness to Mungo Park, 118.
  • Negroes, Caucasian features in, 167; character of, 168; lice of, 170; fertility of, when crossed with other races, 171; blackness of, 170, 173; variability of, 174, 175; immunity of, from yellow fever, 193; difference of, from Americans, 197; disfigurements of the, 541; colour of newborn children of, 557; comparative beardlessness of, 560; readily become musicians, 570; appreciation of beauty of their women by, 577, 579; idea of beauty among, 582; compression of the nose by some, 583.
  • Nemertians, colours of, 264.
  • Neolithic period, 145.
  • Neomorpha, sexual difference of the beak in, 359.
  • Nephila, size of male, 273.
  • Nests, made by fishes, 345; decoration of, by Humming-birds, 413.
  • Neumeister, on a change of colour in pigeons after several moultings, 238.
  • Neuration, difference of, in the two sexes of some butterflies and hymenoptera, 277.
  • Neuroptera, 254, 290.
  • Neurothemis, dimorphism in, 291.
  • New Zealand, expectation by the
  • natives of, of their extinction, 191; practice of tattooing in, 576; aversion of natives of, to hairs on the face, 581; pretty girls engrossed by the chiefs in, 595.
  • Newton, A., on the throat-pouch of the male bustard, 373; on the difference between the females of two species of Oxynotus, 470; on the habits of the Phalarope, dotterel, and godwit, 477.
  • Newts, 348.
  • Nicholson, Dr., on the non-immunity of dark Europeans from yellow fever, 195.
  • Nictitating membrane, 17, 161.
  • Nidification, of fishes, 344; relation of, to colour, 453, 456; of British birds, 454.
  • Night-heron, cries of the, 368.
  • Nightingale, arrival of the male before the female, 212; object of the song of the, 368.
  • Nightingales, new mates found by 408.
  • Nightjar, selection of a mate by the female, 416; Australian, sexes of 479; coloration of the, 491.
  • Nightjars, noise made by some male, with their wings, 376; elongated feathers in, 384, 403.
  • Nilghau, sexual differences of colour in the, 535.
  • Nilsson, Prof., on the resemblance of stone arrow-heads from various places, 179; on the development of the horns in the reindeer, 234.
  • Nipples, absence of, in Monotremata, 162.
  • Nitsche, Dr., ear of fœtal orang, 17.
  • Nitzsch, C. L., on the down of birds, 390.
  • Noctuæ, brightly-coloured beneath, 315.
  • Noctuidæ, coloration of, 313.
  • Nomadic habits, unfavourable to human progress, 133.
  • Nordmann, A., on Tetrao urogalloides, 405.
  • Norfolk island, half-breeds on, 190.
  • Norway, numerical proportion of male and female births in, 243.
  • Nose, resemblance of, in man and the apes, 153; piercing and ornamentation of the, 575; very flat, not admired in negroes, 582; flattening of the, 583.
  • Nott and Gliddon, on the features of Rameses II., 168; on the features of Amunoph III., 168; on skulls from Brazilian caves, 168; on the immunity of negroes and mulattoes from yellow fever, 193; on the deformation of the skull among American tribes, 583.
  • Novara, voyage of the, suicide in New Zealand, 117.
  • Nudibranch Mollusca, bright colours of, 264.
  • Numerals, Roman, 144; origin of, 264.
  • Nunemaya, natives of, bearded, 349, 560.
  • Nut-hatch of Japan, intelligence of, 410.

O.

  • Obedience, value of, 130.
  • Observation, powers of, possessed by birds, 411.
  • Occupations, sometimes a cause of diminished stature, 31; effect of, upon the proportions of the body, 31.
  • Ocelli, absence of, in female Mutillidæ, 274.
  • —— of birds, formation and variability of the, 427.
  • Ocelot, sexual differences in the colouring of the, 534.
  • Ocyphaps lophotes, 402.
  • Odonata, 254.
  • Odonestis potatoria, sexual difference of colour in, 316.
  • Odour, correlation of, with colour of skin, 197; emitted by snakes in the breeding-season, 352; of mammals, 528.
  • Œcanthus nivalis, difference of colour in the sexes of, 289.
  • —— pellucidus, 289.
  • Ogle, Dr. W., relation between colour and power of smell, 18.
  • Oidemia, 491.
  • Olivier, on sounds produced by Pimelia striata, 306.
  • Omaloplia brunnea, stridulation of, 303.
  • Onitis furcifer, processes of anterior femora of the male, and on the head and thorax of the female, 297.
  • Onthophagus, 295.
  • —— rangifer, sexual differences of, 296; variation in the horns of the male, 297.
  • Ophidia, sexual differences of, 351.
  • Ophidium, 347.
  • Opossum, wide range of, in America, 169.
  • Optic nerve, atrophy of the, caused by destruction of the eye, 32.
  • Orang-Outan, 561; Bischoff on the agreement of the brain of the, with that of man, 6; adult age of the, 8; ears of the, 14; vermiform appendage of, 21; hands of the, 50; absence of mastoid processes in the, 53; platforms built by the, 66; alarmed at the sight of a turtle, 72; using a stick as a lever, 81; using missiles, 81; using the leaves of the Pandanus as a night covering, 82; direction of the hair on the arms of the, 151; its aberrant characters, 154; supposed evolution of the, 177; voice of the, 527; monogamous habits of the, 590; male, beard of the, 531.
  • Oranges, treatment of, by monkeys, 50.
  • Orange-tip butterfly, 308, 312, 313.
  • Orchestia Darwinii, dimorphism of males of, 268.
  • —— Tucuratinga, limbs of, 267, 271.
  • Ordeal, trial by, 96.
  • Oreas canna, colours of, 535.
  • —— Derbianus, colours of, 535, 543.
  • Organs, prehensile, 209; utilised for new purposes, 571.
  • Organic scale, von Baer's definition of progress in, 164.
  • Orioles, nidification of, 453.
  • Oriolus, species of, breeding in immature plumage, 484.
  • —— melanocephalus, coloration of the sexes in, 460.
  • Ornaments, prevalence of similar, 179; of male birds, 367; fondness of savages for, 574.
  • Ornamental characters, equal transmission of, to both sexes, in mammals, 541; of monkeys, 549.
  • Ornithoptera crœsus, 250.
  • Ornithorhynchus, 156; reptilian tendency of, 159; spur of the male, 502.
  • Orocetes erythrogastra, young of, 487.
  • Orrony, Grotto of, 22.
  • Orsodacna atra, difference of colour in the sexes of, 294.
  • Orthoptera, 282; metamorphosis of, 237; stridulating apparatus of, 283, 288; colours of, 289; rudimentary stridulating organs in female, 288; stridulation of the, and Homoptera, discussed, 288.
  • Ortygornis gularis, pugnacity of the male, 363.
  • Oryctes, stridulation of, 303; sexual differences in the stridulant organs of, 305.
  • Oryx leucoryx, use of the horns of, 509, 518.
  • Osphranter rufus, sexual difference in the colour of, 533.
  • Ostrich, African, sexes and incubation of the, 478.
  • Ostriches, stripes of young, 464.
  • Otaria jubata, mane of the male, 521.
  • —— nigrescens, difference in the coloration of the sexes of, 534.
  • Otis bengalensis, love-antics of the male, 380.
  • —— tarda, throat-pouch of the male, 373; polygamous, 219.
  • Ouzel, ring-, colours and nidification of the, 455.
  • ——, water-, colours and nidification of the, 455.
  • Ovibos moschatus, horns of, 505.
  • Ovipositor of insects, 208.
  • Ovis cycloceros, mode of fighting of, 508, 513.
  • Ovule of man, 9.
  • Owen, Prof., on the Corpora Wolffiana, 11; on the great toe in man, 11; on the nictitating membrane and semilunar fold, 17; on the development of the posterior molars in different races of man, 20; on the length of the cœcum in the Koala, 20; on the coccygeal vertebræ, 23; on rudimentary structures belonging to the reproductive system, 24; on abnormal conditions of the human uterus, 38, on the number of digits in the Ichthyopterygia, 37; on the canine teeth in man, 40; on the walking of the chimpanzee and orang, 50; on the mastoid processes in the higher apes, 53; on the hairiness of elephants in elevated districts, 57; on the caudal vertebræ of monkeys, 58; classification of mammalia, 148; on the hair in monkeys, 152; on the piscine affinities of the Ichthyosaurians, 159; on pologamy and monogamy among the antelopes, 217; on the horns of Antilocapra americana, 234; on the musky odour of crocodiles during the breeding season, 351; on the scent-glands of snakes, 352; on the Dugong, Cachalot and Ornithorhynchus, 502; on the antlers of the red deer, 510; on the dentition of the Camelidæ, 514; on the horns of the Irish elk, 515; on the voice in the giraffe, porcupine, and stag, 526; on the laryngeal sac of the gorilla and orang, 527; on the odoriferous glands of mammals, 528, 529; on the effects of emasculation on the vocal organs of men, 566; on the voice of Hylobates agilis, 567; on American monogamous monkeys, 567.
  • Owls, white, new mates found by, 408.
  • Oxynotus, difference of the females of two species of, 470.

P.

