The Documentary History of the State of New York/Volume I/Chapter I/Article III

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The Documentary History of the State of New York by Edmund Bailey O'Callaghan
Chapter I, Article III: Enumeration of the Indian Tribes. 1736

ENUMERATION OF THE INDIAN TRIBES[edit]

CONNECTED WITH THE GOVERNMERT OF CANADA;
THE WARRIORS AND ARMORIAL BEARINGS OF EACH NATION. 1736.

[Paris Doc. VIII.]

The Eskimaux,
The Micmacs,
The Amaleates or rather the Maneus.
These Nations are below Quebec, and beyond my knowledge.

At Quebec.
The Hurons. - 1 Village 60 a 70 men bearing arms, 60

At the River St. John, near the English.
The Abenakis. - 1 Village called PanaȢamsket towards the mouth of said river. Warriors. 200
The Ȣbenakis - 1 Village called NarentchȢan at the head of said river. Warriors. 150

At Bécancour.
The Abenakis - 1 Village. Warriors. 60

At St. Francis.
The Ȣbenakis - 1 Village. Warriors. -
including those of Michikoui and those who migrate.
The armorial bearings (Totums) of this Nation, which is divided into two sections, are the Pigeon (tourtre) and the Bear.
There are besides some tribes who carry the Partridge, the Beaver and the Otter.
180
 : At Three Rivers. See Montreal.
The Algonquins. - fifteen men. 15

The Tetês de Boule or Tribes of the Interior.
Tetês de Boule These are wandering Savages who have no knowledge either of the order or form of villages, and those who evince the least intellect (esprit); they inhabit the mountains and the lakes from Three Rivers, in the interior, to Lake Superior. Their armorial bearings (Totums) are unknown, if they have any.

Boston and Orange.
The Loups (Mohegans) who understand the Ȣabenakis and whom the Ȣabenakis understand are dispersed from Boston to Virginia, which is equal to from Lake Champlain to the head of Lake Erie – 300 leagues. This nation may be six hundred men, under British rule. No person could give me any information of their customs. This only by way of remark.

Montreal.
Algonquins. They are twenty men settled with the Iroquois of the Two Mountains; this is all that remains of a nation the most war-like, most polished and the most attached to the French. They have for armorial bearings an Evergreen Oak (chêne vert.) 20

At the Lake of the Two Mountains.
The Nepissingues. A part of this Tribe is incorporated with the Iroquois. The remainder has its village at the lake of the same name. There are here fifty men bearing arms. 50
The armorial bearings of this Nation are the Heron for the Achagué, or Heron tribe; the Beaver for the Amekoves; the Birch for the Bark tribe (la famille de l'Ecorce); Blood for the Miskouaha or the Bloody people.
Remark, Sir, if you please, that besides the bearings of the principal stocks to which I exclusively confine myself, leisure not permitting me to obtain thorough details, each tribe distinguishes itself by peculiar devices. The Iroquois who are masters of this village amount to no more than sixty-three – I mean warriors. 60

At Sault St. Louis.
The Iroquois, who compose exclusively the village are nearly three hundred and three bearing arms. 300
These two villages proceeding from the Iroquois of Lake Ontario, or Frontenac, have the same armorial devices. Three principal tribes carry the Wolf, the Bear and the Tortoise.
Note.Argent, to the Wolf gules, &c. They usually ornament them merely with charcoal.

The Great River of the Outawas.
At Lake Nepissingue there is one small village of thirty men, who bear a Squirrel, AtchitamȢ. 30

River and Lake Themiscaming.
The Tabittibis are one hundred warriors. They have for device an Eagle. 100
At the mouth of the Themiscaming there are twenty warriors. 20
At the head of the Lake, twenty domiciled. 20
These Indians are what are called Tetês de Boule, who amount to over six hundred in the Northern country. 600
I shall speak of them hereafter without reference to their numbers.

At Missilimakinak.
The Outawas of this village amount to one hundred and eighty warriors; the two principal branches are Kiskakons (1) and Sinago (2); the Bear (1) and Black Squirrel (2). 180

River Missisague.
The Missisagues on the river number thirty men, and twenty men on the Island called Manitouatim of Lake Huron. And have for device, a Crane, 50

Lake Superior—At the Mouth.
The Sauteurs at Sault Saint Mary, to the number of thirty; they are in two divisions, and have for device, the Crane and the Vine, (la Barbue.) 30
North of this Lake is Michipicoton.
The Papinakois and those of the interior; the first are twenty warriors, and have for device, a Hare, 20

