The Emphasised Bible/Genesis

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§ 1. The First Account of Creation. The Six Days' Work: the Seventh Day's Rest.

1 1 <In the beginning>[1] God´[2] created[3] the

heavens and the earth.

2 Now ||the earth||[4] had become waste and wild,[5] and ||darkness||[6] was on the face of the roaring deep,[7]—but[8] ||the Spirit of God|| was brooding[9] on the face of the waters.[10]3 And God said´—

Light、 be´.

And light was´.4 And God saw´ the light、 that it was |good|,—and God divided´ |the light| from the |darkness|; 5 and God called´ |the light| ||day||, but <the darkness> called he ||night||.So it was[11] evening—and it was[11] morning、 |one´ day.|[12]

6 And God said´,

Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters,—and let it be a means of dividing、 between waters and waters.[13]

7 And God made´ the expanse, and it divided between the waters that were under´ the expanse and the waters that were above´ the expanse. And it was´ so.[14] 8 And God called´ |the expanse| ||heavens||.So it was evening—and it was morninga |second´| day.

9 And God said´—

Let the waters under the heavens |be gathered together| into one´ place, and let the dry-ground´ appear´.

And it was´ so.[15]And God called´ |the dry-ground| ||land||, but <the gathering together of the waters> called he |seas|.And God saw´ that it was |good|.

11 And God said´—

Let the land put-forth vegetation—herb´ yielding seed, fruit-tree、[16] bearing fruit、 after its kind, whose seed is within it、 on the land.

And it was´ so. 12 And the land brought-forth´ vegetation—herb´ yielding seed after its kind、 and tree´ bearing fruit、 whose seed is within it、 after its kind. And God saw´ that it was |good|.13 So it was evening—and it was morning、 |a third´ day|.

14 And God said´—

Let there be luminaries[17] in the expanse of the heavens, to divide between the day and the night,—and let them be for signs、 and for seasons,[18] and for days and years; 15 yea let them be for luminaries、 in the expanse of the heavens, to give light on the earth.

And it was´ so. 16 And God made´ the two great´ luminaries,—the greater luminary to rule the day, and the lesser luminary to rule the night, ||also the stars||. 17 And God set´ them in the expanse of the heavens,—to give light on the earth; 18 and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness. And God saw´ that it was |good|.19 So it was evening—and it was morning、 |a fourth´ day|.

20 And God said´—

Let the waters swarm´ [with] an abundance of living soul,[19] and ||birds|| shall fly over the earth, ||over the face of the expanse of the heavens||.

21 And God created´ the great sea-monsters,—and every living soul that moveth—[with] which the waters swarmed´ after their kind、 and every winged bird—after its kind. And God saw´ that it was |good|. 22 And God blessed´ them、saying,—

Be fruitful and multiply、 and fill the waters in the seas, and let the ||birds|| multiply in the land.

23 So it was evening—and it was morning、 |a fifth´ day|.

24 And God said´—

Let the land |bring forth| living soul、 after its kind, tame-beast[20] and creeping thing and wild-beast[21] of the land、 after its kind.

And it was´ so. 25 And God made´ the wild-beast[21] of the land、 after its kind, and the tame-beast、 after its kind, and every creeping thing of the ground、 after its kind. And God saw that it was |good|.26 And God said´—

Let us make man[22] in our image、 after our likeness,—and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea、 and over the bird of the heavens、 and over the tame-beast―and over all the land,[23] and over every creeping thing、 that creepeth on the land.

27 And God created´ the man |in his own image|,

<In the image of God> created he |him|,—
<Male and female> created he |them|.[24]

28 And God blessed´ them, and God said´ to them—

Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth、 and subdue it,—and have dominion over the fish of the sea、 and over the bird of the heavens, and over every living thing that moveth on the land.[25]

29 And God said´—

Lo! I have given to you—every herb yielding seed which is on the face of all the land, and every tree wherein is the fruit of a tree、 yielding seed,—<to you> shall it be、 for food; 30 and to every living thing of the land—and to every bird of the heavens、 and to every thing that moveth on the land、 wherein is a living soul, ||every green herb for food||.

And it was´ so. 31 And God saw´ every thing which he had made, and lo! it was |very´ good|. So it was evening—and it was morning、 |the sixth´ day|.

21 Thus were finished´ the heavens and the earth、 and all their host. 2 Thus God finished´ |on the seventh[26] day| his work which he had made, and rested,[27] on the seventh day, from all his work which he had made. 3 And God blessed´ the seventh´ day, and hallowed it,—because <therein> rested he from all his work which God |by creating| had made.[28]

§2. Second Account of Creation: The Garden—Man under Command—The Formation of Woman.

