The Destruction of the Greek Empire and the Story of the Capture of Constantinople by the Turks

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Destruction of the Greek Empire and the Story of the Capture of Constantinople by the Turks



BY

EDWIN PEARS, LL.B.

Knight of the Greek Order of the Saviour and Commander of the Bulgarian Order of Merit
Author of 'The Fall of Constantinople: being the Story of the Fourth Crusade



WITH MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS



LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.
39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON
NEW YORK AND BOMBAY

1903


All rights reserved

 

 
 

CONTENTS

 
  1. CHAPTER I
  2. PAGE
  3. The Latin empire (1204–1261) and its struggles with and final overthrow by the Greeks of Nicaea
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    1
  4.  

    CHAPTER II

  5. Condition of and difficulties in reconstructing the empire: difficulties arising (a) from attempts by Latins to recover the empire, (b) from Catalan Grand Company
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    22
  6.  

    CHAPTER III

  7. The Turks: their entry into Asia Minor: not at first exclusively Mohammedan: their characteristics: Othman founds a dynasty: progress of Moslems in Europe and Asia Minor: capture of Brousa in 1326
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    52
  8.  

    CHAPTER IV

  9. Dynastic struggles in the empire: appeals to Pope for aid; reigns of Andronicus the Second, John Cantacuzenus, and John; repeated failure of efforts by Popes to induce Western Powers to assist in checking Moslem advance
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    65
  10.  

    CHAPTER V

  11. Reign of Orchan: struggles with empire; its successes and reverses; invasions of Tartars. Reign of Murad: defeat of Serbians and Bulgarians by Turks; battle of Cossovo-Pol and assassination of Murad
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    97
  12.  

    CHAPTER VI

  13. Reign of Manuel: encroachments of Turks; Manuel visits West, Sultan Bajazed summoned by Timour; friendly relations between Manuel and Mahomet the First; John associated with Manuel. Siege of Constantinople by Murad; its failure. Efforts at union; misconceptions in West regarding Greek Church; constancy of attempts at union; negotiations for meeting of Council of Church. Internal struggles in Latin Church. Emperor invited by both parties; accepts Pope's invitation; meeting of Council at Ferrara and Florence; union accomplished; John returns to capital; divisions in Greek Church
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    109
  1. Progress of Turks between 1391 and 1425: Sultan Bajazed's reign: conquests in Europe: Bulgarian kingdom ended: Western armies defeated at Nicopolis: Anatolia-Hissar built: capital threatened: summons by Timour to Bajazed: Timour's progress: reply of Bajazed: battle of Angora and crushing defeat of Turks: further progress of Timour: death of Bajazed, 1403: alarm in Western Europe: departure of Timour: struggle between the sons of Bajazed: ultimate success of Mahomet: his good understanding with Manuel: death of Mahomet, 1420: accession of Murad: war with empire: siege of Constantinople, 1422: death of Manuel, 1425: triumphal progress of Murad: he besieges and takes Salonica: besieges Belgrade but fails: combined movement under Hunyadi against Murad: battle of Slivnitza, 1443, and defeat of Turks: Murad sues for peace: treaty made with Ladislaus: violated by Christians: battle of Varna, 1444: Murad ravages Morea: Iskender Bey, his origin: captures Croia: Hunyadi again attacks Murad: defeated at Cossovo-pol, 1448: reasons for failure of Christian attempts: John has to forego joining Western combination against Turks: death of Murad, 1451: Mahomet the Second becomes Sultan
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    131
  2.  

    CHAPTER VIII

  3. Causes leading to decay of empire: not due to demoralisation of Court; internal and external causes; Latin conquest and form of government had produced internal dissensions and checked assimilation of hostile races; method of Turkish conquest and its fatal consequences; ravages of black death; population of capital in 1453; its commerce; relations of people with government; resemblance to Russia; difficulty of obtaining idea of domestic life
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    180
  4.  

    CHAPTER IX

  5. Accession of Constantine Diogenes; Patriarch Gregory deposed; renewed attempt to obtain aid from the West; emperor meets with little success; arrival of Cardinal Isidore; reconciliation service December 12, 1452, in Hagia Sophia; dissensions regarding it
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    201
  6.  