  • Pachydermata, 218.
  • Pachytylus migratorius, 283.
  • Paget, on the abnormal development of hairs in man, 19; on the thickness of the skin on the soles of the feet of infants, 33.
  • Painting, pleasure of savages in, 178.
  • Palœmon, chelæ of a species of, 267.
  • Palœornis, sexual differences of colour in, 494.
  • —— javanicus, colour of beak of, 461.
  • —— rosa, young of, 467.
  • Palamedea cornuta, spurs on the wings, 364.
  • Paleolithic period, 145.
  • Palestine, habits of the chaffinch in, 248.
  • Pallas, on the perfection of the senses in the Mongolians, 34; on the want of connexion between climate and the colour of the skin, 192; on the polygamous habits of Antilope Saiga, 217; on the lighter colour of horses and cattle in winter in Siberia, 229; on the tusks of the musk-deer, 513, 514; on the odoriferous glands of mammals, 529; on the odoriferous glands of the musk-deer, 530; on winter changes of colour in mammals, 542; on the ideal of female beauty in North China, 578.
  • Palmaris accessorius, muscle variations of the, 27.
  • Pampas, horses of the, 181.
  • Pangenesis, hypothesis of, 228, 231.
  • Panniculus carnosus, 13.
  • Pansch, on the brain of a fœtal Cebus apella, 205.
  • Papilio, proportion of the sexes in North American species of, 250; sexual differences of colouring in species of, 309; coloration of the wings in species of, 312.
  • —— ascanius, 309.
  • —— Sesostris and Childrenœ, variability of, 319.
  • —— Turnus, 250.
  • Papilionidæ, variability in the, 319.
  • Papuans, line of separation between the, and the Malays, 169; beards of the, 560; hair of, 575.
  • —— and Malays, contrast in characters of, 168.
  • Paradise, Birds of, 405, 462; supposed by Lesson to be polygamous, 219; rattling of their quills by, 375; racket-shaped feathers in, 384; sexual differences in colour of, 385; decomposed feathers in, 385, 403; display of plumage by the male, 395.
  • Paradisea apoda, barbless feathers in the tail of, 385; plumage of, 385; and P. papuana, 385; divergence of the females of, 470; increase of beauty with age, 485.
  • Paraguay, Indians of, eradication of eyebrows and eyelashes by, 580.
  • Parakeet, Australian, variation in the colour of the thighs of a male, 423.
  • Parallelism of development of species and languages, 90.
  • Parasites on man and animals, 7, 8; as evidence of specific identity or distinctness, 169; immunity from, correlated with colour, 193.
  • Parental feeling in earwigs, starfishes, and spiders, 106; affection, partly a result of natural selection, 105.
  • Parents, age of, influence upon sex of offspring, 245.
  • Parinæ, sexual difference of colour in, 458.
  • Park, Mungo, negro-women teaching their children to love the truth, 118; his treatment by the negrowomen, 118, 562; on negro opinions of the appearance of white men, 579.
  • Parker, Mr., no bird or reptile in line of mammalian descent, 158.
  • Parrot, racket-shaped feathers in the tail of a, 384; instance of benevolence in a, 411.
  • Parrots, change of colour in, 60; imitative faculties of, 73; living in triplets, 409; affection of, 410; colours and nidification of the, 455, 457, 458; immature plumage of the, 467; colours of, 489; sexual differences of colour in, 494; musical powers of, 570.
  • Parthenogenesis in the Tenthredinæ, 254; in Cynipidæ, 254; in Crustacea, 255.
  • Partridge, monogamous, 219; proportion of the sexes in the, 248; female, 471.
  • "—— dances," 380, 405.
  • Partridges, living in triplets, 409; spring coveys of male, 409; distinguishing persons, 412.
  • Parus cœruleus, 458.
  • Passer, sexes and young of, 483.
  • —— brachydactylus, 483.
  • —— domesticus, 455, 483.
  • —— montanus, 455, 483.
  • Patagonians, self-sacrifice by, 111; marriages of, 598.
  • Patterson, Mr., on the Agrionidæ, 290.
  • Patteson, Bishop, decrease of Melanesians, 185.
  • Paulistas of Brazil, 173.
  • Pavo cristatus, 236, 430.
  • —— muticus, 236, 430; possession of spurs by the female, 364, 450.
  • —— nigripennis, 419.
  • Payaguas Indians, thin legs and thick arms of the, 32.
  • Payan, Mr., on the proportion of the sexes in sheep, 246.
  • Peacock, polygamous, 219; sexual characters of, 236; pugnacity of the, 364; rattling of the quills by, 375; elongated tail-coverts of the, 384, 402; love of display of the, 394, 431; ocellated spots of the, 430; inconvenience of long tail of the, to the female, 444, 451, 452; continued increase of beauty of the, 485.
  • —— butterfly, 312.
  • Peafowl, preference of females for a particular male, 418; first advances made by the female, 419.
  • Pediculi of domestic animals and man, 169.
  • Pedigree of man, 165.
  • Pedionomus torquatus, sexes of, 473.
  • Peel, J., on horned sheep, 505.
  • Peewit, wing-tubercles of the male, 366.
  • Pelagic animals, transparency of, 261.
  • Pelecanus erythrorhynchus, horny crest on the beak of the male, during the breeding season, 390.
  • —— onocrotalus, spring plumage of, 393.
  • Pelelé, an African ornament, 576.
  • Pelican, blind, fed by his companions, 102; young, guided by old birds, 102; pugnacity of the male, 362.
  • Pelicans, fishing in concert, 101.
  • Pelobius Hermanni, stridulation of, 303, 304.
  • Pelvis, alteration of, to suit the erect attitude of man, 53; differences of the, in the sexes in man, 557.
  • Penelope nigra, sound produced by the male, 377.
  • Pennant, on the battles of seals, 500; on the bladder-nose seal, 528.
  • Penthe, antennal cushions of the male, 276.
  • Perch, brightness of male, during breeding season, 340.
  • Peregrine falcon, new mate found by, 408.
  • Period of variability, relation of, to sexual selection, 240.
  • Periodicity, vital, Dr. Laycock, on, 8.
  • Periods, lunar, followed by functions in man and animals, 8, 164.
  • —— of life, inheritance at corresponding, 228, 232,
  • Perisoreus canadensis, young of, 481.
  • Peritrichia, difference of colour in the sexes of a species of, 294.
  • Periwinkle, 262.
  • Pernis cristata, 424.
  • Perrier, M., on sexual selection, 210; on bees, 292.
  • Perseverance, a characteristic of man, 564.
  • Persians, said to be improved by intermixture with Georgians and Circassians, 586.
  • Personnat, M., on Bombyx Yamamai, 251.
  • Peruvians, civilisation of the, not foreign, 145.
  • Petrels, colours of, 493.
  • Petrocincla cyanea, young of, 487.
  • Petrocossyphus, 461.
  • Petronia, 483.
  • Pfeiffer Ida, on Javan ideas of beauty, 580.
  • Phacochœrus œthiopicus, tusks and pads of, 519.
  • Phalanger, Vulpine, black varieties of the, 539.
  • Phalaropus fulicarius, 476.
  • —— hyperboreus, 476.
  • Phanœus, 298.
  • —— carnifex, variation of the horns of the male, 297.
  • —— faunus, sexual differences of, 296.
  • —— lancifer, 295.
  • Phaseolarctus cinereus, taste for rum and tobacco, 7.
  • Phasgonura viridissima, stridulation of, 284, 285.
  • Phasianus Sœmmerringii, 446.
  • —— versicolor, 396.
  • —— Wallichii, 400, 472.
  • Pheasant, polygamous, 219; and black grouse, hybrids of, 414; production of hybrids with the common fowl, 420; immature plumage of the, 466.
  • Pheasant, Amherst, display of, 396.
  • ——, Argus, 334, 462; display of plumage by the male, 398; ocellated spots of the 428, 434; gradation of characters in the, 434.
  • ——, Blood-, 364.
  • ——, Cheer, 400, 472.
  • ——, Eared, 235, 400, 472; length of the tail in the, 452; sexes alike in the, 460.
  • ——, Golden, display of plumage by the male, 396; age of mature plumage in the, 483; sex of young, ascertained by pulling out head-feathers, 484.
  • ——, Kalij, drumming of the male, 375.
  • ——, Reeve's, length of the tail in, 452.
  • ——, Silver, triumphant male, deposed on account of spoiled plumage, 419; sexual coloration of the, 492.
  • ——, Sœmmerring's, 445, 452.
  • ——, Tragopan, 383; display of plumage by the male, 397; markings of the sexes of the, 428.
  • Pheasants, period of acquisition of male characters in the family of the, 235; proportion of sexes in chicks of, 247; length of the tail in, 445, 451, 452.
  • Philters, worn by women, 577.
  • Phoca grœnlandica, sexual difference in the coloration of, 535.
  • Phœnicura ruticilla, 408.
  • Phosphorescence of insects, 277.
  • Phryganidæ, copulation of distinct species of, 275.
  • Phryniscus nigricans, 349.
  • Physical inferiority, supposed, of man, 64.
  • Pickering, on the number of species of man, 174.
  • Picton, J. A., on the soul of man, 613.
  • Picus auratus, 362.
  • —— major, 402.
  • Pieris, 312, 319.
  • Pigeon, female, deserting a weakened mate, 214; carrier, late development of the wattle in, 238; pouter, late development of the crop in, 238; domestic, breeds and sub-breeds of, 460.
  • Pigeons, nestling, fed by the secretion of the crop of both parents, 163; changes of plumage in, 229; transmission of sexual peculiarities in, 230; Belgian, with black-streaked males, 231, 238, 446; changing colour after several moultings, 238; numerical proportion of the sexes in, 247; cooing of, 374; variations in plumage of, 385; display of plumage by male, 402; local memory of, 411; antipathy of female, to certain males, 418; pairing of, 418; profligate male and female, 418; wing-bars and tail-feathers of, 427; suppositious breed of, 445; pouter and carrier, peculiarities of, predominant in males, 447; nidification of, 453; Australian, 458; immature plumage of the, 467.
  • Pigs, origin of the improved breeds of, 177; numerical proportion of the sexes in, 247; stripes of young, 464, 546; tusks of miocene, 521; sexual preference shewn by, 525.
  • Pike, American, brilliant colours of the male, during the breeding season, 340.
  • ——, reasoning powers of, 75; male, devoured by females, 249.
  • Pike, L. O., on the psychical elements of religion, 95.
  • Pimelia striata, sounds produced by the female, 306.
  • Pinel, hairiness in idiots, 36.
  • Pintail, drake, plumage of, 393; pairing with a wild duck, 415.
  • —— Duck, pairing with a wigeon, 414.
  • Pipe-fish, filamentous, 344; marsupial receptacles of the male, 346.
  • Pipits, moulting of the, 392.
  • Pipra, modified secondary wing-feathers of male, 378.
  • —— deliciosa, 378, 379.
  • Pirates stridulus, stridulation of, 281.
  • Pitcairn island, half-breeds on, 190.
  • Pithecia leucocephala, sexual differences of colour in, 537.
  • —— Satanas, beard of, 531, 532; resemblance of, to a negro, 604.
  • Pits, suborbital, of Ruminants, 529.
  • Pittidæ, nidification of, 453.
  • Placentata, 157.
  • Plagiostomous fishes, 331.
  • Plain-wanderer, Australian, 473.
  • Planariœ, bright colours of some, 260.
  • Plantain-eaters, colours and nidification of the, 455; both sexes of, equally brilliant, 460.
  • Plants, cultivated, more fertile than wild, 45; Nägeli, on natural selection in, 61; male flowers of, mature before the female, 212; phenomena of fertilisation in 222.
  • Platalea, 374; change of plumage in, 461.
  • Platyblemnus, 289.
  • Platycercus, young of, 481.
  • Platyphyllum concavum, 283, 286.
  • Platyrrhine monkeys, 153.
  • Platysma myoides, 13.
  • Plecostomus, head-tentacles of the males of a species of, 338.
  • —— barbatus, peculiar beard of the male, 338.
  • Plectropterus gambensis, spurred wings of, 364.
  • Ploceus, 370, 375, 405.
  • Plovers, wing-spurs of, 365; double moult in, 392.
  • Plumage, changes of, inheritance of, by fowls, 229; tendency to analogous variation in, 385; display of, by male birds, 394, 402; changes of, in relation to season, 462; immature, of birds, 464, 465; colour of, in relation to protection, 489.
  • Plumes on the head in birds, difference of, in the sexes, 451.
  • Pneumora, structure of, 286.
  • Podica, sexual difference in the colour of the irides of, 425.
  • Poeppig, on the contact of civilised and savage races, 183.
  • Poison, avoidance of, by animals, 80.
  • Poisonous fruits and herbs avoided by animals, 66.
  • Poisons, immunity from, correlated with colour, 193.
  • Polish fowls, origin of the crest in, 231.
  • Pollen and van Dam, on the colours of, Lemur macaco, 537.
  • Polyandry, 593; in certain Cyprinidæ, 249; among the Elateridæ, 253.
  • Polydactylism in man, 37.
  • Polygamy, influence of, upon sexual selection, 216; superinduced by domestication, 220; supposed increase of female births by, 245; in the stickleback, 332.
  • Polygenists, 176.
  • Polynesia, prevalence of infanticide in, 592.
  • Polynesians, wide geographical range of 29; difference of stature among the, 31; crosses of, 173; variability of, 174; heterogeneity of the, 192; aversion of, to hairs on the face, 581.
  • Polyplectron, number of spurs in, 364; display of plumage by the male, 396; gradation of characters in, 431; female of, 471.
  • —— chinquis, 397, 432.
  • —— Hardwickii, 432.
  • —— malaccense, 432, 433.
  • —— Napoleonis, 432, 433.
  • Polyzoa, 262.
  • Pontoporeia affinis, 266.
  • Porcupine, mute, except in the rutting season, 526.
  • Pores, excretory, numerical relation of, to the hairs in sheep, 198.
  • Porpitœ, bright colours of some, 260.
  • Portax picta, dorsal crest and throattuft of, 530; sexual differences of colour in, 535, 543.
  • Portunus puber, pugnacity of, 269.
  • Potamochœrus penicillatus, tusks and facial knobs of the, 520.
  • Pouchet, G., the relation of instinct to intelligence, 67; on the instincts of ants, 147; on the caves of Abou-Simbel, 168; on the immunity of negroes from yellow fever, 193; change of colour in fishes, 344.
  • Pouter pigeon, late development of the large crop in, 238.
  • Powell, Dr., on stridulation, 281.
  • Power, Dr., on the different colours of the sexes in a species of Squilla, 271.
  • Powys, Mr., on the habits of the chaffinch in Corfu, 248.
  • Pre-eminence of man, 48
  • Preference for males by female birds, 414, 420; shewn by mammals, in pairing, 522.
  • Prehensile organs, 209.
  • Presbytis entellus, fighting of the male, 562.
  • Preyer, Dr., on function of shell of ear, 14; on supernumerary mammæ in women, 37.
  • Prichard, on the difference of stature among the Polynesians, 31; on the connection between the breadth of the skull in the Mongolians and the perfection of their senses, 34; on the capacity of British skulls of different ages, 55; on the flattened heads of the Colombian savages, 575; on Siamese notions of beauty, 578; on the beardlessness of the Siamese, 581; on the deformation of the head among American tribes and the natives of Arakhan, 583.
  • Primary sexual organs, 207.
  • Primates, 149, 205; sexual differences of colour in, 537.
  • Primogeniture, evils of, 135.
  • Prionidæ, difference of the sexes in colour, 294.
  • Proctotretus multimaculatus, 358.
  • —— tenuis, sexual difference in the colour of, 358.
  • Profligacy, 137.
  • Progenitors, early, of man, 160.
  • Progress, not the normal rule in human society, 133; elements of, 141.
  • Prong-horn antelope, horns of, 234.
  • Proportions, difference of, in distinct races, 167.
  • Protective colouring in butterflies, 312; in lizards, 358; in birds, 473, 489; in mammals, 542.
  • —— nature of the dull colouring of female Lepidoptera, 321, 322, 324.
  • —— resemblances in fishes, 344.
  • Protozoa, absence of secondary sexual characters in, 260.
  • Pruner-Bey, on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the humerus of man, 22; on the colour of negro infants, 557.
  • Prussia, numerical proportion of male and female births in, 243.
  • Psocus, proportions of the sexes in, 254.
  • Ptarmigan, monogamous, 219; summer and winter plumage of the, 390, 392; nuptial assemblages of, 406; triple moult of the, 462; protective coloration of, 473.
  • Puff-birds, colours and nidification of the, 455.
  • Pugnacity of fine-plumaged male birds, 400.
  • Pumas, stripes of young, 464.
  • Puppies learning from cats to clean their faces, 73.
  • Pycnonotus hœmorrhous, pugnacity of the male, 360; display of under tail coverts by the male, 402.
  • Pyranga œstixa, male aiding in incubation, 453.
  • Pyrodes, difference of the sexes in colour, 294.