4 ||These|| are the geneses[29] of the heavens and the earth、 when they were created,—in the day when Yahweh[30] God made earth and heavens. 5 Now ||no bush of the field|| as yet—was in the earth, and ||no herb of the field|| as yet had sprung up,—because Yahweh God had not sent rain´ on the earth, and ||man|| was there none´ to till the ground; 6 but ||a vapour|| went up from the earth,—and watered all the face of the ground. 7 So then Yahweh God formed´[31] man, [of the] dust of the ground, and breathed in his nostrils the breath[32] of life[33]—and man became a living soul.

8 And Yahweh God planted´ a garden in Eden、 on the east,—and put there´ the man whom he had formed.

9 And Yahweh God |caused to spring up| out of the ground、 every tree pleasant to the sight and good for food,—and the tree of life、 in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.[34]

10 Now ||a river|| was coming forth out of Eden, to water the garden,—and <from thence> it parted, and became four heads.[35] 11 ||The name of the one|| is Pishon,—||the same|| is that which surroundeth all the land of Havilah, where is gold;[36] 12 moreover ||the gold of that land|| is good,—<there> is the bdellium and the beryl stone. 13 And ||the name of the second´ river|| is Gihon,—||the same|| is that which surroundeth all the land of Gush. 14 And ||the name of the third´ river|| is Hiddekel, ||the same|| is that which goeth in front of Assyria; and ||the fourth river|| is Euphrates.

15 So Yahweh God took´ the man,—and placed him in the garden of Eden, to till it, and to keep[37] it.

16 And Yahweh God laid command´ on the man、 saying,—

<Of every tree of the garden> thou mayest ||eat||; 17 but <of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil>[34] thou shalt not eat of it,—for <in the day thou eatest thereof> thou shalt ||die||.

18 And Yahweh God said´,

It is ||not good|| that the man should remain´ alone,—I will make for him a helper, as his counterpart.

19 Now Yahweh God had formed´ from the ground every living thing[38] of the field、 and every bird of the heavens, which he brought in unto the man, that he might see what he should[39] call it,—and <whatsoever the man should call it—any living soul> ||that|| should be the name thereof.20 So the man gave´ names to all the tame-beasts、[40] and to the birds[41] of the heavens, and to all the wild-beasts[38] of the field,—but <for man> had there not been found a helper、 as his counterpart. 21 So Yahweh God caused a deep sleep to fall on the man、 and he slept,—and he took one of his ribs, and closed up flesh instead thereof. 22 And Yahweh God builded´ the rib which he had taken from the man into a woman, and brought her in unto the man. 23 And the man said,

||This||[42] one ||now|| is bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh!
||This|| one shall be called Woman,[43] for <out of a man>[44] hath this one been taken.

24 <For this cause> will a man leave his father、 and his mother,—and cleave unto his wife, and they[45] shall become one´ flesh.

25 And they wore both of them naked, the man and his wife,—and put not each other to shame.[46]

§3. Paradise lost: Mercy triumphant: Faith in exercise: the Tree of Life guarded.

3 1 Now ||the serpent||[47] was more crafty than any living thing[48] of the field which Yahweh God had made,— so he said unto the woman,

Can it really be、 that God hath said,
Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden?

2 And the woman said´ unto the serpent,—

<Of the fruit of the trees[49] of the garden> we may eat; 3 but <of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden> God hath´ said、
Ye shall-not eat of it、 neither shall ye touch it,—lest ye die.

4 And the serpent said´ unto the woman,—

Ye shall not ||die||.[50] 5 For God doth know, that <in the day ye eat thereof> then shall your eyes be opened´,—and ye shall become like God,[51] knowing good and evil.[52]

6 And <when the woman saw´ that the tree was good´ for food、 and that it was desirable´ to the eyes、 and the tree was pleasant´ to make one knowing> then took she of the fruit thereof、 and did eat,—and she gave to her husband also、 along with her, and he did eat. 7 Then were opened´ the eyes of them both, and they knew that <naked> they were´,—so they tacked together fig-leaves, and made for themselves girdles.8 Then heard they the sound[53] of Yahweh God、 walking to and fro in the garden、 at the breeze of the day,[54]—so he hid himself—||the man with his wife||、 from the face of Yahweh God, amid the trees[55] of the garden.9 And Yahweh God called´ unto the man,— and said to him、

Where art thou?

10 And he said,

<The sound[53] of thee> heard I in the garden,—and I was afraid、 for <naked> was I´, so I hid myself.