    CHAPTER X

  7. Character of Mahomet the Second; receives deputation from city; returns to Adrianople from Asia Minor; his reforms; builds Roumelia-Hissar; rejects overtures from emperor; castle completed, August 1452; war declared; Mahomet returns to Adrianople; he discloses his designs for siege of city. Constantine's preparations for defence; arrival of six Venetian ships; aid requested from Venice; Justiniani arrives, January 1453; boom across harbour placed in position. Turkish army, estimate of; notice of Janissaries; mobility of army; religious spirit of; casting of great cannon; Turkish fleet arrives in Bosporus; description of vessels composing it. Mahomet's army marches to city; offer of peace
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    206
  1. Topography of Constantinople; disposition of Mahomet's forces and cannon; estimate of fighting men under emperor; Venetians and Genoese: disparity in numbers: arms and equipment: attacks on Therapia and Prinkipo
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    237
  2.  

    CHAPTER XII

  3. Investment by Turks; first assault fails; attempt to force boom; attempt to capture ships bringing aid; gallant fight and defeat of Turkish fleet; Turkish admiral degraded; transport of Turkish ships across Pera into the Golden Horn
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    254
  4.  

    CHAPTER XIII

  5. Constantine alleged to have sued for peace; attempt to destroy Turkish ships in the Golden Horn; postponed; made and fails; murder of captives; reprisals; operations in Lycus valley; bridge built over Golden Horn; sending to seek Venetian fleet; proposal that emperor should leave city; attacks on boom; jealousy between Venetians and Genoese; new assaults fail both at walls and boom; attempts to undermine walls; construction of a turret; destroyed by besieged; failure of vessel sent to find Venetian fleet; unlucky omens
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    277
  6.  

    CHAPTER XIV

  7. Dissensions in city: between Greeks themselves; between Greeks and Italians; between Genoese and Venetians; charge of treachery against Genoese examined; failure of Serbia and Hungary to render aid; preparations for a general assault; damages done to the landward walls; construction of stockade
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    300
  8.  

    CHAPTER XV

  9. Last days of empire: sultan again hesitates; message inviting surrender; Turkish council called; decides against raising siege; proclamation granting three days' plunder; sultan's final preparations; his address to the pashas and last orders to generals. Preparations in city: religious processions: Constantine's address to leaders and to Venetians and Genoese; last Christian service in St. Sophia: defenders take up their final stations at walls, and close gates behind them: emperor's last inspection of his forces
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    313
  10.  

    CHAPTER XVI

  1. General assault: commenced by Bashi-Bazouks; they are defeated; Anatolians attack—are also driven back; attacks in other places fail; Janissaries attack; Kerkoporta incident; Justiniani wounded and retires; emperor's alarm; stockade captured; death of Constantine: his character; capture of Constantinople
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    334
  2.  

    CHAPTER XVII

  3. Attacks in other parts of the city: by Zagan and Caraja; by fleet; the brothers Bocchiardi hold their own; panic when entry of Turks became known; incident of Saint Theodosia's church; massacre and subsequent pillage; crowd in Saint Sophia captured; horrors of sack; numbers killed or captured; endeavours to escape from city; panic in Galata; Mahomet's entry; Saint Sophia becomes a mosque; fate of leading prisoners: attempts to repeople capital
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    358
  4.  

    CHAPTER XVIII

  5. Capture of Constantinople a surprise to Europe; conquest of Trebizond; summary of its history. Character and conduct of Mahomet: as conqueror; he increases Turkish fleet; as administrator; as legislator; his recklessness of human life; as student; was he a religious fanatic? summary
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    386
  6.  

    CHAPTER XIX

  7. Dispersion of Greek scholars, and their influence upon revival of learning; Greek a bond of union among peoples of empire; disappearance of books after Latin conquest; departure of scholars to Italy begins after 1204; their presence stimulates revival of learning; enthusiasm aroused in Italy for study of Greek; students from Constantinople everywhere welcomed; increased numbers leave after Moslem conquest; Eenaissance largely aided by Greek studies; movement passes into Northern Europe; MSS. taken from Constantinople
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    399
  8.  

    CHAPTER XX

  9. Conclusion: the capture epoch-marking; alarm in Europe; disastrous results; upon Christian subjects and on Eastern Churches; demoralisation of both; poverty the principal result; degradation of Churches: two great services rendered by the Churches; results on Turks: powerless to assimilate conquered peoples or their civilisation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    414
  10.  

    APPENDICES

  11. I.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    429
  12. II.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    436
  13. III.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    443
  14. IV.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    447
  15.  
  16. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    459


This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1924.


The author died in 1919, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 99 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.