Q.

  • Quadrumana, hands of, 50; differences between man and the, 149; sexual differences of colour in, 537; ornamental characters of, 549; analogy of sexual differences of, with those of man, 558; fighting of males for the females, 562; monogamous habits of, 590; beards of the, 602.
  • Quain, R., on the variation of the muscles in man, 26.
  • Quatrefages, A. de, on the occurrence of a rudimentary tail in man, 22; on variability, 30; on the moral sense as a distinction between man and animals, 97; civilised men stronger than savages, 136; on the fertility of Australian women with white men, 170; on the Paulistas of Brazil, 173; on the evolution of the breeds of cattle, 177; on the Jews, 193; on the liability of negroes to tropical fevers after residence in a cold climate, 194; on the difference between field-and house-slaves, 196; on the influence of climate on colour, 196; colours of annelids, 265; on the Ainos, 560; 'on the women of San Giuliano, 586.
  • Querquedula acuta, 414.
  • Quetelet, proportion of sexes in man, 343; relative size in man and woman, 244.
  • Quichua Indians, 34; local variation of colour in the, 196; no grey hair among the, 559; hairlessness of the, 561; long hair of the, 580.
  • Quiscalus major, 225; proportions of the sexes of, in Florida and Honduras, 248.

R.

  • Rabbit, white tail of the, 542.
  • Rabbits, domestic, elongation of the skull in, 56; modification of the skull, in by the lopping of the ear, 56; danger-signals of, 100; numerical proportion of the sexes in, 247.
  • Races, distinctive characters of, 167, 168; or species of man, 168; crossed, fertility or sterility of, 170; of man, variability of the, 174; of man, resemblance of, in mental characters, 178; formation of, 181; of man, extinction of, 181; effects of the crossing of, 192; of man, formation of the, 192; of man, children of the, 557; beardless, aversion of, to hairs on the face, 580.
  • Raffles, Sir S., on the banteng, 536.
  • Rafts, use of, 48, 180.
  • Rage, manifested by animals, 69.
  • Raia batis, teeth of, 335.
  • —— clavata, female spined on the back, 331; sexual difference in the teeth of, 334.
  • —— maculata, teeth of, 335.
  • Rails, spur-winged, 364.
  • Ram, mode of fighting of the 508; African, mane of an, 532; fattailed, 532.
  • Rameses II., features of, 168.
  • Ramsay, Mr., on the Australian musk-duck, 359; on the regentbird, 413; on the incubation of Menura superba, 451.
  • Rana esculenta, vocal sacs of, 350.
  • Rat, common, general dispersion of, a consequence of superior cunning, 80; supplantation of the native, in New Zealand, by the European rat, 191; common, said to be polygamous, 218; numerical proportion of the sexes in, 247.
  • Rats, enticed by essential oils, 530.
  • Rationality of birds, 410.
  • Rattle-snakes, difference of the sexes in the, 351; rattles as a call, 353.
  • Raven, vocal organs of the 370; stealing bright objects, 413; pied, of the Feroe Islands, 424.
  • Rays, prehensile organs of male, 331.
  • Razor-bill, young of the, 486.
  • Reade, Winwood, suicide among savages in Africa, 117; mulattoes not prolific, 171; effect of castration of horned sheep, 506; on the Guinea sheep, 235; on the occurrence of a mane in an African ram, 533; on the negroes' appreciation of the beauty of their women, 577; on the admiration of negroes for a black skin, 579; on the idea of beauty among negroes, 582; on the Jollofs, 587; on the marriage-customs of the negroes, 599.
  • Reason, in animals, 75.
  • Redstart, American, breeding in immature plumage, 484.
  • Redstarts, new mates found by, 408.
  • Reduvidæ, stridulation of, 281.
  • Reed-bunting, head-feathers of the male, 402; attacked by a bull-finch, 412.
  • Reefs, fishes frequenting, 343.
  • Reeks, H., retention of horns by breeding deer, 503; cow rejected by a bull, 525; destruction of piebald rabbits by cats, 542.
  • Regeneration, partial, of lost parts in man, 8.
  • Regent-bird, 413.
  • Reindeer, horns of the, 233; battles of, 501; horns of the female, 503; antlers of, with numerous points, 510; winter change of the, 542; sexual preferences shewn by, 552.
  • Relationship, terms of, 590.
  • Religion, deficiency of, among certain races, 93; psychical elements of, 95.
  • Remorse, 114; deficiency of, among savages, 131.
  • Rengger, on the diseases of Cebus Azarœ, 7; on the diversity of the mental faculties of monkeys, 27; on the Payaguas Indians, 32; on the inferiority of Europeans to savages in their senses, 33; revenge taken by monkeys, 69; on maternal affection in a Cebus, 70; on the reasoning powers of American monkeys, 77; on the use of stones by monkeys for cracking hard nuts, 81; on the sounds uttered by Cebus Azarœ, 84; on the signal-cries of monkeys, 87; on the polygamous habits of Mycetes caraya, 217; on the voice of the howling monkeys, 527; on the odour of Cervus campestris, 529; on the beards of Mycetes caraya and Pithecia Satanas, 531; on the colours of Felis mitis, 534; on the colours of Cervus paludosus, 536; on sexual differences of colour in Mycetes, 537; on the colour of the infant Guaranys, 558; on the early maturity of the female of Cebus azarœ, 558; on the beards of the Guaranys, 561; on the emotional notes employed by monkeys, 572; on American polygamous monkeys, 590.
  • Representative species, of birds, 468.
  • Reproduction, unity of phenomena of, throughout the mammalia, 8; period of, in birds, 484.
  • Reproductive system, rudimentary structures in the, 23; accessory parts of, 161.
  • Reptiles, 350.
  • —— and birds, alliance of, 165.
  • Resemblances, small, between man and the apes, 150.
  • Retrievers, exercise of reasoning faculties by, 78.
  • Revenge, manifested by animals, 69.
  • Reversion, 36; perhaps the cause of some bad dispositions, 137.
  • Rhagium, difference of colour in the sexes of a species of, 294.
  • Rhamphastos carinatus, 492.
  • Rhea darwinii, 479.
  • Rhinoceros, nakedness of, 57; horns of, 505; horns of, used defensively, 518; attacking white or grey horses, 540.
  • Rhynchœa, sexes and young of, 476.
  • —— australis, 476.
  • —— bengalensis, 476.
  • —— capensis, 477.
  • Rhythm, perception of, by animals, 569.
  • Richard, M., on rudimentary muscles in man, 12.
  • Richardson, Sir J., on the pairing of Tetrao umbellus, 366; on Tetrao urophasianus, 372; on the drumming of grouse, 376; on the dances of Tetrao phasianellus, 381; on assemblages of grouse, 405; on the battles of male deer, 501; on the reindeer, 503; on the horns of the musk-ox, 505; on antlers of the reindeer with numerous points, 510; on the moose, 515.
  • Richardson, on the Scotch deerhound, 516.
  • Richter, Jean Paul, on imagination, 74.
  • Riedel, on profligate female pigeons, 218.
  • Riley, Mr., on mimicry in butterflies, 324; birds' disgust at taste of certain caterpillars, 326.
  • Ring-ouzel, colours and nidification of the, 455.
  • Ripa, Father, on the difficulty of distinguishing the races of the Chinese, 167.
  • Rivalry, in singing, between male birds, 369.
  • River-hog, African, tusks and knobs of the, 520.
  • Rivers, analogy of, to islands, 159.
  • Roach, brightness of male during breeding-season, 340.
  • Robbery, of strangers, considered honourable, 117.
  • Robertson, Mr., remarks on the development of the horns in the roebuck and red-deer, 234.
  • Robin, pugnacity of the male, 360; autumn song of the, 370; female singing of the, 370; attacking other birds with red in their plumage, 412; young of the, 480.
  • Robinet, on the difference of size of the male and female cocoons of the silk-moth, 278.
  • Rodents, uterus in the, 38; absence of secondary sexual characters in, 218; sexual differences in the colours of, 534.
  • Roe, winter change of the, 542.
  • Rohlfs, Dr., Caucasian features in negro, 167; fertility of mixed races in Sahara, 171; colours of birds in Sahara, 490; ideas of beauty amongst the Bornuans, 582.
  • Rolle, F., on the origin of man, 3; on a change in German families settled in Georgia, 196.
  • Roller, harsh cry of, 371.
  • Romans, ancient, gladiatorial exhibitions of the, 123.
  • Ronjou, M. A., coincidence of arrested development with polydactylism, 37.
  • Rook, voice of the, 375.
  • Rössler, Dr., on the resemblance of the lower surface of butterflies to the bark of trees, 311.
  • Rostrum, sexual difference in the length of, in some weevils, 208.
  • Royer, Madlle., mammals giving suck, 163.
  • Rudimentary organs, 11; origin of, 24.
  • Rudiments, presence of, in languages, 90.
  • Rudolphi, on the want of connexion between climate and the colour of the skin, 192.
  • Ruff, supposed to be polygamous, 219; proportion of the sexes in the, 248; pugnacity of the, 361; double moult in, 390, 392; duration of dances of, 405; attraction of the, to bright objects, 413.
  • Ruminants, male, disappearance of canine teeth in, 53, 562; generally polygamous, 217; suborbital pits of, 529; sexual differences of colour in, 535.
  • Rupicola crocea, display of plumage by the male, 395.
  • Rüppell, on canine teeth in deer and antelopes, 514.
  • Russia, numerical proportion of male and female births in, 215, 243.
  • Ruticilla, 462.
  • Rütimeyer, Prof., on the physiognomy of the apes, 54; on the sexual differences of monkeys, 561.
  • Rutlandshire, numerical proportion of male and female births in, 242.