11 And he said,

Who´ told[56] thee that <naked> thou wast? <Of the tree´ whereof I commanded thee not to eat> hast thou eaten?

12 And the man said,—

<The woman whom thou didst put with me> ||she|| gave me of the tree、 so I did eat.

13 Then said Yahweh God to the woman、

What is this[57] that thou hast done?

And the woman said,

||The serpent|| deceived[58] me、 so I did eat.

14 Then said Yahweh God unto the serpant—

<Because thou hast done this>
|Accursed| art thou´ above every tame-beast, and above every wild-beast[59] of the field,—<on thy belly> shalt thou go, and <dust> shalt thou eat、 all the days of thy life.
And <enmity> will I put between thee、 and the woman, and between thy´ seed, and her´ seed,—

||He||[60] shall crush[61] thy head,
But ||thou|| shalt crush[61] his heel.

16 <Unto the woman> he said、

I will ||increase|| thy pain of pregnancy,
<In pain> shalt thou bear children,—[62]
Yet <unto thy husband> shall be thy longing,
Though ||he|| rule over thee.

17 And <to the man> he said、

<Because thou didst hearken to the voice of thy wife, and so didst eat of the tree´ as to which I commanded thee、 saying,
Thou shalt not eat of it>
Accursed´ be the ground for thy sake,
<In pain> shalt thou eat of it、 all the days of thy life;
<Thorn also and thistle> shall it shoot forth to thee,—when thou hast come to eat of the herb of the field:
<In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, until thou return to the ground, because <therefrom> wast thou taken,—
For <dust> thou art,[63]
And <unto dust> shalt thou return.

20So the man called the name of his wife、 Eve,[64]—in that ||she|| was made mother of every one living.21 And Yahweh God made for the man—and for his wife—tunics of skin、 and clothed them. 22 Then said Yahweh God

Lo! ||man||[65] hath become like one of us, in respect of knowing good and evil,[66]
||Now|| therefore、 <lest he thrust forth his hand、 and take even of the tree of life,[67] and eat、 and live to times age-abiding>[68]

23 So Yahweh God put him forth from the garden of Eden,—to till the ground´ wherefrom he had been taken. 24 So he expelled the man,—and caused to dwell[69]—in front of the garden of Eden— cherubim、[70] and a brandishing sword-flame, to keep[71] the way to the tree of life.

§ 4. A "seed" appears; but disappoints (Cain) or fails (Abel). Yahweh gives a substitute for Abel (Seth).

41 Now ||the man|| having come to know Eve his wife,—she conceived, and bare Cain,[72] and said、

I have gotten[73] a Man, even[74] Yahweh!

2 And she went on to bear his brother, Abel,[75]—and Abel became a feeder of sheep, whereas ||Cain|| was a tiller of the ground. 3 So it came to pass <after certain days>[76] that Cain brought in |of the fruit of the ground| a present to Yahweh: 4 ||Abel|| also、 even ||he|| brought in、 of the firstlings of his sheep、 and of their fat,—and Yahweh approved of Abel、 and of his present; 5 but <of Cain and his present> he approved not,—and it angered Cain greatly、 and his countenance fell. 6 So then Yahweh said unto Cain,—

Wherefore´ hath it angered thee, and wherefore´ hath thy countenance fallen?
Shall it not、 if thou do right、 be lifted up?[77]
But <if thou do not right> |at the entrance| a sin-bearer[78] is lying,—
<Unto thee> moreover、 shall be his longing, though ||thou|| rule over him.

8 And Cain said unto[79] Abel his brother

[Let us go into the field][80]

And it came to pass |when they were in the field| that Cain rose up against Abel his brother、 and slew him.9 Then said Yahweh unto Cain、

Where is Abel thy brother?

And he said、

I know not, <the keeper of my brother> am ||I||?

10 And he said、

What hast thou done?
<With a voice>[81] the shed-blood of thy brother is crying out to me from the ground.
||Now|| therefore、 <accursed> art thou,—from[82] the ground、 which hath opened her mouth, to receive the shed-blood of thy brother at thy hand.
<Though thou till the ground> it shall not go on to give its vigour to thee,—
<A wanderer and a fugitive> shalt thou be in the earth.

13 And Cain said unto Yahweh—

Greater´ is my punishment[83] than I can bear[84]
Lo! thou has drivent、 me out、 this day, from off the face of the ground.
And <from thy face> shall I be hid,—
So shall I become a wanderer and a fugitive in the earth,
And it shall come to pass ||whosoever findeth me|| will slay me.