River Ounepigon.
The Oskemanettigons are domiciled there to the number of forty warriors. They have for device, the bird called the Fisher. 40
The Monsonis, who are migratory, estimate themselves two hundred men, and have for device, a Moose. 200
The Abittibis and the Tetes de Boule come there also. Some have informed me that the first have for arms, the Partridge with the Eagle. I have already stated that they are in all one hundred warriors.
The NameȢilinis have one hundred and fifty fit to bear arms. They have for device, a Sturgeon, 150
The tribes of the Savannas, one hundred and forty warriors strong, have for armorial device, a Hare, 140

Gamanettigoya.
The Ouacé are in number sixty men, and have for device a Vine (une Barbue). 60

Tecamamiouen, or Rainy Lake—(Lac de la Pluie.)
These savages are the same as those who come to Nepigon. They are about this lake to the number of one hundred men. 100

Lake of the Woods—(Lac des Bois.)
The Cristinaux are scattered hereabout, to the number of two hundred warriors. They have for device, the Bustard, (l'Outarde) 200

Lake Ounepigon.
The Cristinaux are found around this lake to the number of sixty men. 60
Assenipoels, See Scioux.

South of Lake Superior.
Kiouanan. In this quarter, there are domiciled forty Sauteurs, who have for device, the Crane and the Stag, 40
The Sauteurs of Point Chagouamigon are one hundred and fifty warriors, 150
The Scioux are at the head of this lake in the woods and along the lakes. Though scattered they are computed at three hundred men, 300
The Scioux of the Prairies are, in the opinion of Voyageurs, over two thousand men. Their Armorial devices are the Buffalo, the Black Dog and the Otter. 2000
The Assinipoels, or Pouans, can vie with the Scioux, from whom they formerly sprung. They number one hundred and fifty to the south of Lake Ounepigon, and have for device, a Big Stone or a Rock. 150
The Puans have withdrawn, since 1728, to the Scioux, to the number of eighty; they have for Armorial bearings, the Stag, the Polecat (Pichoux), the Tiger, 80

The head of Lake Superior.
The AyoȢois are settled at the south of the River de Missouris, at the other side of the Mississipi. They are no more than eighty; They have for device, a Fox, 80

Lake Michigan with its dependencies.
The Folles Avoines, north of this lake, number one hundred and sixty warriors. The most considerable tribes have for device, the Large tailed Bear, the Stag, a Kiliou—that is a species of Eagle (the most beautiful bird of this country,)—perched on a cross. 160
In explanation of a Cross forming the Armorial bearings of the savages, it is stated that formerly a Chief of the Folles Avoines finding himself dangerously sick, consented, after trying the ordinary remedies, to see a Missionary, who, cross in hand, prayed to God for his recovery, and obtained it from his mercy. In gratitude for this benefit, the Chief desired that to this arms should be added a Cross on which the Kiliou has ever since been always perched.
PouteȢatamis. In 1728 there was a small village of this nation retired on an island to the number of 20
The Sakis. The Bay at the head of this Lake is the sojourn, or rather the country of the Sakis. This nation could put under arms one hundred and fifty men. Others do not count, but one hundred and twenty. They have for device, a Crab, a Wolf, and a She-Bear. 150

Fox River.
Fox river discharges into this lake. This nation now migratory, still consists, when not separated, of one hundred men bearing arms. They have for device, a Fox, 100
The Kickapous, formerly their allies, may be eighty men. They bear for device, the Pheasant and the Otter, 80
The Maskoutin has for Armorial device, the Wolf and the Stag. This nation is estimated at sixty men, 60

River Saint Joseph, south of Lake Michigan.
The PouteȢatamies, who call themselves the Governor's eldest sons, compose the village of the River Saint Joseph, to the number of one hundred warriors. 100
The principal tribes bear the Golden Carp, the Frog, the Crab, the Tortoise.
Miamis. There are in the village about ten Miamis who bear as their arms a Crane, 10
Kaskakias. Eight Illinois Kaskakias, whose device is a feather of an arrow, {figure here} notched; or two arrows supported one against the other (X) in saltier (like a St. Andrew's cross.)
These are the nations best known to us as well along the Grand River of the Outawas as north and south of Lakes Superior and Michigan. I propose now proceeding again from Montreal by way of the Lakes to Missilimakinak.
From Montreal on the Lake Route, I spoke of Sault Saint Louis on the first sheet.

Toniata.
Some Iroquois, to the number of eight or ten men, have retired at this quarter. Their device, is without doubt, like that of the village from which they issue the Deer, the Plover, &c., as hereafter, 10

Lake Ontario, or south of Frontenac.
The Iroquois There are no more Iroquois settled.
The Mississagués are dispersed along this lake, some at Kenté, others at the River Toronto, and finally at the head of the Lake, to the number of one hundred and fifty in all, and at Matchedach. The principal tribe is that of the Crane, 150

North of Lake Ontario.
The Iroquois are in the interior and in five villages, about fifteen leagues from the Lake, on a pretty straight line, altho' one days journey distant from each other. This nation, though much diminished, is still powerful.