S.

  • Sachs, Prof., on the behaviour of the male and female elements in fertilisation, 222.
  • Sacrifices, human, 144.
  • Sagittal crest in male apes and Australians, 558.
  • Sahara, fertility of mixed races in, 171; birds of the, 456; animal inhabitants of the, 489.
  • Sailors, growth of, delayed by conditions of life, 31; long-sighted, 33.
  • Sailors and soldiers, difference in the proportions of, 32.
  • St. John, Mr., on the attachment of mated birds, 410.
  • St. Kilda, beards of the inhabitants of, 560.
  • Salmo eriox, and S. umbla, colouring of the male, during the breeding season, 340.
  • —— lycaodon, 333.
  • —— salar, 333.
  • Salmon leaping out of fresh water, 107; male, ready to breed before the female, 212; proportion of the sexes in, 249; male, pugnacity of the, 332; male, characters of, during the breeding season, 332, 340; spawning of the, 344; breeding of immature male, 485.
  • Salvin, O., inheritance of mutilated feathers, 60, 384, 603; on the Humming-birds, 219, 454; on the numerical proportion of the sexes in Humming-birds, 248, 487; on Chamœpetes andPenelope, 377; on Selasphorus platycercus, 378; Pipra deliciosa, 378; on Chasmorhynchus, 389.
  • Samoa Islands, beardlessness of the natives of, 560, 581.
  • Sand-skipper, 270.
  • Sandwich Islands, variation in the skulls of the natives of the, 26; decrease of native population, 186; population of, 257; superiority of the nobles in the, 587.
  • —— Islanders, lice of, 170.
  • San-Giuliano, women of, 586.
  • Santali, recent rapid increase of the, 45; Mr. Hunter on the, 192.
  • Saphirina, characters of the males of, 271.
  • Sarkidiornis melanonotus, characters of the young, 465.
  • Sars, O., on Pontoporeia affinis, 266.
  • Saturnia carpini, attraction of males by the female, 252.
  • —— Io, difference of coloration in the sexes of, 316.
  • Saturniidœ, coloration of the, 314, 315.
  • Savage, Dr., on the fighting of the male gorillas, 562; on the habits of the gorilla, 591.
  • Savage and Wyman on the polygamous habits of the gorilla, 217.
  • Savages, uniformity of, exaggerated, 28; long-sighted, 33; rate of increase among, usually small, 45; retention of the prehensile power of the feet by, 52; imitative faculties of, 87; 129; causes of low morality of, 119; tribes of, supplanting one another, 128; improvements in the arts among, 144; arts of, 179; fondness of, for rough music, 380; attention paid by, to personal appearance, 574; relation of the sexes among, 591.
  • Saviotti, Dr., division of malar bone, 39.
  • Saw-fly, pugnacity of a male, 291.
  • Saw-flies, proportions of the sexes in, 254.
  • Saxicola rubicola, young of, 487.
  • Scalp, motion of the, 13.
  • Scent-glands in snakes, 352.
  • Schaaffhausen, Prof., on the development of the posterior molars in different races of man, 20; on the jaw from La Naulette, 40; on the correlation between muscularity and prominent supra-orbital ridges, 44; on the mastoid processes of man, 53; on modifications of the cranial bones, 56; on human sacrifices, 144; on the probable speedy extermination of the anthropomorphous apes, 156; on the ancient inhabitants of Europe, 181; on the effects of use and disuse of parts, 197; on the superciliary ridge in man, 556; on the absence of race-differences in the infant skull in man, 557; on ugliness, 584.
  • Schaum, H., on the elytra of Dytiscus and Hydroporus, 276.
  • Schelver, on dragon-flies, 290.
  • Schiodte, on the stridulation of Heterocerus, 302.
  • Schlegel, F. von, on the complexity of the languages of uncivilised peoples, 91.
  • ——, Prof., on Tanysiptera, 468.
  • Schleicher, Prof., on the origin of language, 87.
  • Schomburgk, Sir R., on the pugnacity of the male musk-duck of Guiana, 362; on the courtship of Rupicola crocea, 395.
  • Schoolcraft, Mr., on the difficulty of fashioning stone implements, 49.
  • Schweinfurth, complexion of negroes, 556.
  • Sciœna aquila, 347.
  • Sclater, P. L., on modified secondary wing-feathers in the males of Pipra, 378; on elongated feathers in nightjars, 384; on the species of Chasmorhynchus, 385; on the plumage of Pelecanus onocrotalus, 393; on the plantain-caters, 460; on the sexes and young of Tadorna variegata, 479; on the colours of Lemur macaco, 537; on the stripes in asses, 548.
  • Scolecida, absence of secondary sexual characters in, 260.
  • Scolopax frenata, tail-feathers of, 377.
  • —— gallinago, drumming of, 376.
  • —— javensis, tail-feathers of, 377.
  • —— major, assemblies of, 405.
  • —— Wilsonii, sound produced by, 377.
  • Scolytus, stridulation of, 302.
  • Scoter-duck, black, sexual difference in coloration of the, 491; bright beak of male, 491.
  • Scott, Dr., on idiots smelling their food, 36.
  • ——, J., on the colour of the beard in man, 558.
  • Scrope, on the pugnacity of the male salmon, 332; on the battles of stags, 501.
  • Scudder, S. H., imitation of the stridulation of the Orthoptera, 283; on the stridulation of the Acridiidæ, 286; on a Devonian insect, 289; on stridulation, 566.
  • Sculpture, expression of the ideal of beauty by, 581.
  • Sea-anemonies, bright colours of, 260.
  • Sea-bear, polygamous, 218.
  • Sea-elephant, male, structure of the nose of the, 527; polygamous, 218.
  • Sea-lion, polygamous, 218.
  • Seal, bladder-nose, 528.
  • Seals, their sentinels generally females, 100; evidence furnished by, on classification, 150; polygamous habits of, 218; battles of male, 500; canine teeth of male, 502; sexual differences, 515; pairing of, 522; sexual peculiarities of, 528; in the coloration of, 534; appreciation of music by, 569.
  • Sea-scorpion, sexual differences in, 337.
  • Season, changes of colour in birds, in accordance with the, 390; changes of plumage of birds in relation to, 462.
  • Seasons, inheritance at corresponding, 230.
  • Sebituani, African chief, trying to alter a fashion, 575.
  • Sebright Bantam, 238.
  • Secondary sexual characters, 207; relations of polygamy to, 217; transmitted through both sexes, 226; gradation of, in birds, 430.
  • Sedgwick, W., on hereditary tendency to produce twins, 45.
  • Seemann, Dr., on the different appreciation of music by different peoples, 570; on the effects of music, 571.
  • Seidlitz, on horns of reindeer, 506.
  • Selasphorus platycercus, acuminate first primary of the male, 378.
  • Selby, P. J., on the habits of the black and red grouse, 219.
  • Selection, double, 225.
  • —— of male by female birds, 404, 421.
  • ——, methodical, of Prussian grenadiers, 29.
  • ——, sexual, explanation of, 209, 213, 220; influence of, on the colouring of Lepidoptera, 321.
  • ——, sexual and natural, contrasted, 226.
  • Self-command, habit of, inherited, 115; estimation of, 118.
  • Self-consciousness, in animals, 83.
  • Self-preservation, instinct of, 112.
  • Self-sacrifice, by savages, 111; estimation of, 118.
  • Semilunar fold, 17.
  • Semnopithecus, 154; long hair on the heads of species of, 150, 604.
  • —— chrysomelas, sexual differences of colour in, 537.
  • —— comatus, ornamental hair on the head of, 549.
  • —— frontatus, beard, &c., of, 550.
  • Semnopithecus nasica, nose of, 150.
  • —— nemœus, colouring of, 551.
  • —— rubicundus, ornamental hair on the head of, 548.
  • Senses, inferiority of Europeans to savages in the, 33.
  • Sentinels, among animals, 100, 107.
  • Serpents, instinctively dreaded by apes and monkeys, 67, 71.
  • Serranus, hermaphroditism in, 161.
  • Sex, inheritance limited by, 230.
  • Sexes, relative proportions of, in man, 242, 558; probable relation of the, in primeval man, 591.
  • Sexual characters, secondary, 207; relations of polygamy to, 217; transmitted through both sexes, 226; gradation of, in birds, 430.
  • —— and natural selection, contrasted, 226.
  • —— characters, effects of the loss of 231; limitation of, 231.
  • —— differences in man, 8.
  • —— selection, explanation of, 209, 213, 220; influence of, on the colouring of Lepidoptera, 319; objections to, 495; action of, in mankind, 595.
  • —— similarity, 255.
  • Shaler, Prof., sizes of sexes in whales, 516.
  • Sharks, prehensile organs of male, 331.
  • Sharpe, Dr., Europeans in the tropics, 195.
  • ——, R. B., on Tanysiptera sylvia, 451; on Ceryle, 457; on the young male of Dacelo Gaudichaudi, 467.
  • Shaw, Mr., on the pugnacity of the male salmon, 332.
  • ——, J., on the decorations of birds, 382.
  • Sheep, danger-signals of, 100; sexual differences in the horns of, 230; horns of, 235, 505; domestic, sexual differences of, late developed, 237; numerical proportion of the sexes in, 246; inheritance of horns by one sex, 505; effect of castration, 506; mode of fighting of, 508; arched foreheads of some, 532.
  • —— Merino, loss of horns in females of, 231; horns of, 235.
  • Shells, difference in form of, in male and female Gasteropoda, 262; beautiful colours and shapes of, 264.
  • Shield-drake, pairing with a common duck, 414; New Zealand, sexes and young of, 479.
  • Shooter, J., on the Kaffirs, 579; on the marriage-customs of the Kaffirs, 598.
  • Shrew-mice, odour of, 528.
  • Shrike, Drongo, 461.
  • Shrikes, characters of young, 465.
  • Shuckard, W. E., on sexual differences in the wings of Hymenoptera, 277.
  • Shyness of adorned male birds, 403.
  • Siagonium, proportions of the sexes in, 253; dimorphism in males of, 299.
  • Siam, proportion of male and female births in, 245.
  • Siamese, general beardlessness of the, 560; notions of beauty of the, 578; hairy family of, 601.
  • Sidgwick, H., on morality in hypothetical bee community, 99; our actions not entirely directed by pain and pleasure, 120.
  • Siebold, C. T. von, on the proportion of sexes in the Apus, 255; on the auditory apparatus of the stridulant Orthoptera, 283.
  • Sight, inheritance of long and short, 33.
  • Signal-cries of monkeys, 87.
  • Silk-moth, proportion of the sexes in, 250, 251; Aïlanthus, Prof. Canestrini, on the destruction of its larvæ by wasps, 251; difference of size of the male and female cocoons of the, 278; pairing of the, 318.
  • Simiadæ, 152; their origin and divisions, 165.
  • Similarity, sexual, 225.
  • Singing of the Cicadæ and Fulgoridæ, 281; of tree-frogs, 350; of birds, object of the, 368.
  • Sirenia, nakedness of, 56.
  • Sirex juvencus, 292.
  • Siricidæ, difference of the sexes in, 292.
  • Siskin, 394; pairing with a canary, 415.
  • Sitana, throat-pouch of the males of, 355, 358.
  • Size, relative, of the sexes of insects, 278.
  • Skin, movement of the, 13; nakedness of, in man, 56; colour of the, 192.
  • —— and hair, correlation of colour of, 197.
  • Skull, variation of, in man, 26; cubic contents of, no absolute test of intellect, 54; Neanderthal, capacity of the, 55; causes of modification of the, 55; difference of, in form and capacity, in different races of men, 168; variability of the shape of the, 174; differences of, in the sexes in man, 557; artificial modification of the shape of, 575.