15And Yahweh said to him—

Not so![85] ||whosoever slayeth Cain|| <seven-fold> shall it be avenged.

So Yahweh set、 for Cain、 a sign, that none finding him should smite´ him.

16So Cain went forth´ from the presence of Yahweh,—and dwelt in the land of Nod、 eastward of Eden.17And Cain knew his wife,[86] and she conceived、 and bare Enoch,[87]—Now it happened that he was building a city, so he called the name of the city、 after the name of[88] his son、 ||Enoch||.18 And there was born to Enoch、 Irad, and |Irad| begat Mehujael,— and |Mehujael| begat Methusael, and |Methusael| begat Lamech.19And Lamech took to himself two wives,— ||the name of the one|| was Adah,[89] and ||the name of the second|| Zillah.[90] 20 And Adah bare Jabal,—||he|| was father[91] of such as dwell in tents、 and have cattle; 21 and ||the name of his brother|| was Jubal,—||he|| was father[91] of everyone handling lyre[92] and flute.[93] 22 And <as for Zilah> ||she also|| bare Tubal-Cain, a sharpener of every cutting instrument of bronze、 and iron,[94]—and ||the sister of Tubal-Cain|| was Naamah.23 Then said Lamech to his wives、

Adah and Zillah! hear ye my voice.
Ye wives of Lamech! give ear to my tale,—
For <a man> have I slain、 in dealing my wounds,[95].
Yea <a youth> in smiting my blows:
<If ||sevenfold|| be the avenging of |Cain|>
Then |of Lamech| ||seventy and seven||.[96]

25 And Adam again knew his wife, and she bare a son、 and called his name Seth,[97]

For God hath appointed me another seed、 instead of Abel, because |Cain| slew´ him!

26 And <to Seth—to him also> was born a son, and he called his name Enosh,—||then|| was a beginning made, to call on the name of Yahweh.[98]

§5. From Adam to Noah: a line of light amidst deepening gloom.

51 ||This|| is the record[99] of the generations[100] of Adam,—<In the day when God created man>[101]

<In the likeness of God> made he |him|;
<Male and female> created he them,[102]

and blessed them, and called their name Adam,[103] |in the day they were created|.

3 And Adam lived、 a hundred and thirty years, and begat [a son] in his likeness、 after his image,—and called his name、 Seth: 4 and the days of Adam、 after he begat Seth, were eight hundred years,—and he begat sons and daughters. 5 So all the days of Adam which he lived, were nine hundred and thirty years,—and he died.

6 And Seth lived、 a hundred and five years,—and begat Enosh; 7 and Seth lived、 after he begat Enosh, eight hundred and seven years,—and begat sons and daughters; 8 and all the days of Seth were, nine hundred and twelve years,—and he died.

9 And Enosh lived、 ninety years,—and begat Kenan; 10 and Enosh lived、 after he begat Kenan, eight hundred and fifteen years,—and begat sons and daughters; 11 and all the days of Enosh were、 nine hundred and five years,—and he died.

12 And Kenan lived seventy years,—and begat Mahalalel; 13 and Kenan lived、 after he begat Mahalalel, eight hundred and forty years,—and begat sons and daughters; 14 and all the days of Kenan were、 nine hundred and ten years,—and he died.

15 And Mahalalel lived、 sixty-five years,—and begat Jared; 16 and Mahalalel lived、 after he begat Jared, eight hundred and thirty years,—and begat sons and daughters; 17 and all the days of Mahalalel were、 eight hundred and ninety-five years,—and he died.

18 And Jared lived、 a hundred and sixty-two years, and begat Enoch; ^919 and Jared lived after he begat Enoch, eight hundred years,—and begat sons and daughters; 20 and all the days of Jared were、 nine hundred and sixty-two years,—and he died. -1 And Enoch lived, sixty-five years, — and begat Methuselah; "--and Enoch walked with" God. after he begat Methuselah, three hundred years, — and begat sons and daughters ; -•' and all the days of Enoch were, three hundred and sixty- five years; 24 and Enoch walked with" God, and was not for God had taken' him. -'> And Methuselah lived, a liundred and eighty- seven years, — and begat Lamech ; -^and Methu- selah lived, after he begat Lamech, seven hundred and eighty-two ycats, — and begat sons and daughters ; 27 and all the days of Methu- selah were, nine hundred and sixty-nine years, — and he died. -8 And Lamech lived, a hundred and eighty-two years,— and begat a son; 29 and he called his name Noah, saying, — li This II one shall give us rest from<^ our work,*! And from the grievous toil of our hands, By reason of the ground which Yahweh hath cursed. ® ■'" And Lamech lived, after he begat Noah, five imndred and ninety-five years,— and begat sous and daugiiters ; ^i and all the days of Lamech were, seven hundred and seventy-seven years,-- and he died. •'- fAnd Noah was five hundred years old, — and Noah begat Shem,8 Ham and Jajihoth.' §0. An adulterous Union of the two Races makes way for the Flood. 3 ' And it came to pass <when men had begun to multiply on the face of the ground and | daugh- ters! I'ad been born to them> 2 that | the sons of God 1 .saw' 1 the daughters of men | that they' ■Ml: "Walked to and ' N.B. : a ray of Me.«sianic fro " = lived in fellowship hope, as if Noah, perhaps, with. mig'ht be the woman's •> " Rest" or "consolation." promised seed. ■= So it shd be (,w. Sep.) — fM.C T. begins a now sec- G.n. (So Gt. — G.r.n.) tion here.