South of Lake Frontenac.
The Onondagoes number two hundred warriors. The device of the village is a Cabin on the top of a Mountain, 200
The Mohawks, towards New England, not far from Orange (Albany), are eighty men, and have for device of the village a Batteseu [a Steel] and a flint, 80
The Oneidas, their neighbours, number one hundred men or a hundred warriors, 100
This village has for device a Stone in a fork of a tree, or in a tree notched with some blows of an axe.
The Cayugas form a village of one hundred and twenty warriors. Their device generally is a very large Calumet, 120
The Senecas form two villages, in which are three hundred and fifty men. Their device is a big Mountain, 350
Besides the arms of each village, each tribe has its own, and every man has his particular mark to designate him. Thus the Oneida designates his village by a Stone [in] a fork—next he designates his tribe by the bird or animal, and finally he denotes himself by his punctures. See the designs which I had the honor to send you in 1732 by Father Francois, the Recollet.
The five villages which belong to the same tribe, have for their arms in common, the Plover, to which I belong;[1] the Bear, the Tortoise, the Eel, the Deer, the Beaver, the Potatoe, the Falcon, the Lark and the Partridge.
[1. M. De Joncaire, the supposed author of this Report, is here here thought to be alluded to. He was adopted at an early period by the Senecas, among whom he had much influence.]
I doubt not but the other nations are as well distinguished, but our voyageurs, having little curiosity in these matters, have not been able to give me any information.
The Tuscarorens have a village of two hundred and fifty men near the Onondagoes, who brought them along. I know not their hieroglyphics, 250

Niagara—Lake Ontario.
The Iroquois have some cabins at the Portage.

Lake Erie and Dependencies, on the South Side.
The Chaouanons towards Carolina, are two hundred men, 200
The Flatheads, Cherakis, Chicachas, Totiris, are included under the name of Flatheads by the Iroquois, who estimate them at over six thousand men, in more than thirty villages. 6,000
They have told me they had for device a Vessel, (un Vaisseau.)
The Ontationoué, that is those who speak the language of men; so called by the Iroquois because they understand each other—may be fifty men. I know nothing of them. 50
The Miamis have for device the Hind and the Crane. These are the two principal Tribes. There is likewise that of the Bear. They are two hundred men, bearing arms. 200
The Ouyattanons, Peanguichias, Petikokias, are the same Nation, though in different villages. They can place under arms three hundred and fifty men. 350
The devices of these savages are the serpent, the Deer, and the Small Acorn.
Illinois, The Metchigamias at Fort Chartres, number 250 men. 250
The Kaskakias, six leagues below, have a village of one hundred warriors. 100
The Peorias at the Rock, are fifty men. 50
The Kaokias, or Tamarois, can furnish two hundred men. 200
All these Indians comprehended under the name of Illinois have, for device, the Crane, the Bear, the White Hind, the Fork, the Tortoise. 200

River of the Missouris.
The Missouris
The Okams or
Kamsé, the Sotos, and the Panis
This is only a note, as I do not know anything of those Nations except the name.

Lake Erie.—The Detroit.
The Hurons at present are two hundred men, bearing arms. They mark the Tortoise, Bear, and Plover. 200
The Pouteouatamis have a village there of one hundred and eighty men.* They bear for device the Golden Carp, the Frog, the Crab, the Tortoise. (See River Saint Joseph, south of Lake Michigan.)
*Note in Orig. Instead of 180, only 100 men must be counted.
180
The Outawas have two villages there, composed one of the tribe of Sinagos; the other of Kiskakons, and may count two hundred warriors, 200
They have the same devices as those of Missilimakinak; that is to say, the Bear and Black Squirrel.

Lake Saint Clair, which leads to Lake Huron.
Missisagués At the end of the little Lake Saint Clair, there is a small village of Missisagués, which numbers sixty men. 60
They have the same devices as the Missisagués of Manitouatin and Lake Ontario; that is to say, a Crane.

Lake Huron.
Missisagués I have spoken before of the Missisagués who are to the North, of this Lake.
Outawas On the South side, I know only the Outawas, who have at Saguinan a village of eighty men, and for device the Bear and Squirrel. 80
_____
15955
Less, - - - - - - - - - 80
_____
15875

All the Northern Nations have this in common; that a man who goes to war denotes himself as much by the device of this wife's tribe as by that of his own, and never marries a woman who carries a similar device to his.

If time permitted, you would, Sir, have been better satisfied with my researches.

I would have written to the Interpreters for the Posts, who would have furnished me with more certain information than that I could obtain from the Voyageurs whom I questioned. I am engaged at the history of the Scioux, which you have asked from Monsieur de Linerat.

Missilimakinak.