  • Skunk, odour emitted by the, 528; white tail of, protective, 543.
  • Slavery, prevalence of, 117; of women, 593.
  • Slaves, difference between field and house-slaves, 196.
  • Sloth, ornaments of male, 534.
  • Smell, sense of, in man and animals, 17.
  • Smith, Adam, on the basis of sympathy, 106.
  • ——, Sir A., on the recognition of women by male Cynocephali, 8; on revenge by a baboon, 69; on an instance of memory in a baboon, 74; on the retention of their colour by the Dutch in South Africa, 193; on the polygamy of the South African antelopes, 217; on the polygamy of the lion, 218; on the proportion of the sexes in Kobus ellipsiprymnus, 247; on Bucephalus capensis, 351; on South African lizards, 358; on fighting gnus, 501; on the horns of rhinoceroses, 506; on the fighting of lions, 521; on the colours of the Cape Eland, 535; on the colours of the gnu, 536; on Hottentot notions of beauty, 578; disbelief in communistic marriages, 588.
  • ——, F., on the Cynipidæ and Tenthredinidæ, 254; on the relative size of the sexes of Aculeate Hymenoptera, 279; on the difference between the sexes of ants and bees, 292; on the stridulation of Trox sabulosus, 303; on the stridulation of Mononychus pseudacori, 305.
  • Smynthurus luteus, courtship of, 279.
  • Snakes, sexual differences of, 351; mental powers of, 352; male, ardency of, 352.
  • "Snarling muscles," 41.
  • Snipe, drumming of the, 376; coloration of the, 491.
  • ——, painted, sexes and young of, 476.
  • ——, solitary, assemblies of, 405.
  • Snipes, arrival of male before the female, 212; pugnacity of male, 362; double moult in, 390.
  • Snow-goose, whiteness of the, 492.
  • Social animals, affection of, for each other, 102; defence of, by the males, 107.
  • Sociability, the sense of duty connected with, 98; impulse to, in animals, 105; manifestations of, in man, 108; instinct of, in animals, 109.
  • Sociality, probable, of primeval men, 62; influence of, on the development of the intellectual faculties, 128; origin of, in man, 129.
  • Soldiers, American, measurements of, 29.
  • —— and sailors, difference in the proportions of, 32.
  • Solenostoma, bright colours and marsupial sack of the females of, 346.
  • Song of male birds appreciated by their females, 92; want of, in brilliant plumaged birds, 401; of birds, 450.
  • Sorex, odour of, 528.
  • Sounds admired alike by man and animals, 92; produced by fishes, 347; produced by male frogs and toads, 350; instrumentally produced by birds, 376 et seq.
  • Spain, decadence of, 141.
  • Sparassus smaragdulus, difference of colour in the sexes of, 272.
  • Sparrow, pugnacity of the male, 360; acquisition of the Linnet's song by a, 370; coloration of the, 473; immature plumage of the, 466.
  • ——, white-crowned, young of the, 486.
  • Sparrows, house-and tree-, 455.
  • Sparrows, new mates found by, 408.
  • ——, sexes and young of, 483; learning to sing, 570.
  • Spathura Underwoodi, 388.
  • Spawning of fishes, 341, 344.
  • Spear, used before dispersion of man, 180.
  • Species, causes of the advancement, of, 137; distinctive characters of, 166; or races of man, 168; sterility and fertility of, when crossed, 170; supposed, of man, 174; gradation of, 175; difficulty of defining, 175; representative, of birds, 468; of birds, comparative differences between the sexes of distinct, 469.
  • Spectrum femoratum, difference of colour in the sexes of, 289.
  • Speech, connection between the brain and the faculty of, 88; connection of intonation with music, 570.
  • "Spel" of the black-cock, 375.
  • Spencer, Herbert, on the influence of food on the size of the jaws, 33; on the dawn of intelligence, 67; on the origin of the belief in spiritual agencies, 94; on the origin of the moral sense, 123; on music, 571, 572.
  • Spengel, disagrees with explanation of man's hairlessness, 602.
  • Sperm-whales, battles of male, 500.
  • Sphingidæ, coloration of the, 314.
  • Sphinx, Humming-bird, 317.
  • ——, Mr. Bates on the caterpillar of a, 325.
  • —— moth, musky odour of, 308.
  • Spiders, 272; parental feeling in, 106; male, more active than female, 221; proportion of the sexes in, 254; secondary sexual characters of, 272; courtship of male, 273; attracted by music, 273; male, small size of, 273.
  • Spilosoma menthastri, rejected by turkeys, 316.
  • Spine, alteration of, to suit the erect attitude of man, 53.
  • Spirits, fondness of monkeys for, 7.
  • Spiritual agencies, belief in, almost universal, 94.
  • Spiza cyanea and civis, 412.
  • Spoonbill, 374; Chinese, change of plumage in, 461.
  • Spots, retained throughout groups of birds, 427; disappearance of, in adult mammals, 546.
  • Sprengel, C. K., on the sexuality of plants, 212.
  • Spring-boc, horns of the, 509.
  • Sproat, Mr., on the extinction of savages in Vancouver Island, 183; on the eradication of facial hair by the natives of Vancouver Island, 580; on the eradication of the beard by the Indians of Vancouver Island, 603.
  • Spurs, occurrence of, in female fowls, 227, 231; development of, in various species of Phasianidæ, 235; of Gallinaceous birds, 362, 364; development of, in female Gallinaceæ, 449.
  • Squilla, different colours of the sexes of a species of, 271.
  • Squirrels, battles of male, 500; African, sexual differences in the colouring of, 534; black, 540.
  • Stag, long hairs of the throat of, 521; horns of the, 227, 229; battles of, 501; horns of the, with numerous branches, 510; bellowing of the, 526; crest of the, 531.
  • —— -beetle, numerical proportion of sexes of, 253; large size of male, 278; weapons of the male, 299.
  • Stainton, H. T., on the numerical proportion of the sexes in the smaller moths, 251; habits of Elachista rufocinerea, 252; on the coloration of moths, 315; on the rejection of Spilosoma menthastri, by turkeys, 316; on the sexes of Agrotis exclamationis, 316.
  • Staley, Bishop, mortality of infant Maories, 187.
  • Stallion, mane of the, 521.
  • Stallions, two, attacking a third, 101; fighting, 501; small canine teeth of, 514.
  • Stansbury, Capt., observations on pelicans, 102.
  • Staphylinidæ, hornlike processes in male, 299.
  • Starfishes, parental feeling in, 106; bright colours of some, 260.
  • Stark, Dr., on the death-rate in towns and rural districts, 138; on the influence of marriage on mortality, 139; on the higher mortality of males in Scotland, 243.
  • Starling, American field-, pugnacity of male, 367.
  • ——, red-winged, selection of a mate by the female, 416.
  • Starlings, three, frequenting the same nest, 219, 409; new mates found by, 408.
  • Statues, Greek, Egyptian, Assyrian, &c., contrasted, 581.
  • Stature, dependence of, upon local influences, 31.
  • Staudinger, Dr., on breeding Lepidoptera, 251; his list of Lepidoptera, 252.
  • Staunton, Sir G., hatred of indecency a modern virtue, 119.
  • Stealing of bright objects by birds, 413.
  • Stebbing, T. R., on the nakedness of the human body, 600.
  • Stemmatopus, 528.
  • Stendhal, see Bombet.
  • Stenobothrus pratorum, stridulation, 286.
  • Stephen, Mr. L., on the difference in the minds of men and animals, 78; on general concepts in animals, 89; distinction between material and formal morality, 111.
  • Sterility, general, of sole daughters, 135; when crossed, a distinctive character of species, 166; under changed conditions, 189, 191.
  • Sterna, seasonal change of plumage in, 493.
  • Stickle-back, polygamous, 220; male, courtship of the, 331; male, brilliant colouring of, during the breeding season, 340; nidification of the, 345.
  • Sticks used as implements and weapons by monkeys, 81.
  • Sting in bees, 208.
  • Stokes, Capt., on the habits of the great bower-bird, 381.
  • Stoliczka, Dr., on colours in snakes, 352.
  • Stonechat, young of the, 487.
  • Stone implements, difficulty of making, 49; as traces of extinct tribes, 181.
  • Stones, used by monkeys for breaking hard fruits and as missiles, 50; piles of, 179.
  • Stork, black, sexual differences in the bronchi of the, 374; red beak of the, 491.
  • Storks, 491, 493; sexual difference in the colour of the eyes of, 425.
  • Strange, Mr., on the satin bower-bird, 381.
  • Stretch, Mr., on the numerical proportion in the sexes of chickens, 247.
  • Strepsiceros kudu, horns of, 512; markings of, 543.
  • Stridulation, by males of Theridion, 274; of the Orthoptera and Homoptera discussed, 289; of beetles, 301.
  • Stripes, retained throughout groups of birds, 427; disappearance of, in adult mammals, 546.
  • Strix flammea, 408.
  • Structure, existence of unserviceable modifications of, 61.
  • Struggle for existence, in man, 142, 146.
  • Struthers, Dr., on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the humerus of man, 21.
  • Sturnella ludoviciana, pugnacity of the male, 367.
  • Sturnus vulgaris, 408.
  • Sub-species, 175.
  • Suffering, in strangers, indifference of savages to, 117.
  • Suicide, 137; formerly not regarded as a crime, 117; rarely practised among the lowest savages, 117.
  • Suidæ, stripes of young, 464.
  • Sulivan, Sir B. J., on speaking of parrots, 85; on two stallions attacking a third, 501.
  • Sumatra, compression of the nose by the Malays of, 583.
  • Sumner, Archb., man alone capable of progressive improvement, 79.
  • Sun-birds, nidification of, 454.
  • Superstitions, 144; prevalence of, 122.
  • Superstitious customs, 96.
  • Superciliary ridge in man, 556, 558.
  • Supernumerary digits, more frequent in men than in women, 223; inheritance of, 232; early development of, 237.
  • Supra-condyloid foramen in the early progenitors of man, 160.
  • Suspicion, prevalence of, among animals, 69.
  • Swallow-tail butterfly, 312.
  • Swallows deserting their young, 108, 113.
  • Swan, black, wild, trachea of the, 374; white young of, 482; red beak of the, 491; black-necked, 493.
  • Swans, 491, 493; young, 481.
  • Swaysland, Mr., on the arrival of migratory birds, 212.
  • Swifts, migration of, 108.
  • Swinhoe, R., on the common rat in Formosa and China, 80; behaviour of lizards when caught, 355; on the sounds produced by the male hoopoe, 376; on Dicrurus macrocercus and the spoonbill, 461; on the young of Ardeola, 468; on the habits of Turnix, 476; on the habits of Rhynchœa bengalensis, 476; on Orioles breeding in immature plumage, 484.
  • Sylvia atricapilla, young of, 487.
  • —— cinerea, aerial love-dance of the male, 380
  • Sympathy, 134; among animals, 102; its supposed basis, 106.
  • Sympathies, gradual widening of, 123.
  • Syngnathous fishes, abdominal pouch in male, 163.
  • Sypheotides auritus, acuminated primaries of the male, 378; ear-tufts of, 384

T.

  • Tabanidæ, habits of, 208.
  • Tadorna variegata, sexes and young of, 479.
  • —— vulpanser, 414.
  • Tahitians, 145; compression of the nose by the, 583.
  • Tail, rudimentary, occurrence of, in man, 22; convoluted body in the extremity of the, 23; absence of, in man and the higher apes, 58; variability of, in species of Macacus and in baboons, 58; presence of, in the early progenitors of man, 160; length of, in pheasants, 445, 451, 452; difference of length of the, in the two sexes of birds, 451.
  • Tait, Lawson, on the effects of natural selection on civilised nations, 133.
  • Tanager, scarlet, variation in the male, 424.
  • Tanagra œstiva, age of mature plumage in, 483.
  • —— rubra 424; young of, 487.
  • Tanais, absence of mouth in the males of some species of, 208; relations of the sexes in, 255; dimorphic males of a species of, 265.
  • Tankerville, Earl, on the battles of wild bulls, 501.
  • Tanysiptera, races of, determined from adult males, 468.
  • —— sylvia, long tail-feathers of, 451.
  • Taphroderes distortus, enlarged left mandible of the male, 277.
  • Tapirs, longitudinal stripes of young, 464, 546.
  • Tarsi, dilatation of front, in male beetles, 275.
  • Tarsius, 156.
  • Tasmania, half-castes killed by the natives of, 170.
  • Tasmanians, extinction of, 184.
  • Taste, in the Quadrumana, 541.
  • Tattooing, 178; universality of, 574.
  • Taylor, G., on Quiscalus major, 248.
  • Tea, fondness of monkeys for, 7.
  • Tear-sacks, of Ruminants, 529.
  • Teebay, Mr., on changes of plumage in spangled Hamburgh fowls, 229.
  • Teeth, rudimentary incisor, in Ruminants, 11; posterior molar, in man, 20; wisdom, 20; diversity of, 26; canine, in the early progenitors of man, 160; canine, of male mammals, 502; in man, reduced by correlation, 562; staining of the, 574; front, knocked out or filed by some savages, 575.
  • Tegetmeier, Mr., on the transmission of colours in pigeons by one sex alone, 231; numerical proportion of male and female births in dogs, 246; on the abundance of male pigeons, 247; on the wattles of game-cocks, 403; on the courtship of fowls, 417; on the loves of pigeons, 418; on dyed pigeons, 418; blue dragon pigeons, 446.
  • Tembeta, S. American ornament, 575.
  • Temper, in dogs and horses, inherited, 69.
  • Tench, proportions of the sexes in the 249; brightness of male, during breeding season, 340.
  • Tenebrionidæ, stridulation of, 302.
  • Tennent, Sir J. E., on the tusks of the Ceylon Elephant, 507, 515; on the frequent absence of beard in the natives of Ceylon, 560; on the Chinese opinion of the aspect of the Cingalese, 578.
  • Tennyson, A., on the control of thought, 123.
  • Tenthredinidæ, proportions of the sexes in, 254; fighting habits of male, 291; difference of the sexes in, 292.
  • Tephrodornis, young of, 468.
  • Terai, in India, 182.
  • Termites, habits of, 291.
  • Terns, white, 492; and black, 493.
  • ——, seasonal change of plumage in, 492.
  • Terror, common action of, upon the lower animals and man, 69.
  • Testudo elegans, 351.
  • —— nigra, 351.
  • Tetrao cupido, battles of, 367; sexual difference in the vocal organs of, 371.
  • —— phasianellus, dances of, 380; duration of dances of, 405.
  • —— scoticus 455, 465, 471.
  • —— tetrix, 455, 465, 471; pugnacity of the male, 363.
  • —— umbellus, pairing of, 367; battles of, 367; drumming of the male, 375.
  • —— urogalloides, dances of, 405.
  • —— urogallus, pugnacity of the male, 363.
  • —— urophasianus, inflation of the œsophagus in the male, 372.
  • Thamnobia, young of, 468.
  • Thaumalea picta, display of plumage by the male, 396.
  • Thecla, sexual differences of colouring in species of, 310.
  • —— rubi, protective colouring of, 312.
  • Thecophora fovea, 308.
  • Theognis, selection in mankind, 29.
  • Theridion, stridulation of males of, 273.
  • —— lineatum, 272.
  • Thomisus citreus, and T. floricolens, difference of colour in the sexes of, 272.
  • Thompson, J. H., on the battles of sperm-whales, 500.
  • ——, W., on the colouring of the male char during the breeding season, 340; on the pugnacity of the males of Gallinula chloropus, 360; on the finding of new mates by magpies, 407; on the finding of new mates by Peregrine falcons, 408.
  • Thorax, processes of, in male beetles, 295.
  • Thorell, T., on the proportion of the sexes in spiders, 255.
  • Thornback, difference in the teeth of the two sexes of the, 334.
  • Thoughts, control of, 123.
  • Thrush, pairing with a blackbird, 414; colours and nidification of the, 455.
  • Thrushes, characters of young, 455, 464.
  • Thug, remorse of a, 117.
  • Thumb, absence of, in Ateles and Hylobates, 51.
  • Thury, M., on the numerical proportion of male and female births among the Jews, 243.
  • Thylacinus, possession of the marsupial sack by the male, 161.
  • Thysanura, 279.
  • Tibia, dilated, of the male Crabo cribrarius, 276.
  • —— and femur, proportions of, in the Aymara Indians, 34.
  • Tierra del Fuego, marriage-customs of, 598.
  • Tiger, colours and markings of the, 545.
  • Tigers, depopulation of districts by, in India, 46.
  • Tillus elongatus, difference of colour in the sexes of, 294.
  • Timidity, variability of, in the same species, 69.
  • Tineina, proportion of the sexes in, 250.
  • Tipula, pugnacity of male, 280.
  • Tits, sexual difference of colour in, 458.
  • Toads, 349; male, treatment of ova by some, 163; male, ready to breed before the female, 212.
  • Todas, infanticide and proportion of sexes, 255; practise polyandry, 593; choice of husbands amongst, 593.
  • Toe, great, condition of, in the human embryo, 11.
  • Tomicus villosus proportion of the sexes in, 253.
  • Tomtit, blue, sexual difference of colour in the, 458.
  • Tonga Islands, beardlessness of the natives of, 560, 581.
  • Tooke, Horne, on language, 86.
  • Tools, flint, 145; used by monkeys, 81; use of, 48.
  • Topknots in birds, 384.
  • Tortoise, voice of the male, 567,
  • Tortures, submitted to by American savages, 118.
  • Totanus, double moult in, 390.
  • Toucans, colours and nidification of the, 455; beaks and ceres of the, 491.
  • Towns, residence in, a cause of diminished stature, 31.
  • Toynbee, J., on the external shell of the ear in man, 14.
  • Trachea, convoluted and imbedded in the sternum, in some birds, 374; structure of the, in Rhynchœa, 476.
  • Trades, affecting the form of the skull, 56.
  • Tragelaphus, sexual differences of colour in, 535.
  • —— scriptus, dorsal crest of, 530; markings of, 543, 544.
  • Tragopan, 220; swelling of the wattles of the male, during courtship, 383; display of plumage by the male, 397; markings of the sexes of the, 428.
  • Tragops dispar, sexual difference in the colour of, 351.
  • Training, effect of, on the mental difference between the sexes of man, 565.
  • Transfer of male characters to female birds, 470.
  • Transmission, equal, of ornamental characters, to both sexes in mammals, 542.
  • Traps, avoidance of, by animals, 80; use of, 48.
  • Treachery, to comrades, avoidance of, by savages, 111
  • Tremex columbœ, 292.
  • Tribes, extinct, 128; extinction of, 182.
  • Trichius, difference of colour in the sexes of a species of, 294.
  • Trigla, 347.
  • Trimen, R., on the proportion of the sexes in South African butterflies, 250; on the attraction of males by the female of Lasiocampa quercus, 252; on Pneumora, 288; on difference of colour in the sexes of beetles, 294; on moths brilliantly coloured beneath, 315; on mimicry in butterflies, 325; on Gynanisa Isis, and on the ocellated spots of Lepidoptera, 428; on Cyllo Leda, 429.
  • Tringa, sexes and young of, 485.
  • —— cornuta, 391.
  • Triphœna, coloration of the species of, 313.
  • Tristram, H. B., on unhealthy districts in North Africa, 194; on the habits of the chaffinch in Palestine, 248; on the birds of the Sahara, 456; on the animals inhabiting the Sahara, 489.
  • Triton cristatus, 348.
  • —— palmipes, 348.
  • —— punctatus, 348.
  • Troglodyte skulls, greater than those of modern Frenchmen, 55.
  • Troglodytes vulgaris, 473.
  • Trogons, colours and nidification of the, 455, 456.
  • Tropic-birds, white only when mature, 492.
  • Tropics, freshwater fishes of the, 343.
  • Trout, proportion of the sexes in, 249; male, pugnacity of the, 332.
  • Trox sabulosus, stridulation of, 303.
  • Truth, not rare between members of the same tribe, 118; more highly appreciated by certain tribes, 122.
  • Tulloch, Major, on the immunity of the negro from certain fevers, 193.
  • Tumbler, almond, change of plumage in the, 238.
  • Turdus merula, 455; young of, 487.
  • —— migratorius, 464.
  • —— musicus, 455.
  • —— polyglottus, young of, 487.
  • —— torquatus, 455
  • Turkey, wild, pugnacity of young male, 366; wild, notes of the, 375; swelling of the wattles of the male, 383; variety of, with a top-knot, 384; recognition of a dog by a, 412; male, wild, acceptable to domesticated females, 418; wild, first advances made by older females, 419; wild, breast-tuft of bristles of the, 461.
  • Turkey-cock, scraping of the wings of, upon the ground, 375; wild, display of plumage by, 394; fighting habits of, 404.
  • Turner, Prof. W., on muscular fasciculi in man referable to the panniculus carnosus, 13; on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the human humerus, 21; on muscles attached to the coccyx in man, 22; on the filum terminale in man, 23; on the variability of the muscles, 26; on abnormal conditions of the human uterus, 39; on the development of the mammary glands, 162; on male fishes hatching ova in their mouths, 163, 345; on the external perpendicular fissure of the brain, 200; on the bridging convolutions in the brain of a chimpanzee, 201.
  • Turnix, sexes of some species of, 475; 480.
  • Turtle-dove, cooing of the, 374.
  • Tuttle, H., on the number of species of man, 174.
  • Tylor, E. B., on emotional cries, gestures, &c., of man, 85; on the origin of the belief in spiritual agencies, 94; remorse for violation of tribal usage in marrying, 115; on the primitive barbarism of civilised nations, 143; on the origin of counting, 144; inventions of savages, 145; on resemblances, of the mental characters in different races of man, 178.
  • Type of structure, prevalence of, 164.
  • Typhœus, stridulating organs of, 301; stridulation of, 303.
  • Tyranga œstiva, 462.
  • Twins, tendency to produce, hereditary, 45.
  • Twite, proportion of the sexes in the, 248.

U.

  • Ugliness, said to consist in an approach to the lower animals, 584.
  • Umbrella-bird, 373,
  • Umbrina, sounds produced by, 347.
  • United States, rate of increase in, 44; influence of natural selection on the progress of, 142; change undergone by Europeans in the, 196.
  • Upupa epops, sounds produced by the male, 376.
  • Uraniidæ, coloration of the, 314.
  • Uria troile, variety of (= U. lacrymans), 424.
  • Urodela, 348.
  • Urosticte Benjamini, sexual differences in, 442.
  • Use and disuse of parts, effects of, 32; influence of, on the races of man, 197.
  • Uterus, reversion in the, 38; more or less divided, in the human subject, 38, 43; double, in the early progenitors of man, 161.

V.

  • Vaccination, influence of, 134.
  • Vancouver Island, Mr. Sproat on the savages of, 183; natives of, eradication of facial hair by the, 580.
  • Vanellus cristatus, wing tubercles of the male, 366.
  • Vanessœ, 308; resemblance of lower surface of, to bark of trees, 311.
  • Variability, causes of, 28; in man, analogous to that in the lower animals, 29; of the races of man, 174; greater in men than in women, 223; period of, relation of the, to sexual selection, 240; of birds, 422; of secondary sexual characters in man, 559.
  • Variation, laws of, 29; correlated, 43; in man, 146; analogous, 152; analogous, in plumage of birds, 385.
  • Variations, spontaneous, 44.
  • Varieties, absence of, between two species, evidence of their distinctness, 167.
  • Variety, an object in nature, 493.
  • Variola, communicable between man and the lower animals, 7.
  • Vauréal, human bones from, 22.
  • Veddahs, monogamous habits of, 591.
  • Veitch, Mr., on the aversion of Japanese ladies to whiskers, 581.
  • Vengeance, instinct of, 113.
  • Venus Erycina, priestesses of, 587.
  • Vermes, 264.
  • Vermiform appendage, 21.
  • Verreaux, M., on the attraction of numerous males by the female of an Australian Bombyx, 252.
  • Vertebræ, caudal, number of, in macaques and baboons, 58; of monkeys, partly imbedded in the body, 59.
  • Vertebrata, 330; common origin of the, 158; most ancient progenitors of, 161; origin of the voice in air-breathing, 567.
  • Vesicula prostatica, the homologue of the uterus, 24, 161.
  • Vibrissæ, represented by long hairs in the eyebrows, 19.
  • Vidua, 403, 462.
  • —— axillaris, 219.
  • Villerme, M., on the influence of plenty upon stature, 31.
  • Vinson, Aug., courtship of male spider, 273; on the male of Epeira nigra, 273.
  • Viper, difference of the sexes in the, 351.
  • Virey, on the number of species of man, 174.
  • Virtues, originally social only, 116; gradual appreciation of, 131.
  • Viscera, variability of, in man, 27.
  • Vlacovich, Prof., on the ischio-pubic muscle, 41.
  • Vocal music of birds, 368.
  • —— organs of man, 87; of birds, 90, 450; of frogs, 350; of the Insessores, 370; difference of, in the sexes of birds, 371; primarily used in relation to the propagation of the species, 566.
  • Vogt, Karl, on the origin of species, 1; on the origin of man, 3; on the semilunar fold in man, 17; on microcephalous idiots, 35; on the imitative faculties of microcephalous idiots, 87; on skulls from Brazilian caves, 168; on the evolution of the races of man, 177; on the formation of the skull in women, 557; on the Ainos and negroes, 560; on the increased cranial difference of the sexes in man with race development, 566; on the obliquity of the eye in the Chinese and Japanese, 578.
  • Voice in mammals, 525; in monkeys and man, 558; in man, 566; origin of, in air-breathing vertebrates, 567.
  • Von Baer, definition of advancement in the organic scale, 164.
  • Vulpian, Prof., on the resemblance between the brains of man and of the higher apes, 6.
  • Vultures, selection of a mate by the female, 416; colours of, 493.

W.

  • Waders, young of, 486.
  • Wagner, R., on the occurrence of the diastema in a Kaffir skull, 40; on the bronchi of the black stork, 374.
  • Wagtail, Ray's, arrival of the male before the female, 212.
  • Wagtails, Indian, young of, 468.
  • Waist, proportions of, in soldiers and sailors, 32.
  • Waitz, Prof., on the number of species of man, 174; on the liability of negroes to tropical fevers after residence in a cold climate, 194; on the colour of Australian infants, 558; on the beardlessness of negroes, 560; on the fondness of mankind for ornaments, 573; on negro ideas of female beauty, 579; on Javan and Cochin Chinese ideas of beauty, 580.
  • Walckenaer and Gervais, spider attracted by music, 273; on the Myriapoda, 274.
  • Waldeyer, M, on the hermaphroditism of the vertebrate embryo, 161.
  • Wales, North, numerical proportion of male and female births in, 242.
  • Walker, Alex., on the large size of the hands of labourers' children, 33.
  • ——, F., on sexual differences in the diptera, 280.
  • Wallace, Dr. A., on the prehensile use of the tarsi in male moths, 209; on the rearing of the Aïlanthus silkmoth, 251; on breeding Lepidoptera, 251; proportion of sexes of Bombyx cynthia, B. yamamai, and
  • B. Pernyi reared by, 253; on the development of Bombyx cynthia and B. yamamai, 278; on the pairing of Bombyx cynthia, 318.
  • Wallace, A. R., on the origin of man, 3; on the power of imitation in man, 68; on the use of missiles by the orang, 82; on the varying appreciation of truth among different tribes, 122; on the limits of natural selection in man, 49, 127; on the occurrence of remorse among savages, 131; on the effects of natural selection on civilised nations, 133; on the use of the convergence of the hair at the elbow in the orang, 151; on the contrast in the characters of the Malays and Papuans, 168; on the line of separation between the Papuans and Malays, 169; on the birds of paradise, 219; on the sexes of Ornithoptera Crœsus, 250; on protective resemblances, 261; on the relativesizes of the sexes of insects, 278; on Elaphomyia, 280; on the pugnacity of the males of Leptorhynchus angustatus, 299; on sounds produced by Euchirus longimanus, 304; on the colours of Diadema, 309; on Kallima, 311; on the protective colouring of moths, 313; on bright coloraration as protective in butterflies, 314; on variability in the Papilionidæ, 320; on male and female butterflies inhabiting different stations, 321; on the protective nature of the dull colouring of female butterflies, 321, 322, 325; on mimicry in butterflies, 324; on the bright colours of caterpillars, 325; on brightly-coloured fishes frequenting reefs, 343; on the coral snakes, 353; on Paradisea apoda, 385; on the display of plumage by male birds of paradise, 395; on assemblies of birds of paradise, 405; on the instability of the ocellated spots inHipparchia Janira, 428; on sexually limited inheritance, 444; on the sexual coloration of birds, 452, 472, 473, 475, 480; on the relation between the colours and nidification of birds, 452,455; on the coloration of the Cotingidæ, 460; on the females of Paradisea apoda and papuana, 470; on the incubation of the cassowary, 478; on protective coloration in birds, 489; on the Babirusa, 519; on the markings of the tiger, 545; on the beards of the Papuans, 560; on the hair of the Papuans, 575; on the distribution of hair on the human body, 600.
  • Walrus, development of the nictitating membrane in the, 17; tusks of the, 502, 507; use of the tusks by the, 513.
  • Walsh, B. D., on the proportion of the sexes in Papilio Turnus, 250; on the Cynipidæ and Cecidomyidæ, 254; on the jaws of Ammophila, 275; on Corydalis cornatus, 275; on the prehensile organs of male insects, 275; on the antennæ of Penthe, 275; on the caudal appendages of dragon-flies, 276; on Platyphyllum concavum, 286; on the sexes of the Ephemeridæ, 289; on the difference of colour in the sexes of Spectrum femoratum, 289; on sexes of dragon-flies, 290; on the difference of the sexes in the Ichneumonidæ, 292; on the sexes of Orsodacna atra, 294; on the variation of the horns of the male Phanæus carnifex, 297; on the coloration of the species of Anthocharis, 312.
  • Wapiti, battles of, 501; traces of horns in the female, 504; attacking a man, 511; crest of the male, 531; sexual difference in the colour of the, 536.
  • Warbler, hedge-, 473; young of the, 481.
  • Warblers, superb, nidification of, 454.
  • Wariness, acquired by animals, 80.
  • Warington, R., on the habits of the stickle-backs, 331, 345; on the brilliant colours of the male stickle-back during the breeding season, 340.
  • Wart-hog, tusks and pads of the, 519.
  • Watchmakers, short-sighted, 33.
  • Waterhen, 360.
  • Waterhouse, C. O., on blind beetles, 294; on difference of colour in the sexes of beetles, 294.
  • ——, G. R., on the voice of Hylobates agilis, 567.
  • Water-ouzel, 455; autumn song of the, 370.
  • Waterton, C., on the Bell-bird, 389; on the pairing of a Canada goose with a Bernicle gander, 414; on hares fighting, 500.
  • Wattles, disadvantageous to male birds in fighting, 404.
  • Weale, J. Mansel, on a South African caterpillar, 325.
  • Wealth, influence of, 134.
  • Weapons, used by man, 48; employed by monkeys, 81; offensive, of males, 210; of mammals, 501 et seq.
  • Weaver-bird, 370.
  • Weaver-birds, rattling of the wings of, 375; assemblies of, 405.
  • Webb, Dr., on the wisdom teeth, 20.
  • Wedderburn, Mr., assembly of black game, 407.
  • Wedgwood, Hensleigh, on the origin of language, 87.
  • Weevils, sexual difference in length of snout in some, 208.
  • Weir, Harrison, on the numerical proportion of the sexes in pigs and rabbits, 247; on the sexes of young pigeons, 247; on the songs of birds, 368; on pigeons, 411; on the dislike of blue pigeons to other coloured varieties, 417; on the desertion of their mates by female pigeons, 418.
  • ——, J. Jenner, on the nightingale and blackcap, 212; on the relative sexual maturity of male birds, 213; on female pigeons deserting a feeble mate, 214; on three starlings frequenting the same nest, 219; on the proportion of the sexes in Machetes pugnax and other birds, 247, 248; on the coloration of the Triphœnœ, 313; on the rejection of certain caterpillars by birds, 326; on sexual differences of the beak in the goldfinch, 360; on a piping bullfinch, 369; on the object of the nightingale's song, 368; on songbirds, 369; on the pugnacity of male fine-plumaged birds, 400; on the courtship of birds, 401; on the finding of new mates by Peregrine-falcons and Kestrels, 408; on the bullfinch and starling, 408; on the cause of birds remaining unpaired, 409; on starlings and parrots living in triplets, 409; on recognition of colour by birds, 411; on hybrid birds, 414; on the selection of a greenfinch by a female canary, 415; on a case of rivalry of female bullfinches, 420; on the maturity of the golden-pheasant, 483.
  • Weisbach, Dr., measurement of men of different races, 167; on the greater variability of men than of women, 223; on the relative proportions of the body in the sexes of different races of man, 559.
  • Weismann, Prof., colours of Lycœnœ, 312.
  • Welcker, M., on brachycephaly and dolichocephaly, 56; on sexual differences in the skull in man, 557.
  • Wells, Dr., on the immunity of coloured races from certain poisons, 193.
  • Westring, on the stridulation of males of Theridion, 273; on the stridulation of Reduvius personatus, 281; on the stridulation of beetles, 302; on the stridulation of Omaloplia brunnea, 303; on the stridulating organs of the Coleoptera, 304; on sounds produced by Cychrus, 304.
  • Westropp, H. M., on reason in a bear, 76; on the prevalence of certain forms of ornamentation, 179.
  • Westwood, J. O., on the classification of the Hymenoptera, 148; on the Culicidæ and Tabanidæ, 208; on a Hymenopterous parasite with a sedentary male, 221; on the proportions of the sexes in Lucanus cervus and Siagonium, 253; on the absence of ocelli in female mutillidæ, 274; on the jaws of Ammophila, 275; on the copulation of insects of distinct species, 275; on the male of Crabro cribrarius, 276; on the pugnacity of male Tipulæ, 280; on the stridulation of Pirates stridulus, 281; on the Cicadæ, 281; on the stridulating organs of the crickets, 284; on Ephippiger vitium, 284, 288; on Pneumora, 287; on the pugnacity of the Mantides, 289; on Platyblemnus, 289; on difference in the sexes of the Agrionidæ, 290; on the pugnacity of the males of a species of Tenthredinæ, 291; on the pugnacity of the male stag-beetle, 299; on Bledius taurus and Siagonium, 299; on lamellicorn beetles, 301; on the coloration of Lithosia, 314.
  • Whale, Sperm-, battles of male, 500.
  • Whales, nakedness of, 56.
  • Whately, Archb., language not pe-culiar to man, 84; on the primitive civilisation of man, 143.
  • Whewell, Prof., on maternal affection, 70.
  • Whiskers, in monkeys, 150.
  • White, F. B., noise produced by Hylophila, 308.
  • ——, Gilbert, on the proportion of the sexes in the partridge, 248; on the house-cricket, 283; on the object of the song of birds, 369; on the finding of new mates by white owls, 408; on spring coveys of male partridges, 409.
  • Whiteness, a sexual ornament in some birds, 494; of mammals inhabiting snowy countries, 542.
  • White-throat, aerial love-dance of the male, 380.
  • Whitney, Prof., on the development of language, 86; language not indispensable for thought, 88.
  • Widow-bird, polygamous, 219; breeding plumage of the male, 392, 403; female, rejecting the unadorned male, 419.
  • Widows and widowers, mortality of, 140.
  • Wigeon, pairing with a pintail duck, 414.
  • Wilckens, Dr., on the modification of domestic animals in mountainous regions, 35; on a numerical relation between the hairs and excretory pores in sheep, 198.
  • Wilder, Dr. Burt, on the greater frequency of supernumerary digits in men than in women, 223.
  • Williams, on the marriage-customs of the Fijians, 599.
  • Wilson, Dr., on the conical heads of the natives of North-Western America, 583; on the Fijians, 583; on the persistence of the fashion of compressing the skull, 584.
  • Wing-spurs, 449.
  • Wings, diffferences of, in the two sexes of butterflies and Hymenoptera, 277; plav of. in the courtship of birds, 401.
  • Winter, change of colour of mammals in, 542.
  • Witchcraft, 96.
  • Wives, traces of the forcible capture of, 144.
  • Wolf, winter change of the, 542.
  • Wolff, on the variability of the viscera in man, 27.
  • Wollaston, T. V., on Eurygnathus, 277; on musical Curculionidæ, 301; on the stridulation of Acalles, 306,
  • Wolves learning to bark from dogs, 73; hunting in packs, 101.
  • ——, black, 540.
  • Wombat, black varieties of the, 539.
  • Women distinguished from men by male monkeys, 8; preponderance of, in numbers, 244; selection of, for beauty, 397; effects of selection of, in accordance with different standards of beauty, 584; practice of capturing, 589, 592; early betrothals and slavery of, 593; freedom of selection by, in savage tribes, 598.
  • Wonder, manifestations of, by animals, 71.
  • Wonder, Mr., on sexual peculiarities in the wings of butterflies, 277.
  • Wood, J., on muscular variations man, 26, 41, 43; on the greater variability of the muscles in men than in women, 223.
  • ——, T. W., on the colouring of the orange-tip butterfly, 313; on the habits of the Saturniidæ, 315; quarrels of chamæleons, 357; on the habits of Menura Alberti, 371; on Tetrao cupido, 371; on the display of plumage by male pheasants, 396; on the ocellated spots of the Argus pheasant, 441; on the habits of the female cassowary, 478.
  • Woodcock, coloration of the, 491.
  • Woodpecker, selection of a mate by the female, 416. Woodpeckers, 371; tapping of, 376; colours and nidification of the, 455, 458, 489; characters of young, 465, 474, 481.
  • Woolner, Mr., observations on the ear in man, 15.
  • Wormald, Mr., on the coloration of Hypopyra, 315.
  • Wounds, healing of, 8.
  • Wren, 473; young of the, 481.
  • Wright, C. A., on the young of Orcetes and Petrocinla, 487.
  • ——, Chauncey, great brain-power requisite for language, 48; on correlative acquisition, 571; on the enlargement of the brain in man, 610,
  • ——, Mr., on the Scotch deerhound, 517; on sexual preference in dogs, 524; on the rejection of a horse by a mere, 525.
  • ——, W. Von, on the protective plumage of the Ptarmigan, 391.
  • Writing, 144.
  • Wyman, Prof., on the prolongation of the coccyx in the human embryo, 11; on the condition of the great toe in the human embryo, 11; on the occurrence of the supra-condy-loid foramen in the humerus of man, 22; on variation in the skulls of the natives of the Sandwich Islands, 26; on the hatching of the eggs in the mouths and branchial cavities of male fishes, 163, 345.

X.

  • Xenarchus, on the Cicadæ. 281.
  • Xenophon, selection in mankind advocated by, 29.
  • Xenorhynchus, sexual difference in the colour of the eyes in, 425.
  • Xiphophorus Hellerii, peculiar anal fin of the male, 337, 338.
  • Xylocopa, difference of the sexes in, 292.

Y.

  • Yarrell, W., on the habits of the Cyprinidæ, 250; on Raia clavatu, 331; on the characters of the male salmon during the breeding season. 332, 342; on the characters of the rays, 334; on the gemmeous dragonet, 336; on the spawning of the salmon, 344; on the incubation of the Lophobranchii, 346; on rivalry in song-birds, 369; on the trachea of the swan, 374; on the moulting of the Anatidoe, 393; on the young of the waders, 486.
  • Yellow fever, immunity of negroes and mulattoes from, 193.
  • Youatt, Mr., on the development of the horns in cattle, 235.
  • Yura-caras, their notions of beauty, 580.

Z.

  • Zebra, rejection of an ass by a female, 540; stripes of the, 545
  • Zebus, humps of, 532.
  • Zigzags, prevalence of, as ornaments, 179.
  • Zincke, Mr., on European emigration to America, 142.
  • Zootoca vipara, sexual difference in the colour of, 357.
  • Zouteveen, Dr., polydactylism, 37: proportion of sexes at Cape of Good Hope, 243; spiders attracted by music, 273; on sounds produced by fish, 347.
  • Zygænidæ, coloration of the, 314.

THE END.