  • Some cod. (w. Jerus. Cod., k " Celebrity."

1 ear. pr.' edn., Sam., " Swarthy " or "hi t." Sep., Syr.): "works" ' " E.teiision." (pl.)-O.r.n. were Hfairll, — so they took to themstdves wives of whomsoever they chose. * And Yah- weh said — My spirit shall not rule in" man to times age- abiding, for that ||he al.sol! is flesh, — Yet his days shall be a hundred and twenty years. 4 II The giants 11 were in the earth in those days, and also | after that], <when the sons of God began to go in unto the daughters of men, and -sons were born to them> || the same |1 were the heroes that were from age-past times, the men of i-enown. ^ Then Yahweh saw that llgreatii was the wickedness of man in the earth, and that |! every purpose of the devices of his heart!! was only wicked all the day; and it grieved Yahweh that he had made man in the earth,— and he took sorrow unto his heart. And Yahweh said — I must wipe off man whom I created, from off the face of the ground, from man unto beast, unto creei>ing thing and unto the bird of the heavens, — for I am grieved that I made them. 8 But II Noah il had found favour, in the eyes of Yahweh. §7. One FamiJy to he sated: the World to be destroyed an Ark appointed, and made ready. ^ llTheseJI are the generations of Noah, ||Noah|| was I a righteous man, blameless | in his genei-a- tions, - <with God> did Noah walk. <* i" And Noah begat three sons, — Shem, Ham and Japheth. 11 And the earth " ci iiTupted itself before God,— and the earth" was filled with violence. 12 And God beheld the earth, and lo ! it had corrupted itself, — surely all flesh had corrupted' its way, on the earth. 13 80 God said unto Noah : II The end of all flesh II hath come in before me, for II filled li is the earth" with violence because of them, — behold me then, destroy- ing them with the earth." 1* Make for thee an ark of timbers of gopher, <rooms> shalt thou make with the ark, — and thou shalt cover it, within and without, with pitch. 1= And II this || is how thou shalt make it, — 1| three hundred cubitslj the length of the ark, Itfifty cubitslj the breadth there- of, and lltiiirty cubitsli the height thereof. 1' <A place for light> shalt thou make to the ark, and <to a cubit> shalt thou finish it upwards, and <the opening of the ark — in the side thereof > shalt thou put, — <with lower, second^ and third [stories]> shalt Difficult." "Abide in" So in Cod. Ilallel (w. 5 car. pr. edns.) But some cod, (w. 4 ear. pr. e ins.l : " in their goin;^ aslriy ho [i.e.. the man] is flesh " —G.r.n., G. Intro. 514, .542. Or : "geneses." ' Cp. rhap. V. 22, 21 -same word here. Or: "laud." [i/d Jot for i/ddon by Aramaism] "best suits the context," but " is dubious " ; " rule in, supported by Zech. iii. 7 only"; '^ huiuh/i'd in, sustained by Aramaic usage, but not by Hebrew " ; " .itiivc with, hardly justified "-O.G. condensed. 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IG. -^ Then Josei)h made the sons of Israel swear, saying,— God will [surely concern] liimself for you. So shall ye carry up my bones, fi-om hence.- 2" So Jo.seijli died, being a hundred and ten years old,— and they embalmed him, and put liim in a coffin, in Egypt. • Some cod. 'w. 1 ear. pr. edn. [Uftt]. Sam., Sep., SjT.) add : " v^ith you ' — G.u.

  1. Or: "At first." The definite article in the rendering, "In the beginning," cannot safely be pressed, inasmuch as the phrase may, as preferred by many expositors ancient and modern, be simply construed with what follows: "In the beginning of God's's creating," &c.
  2. Heb.: 'elohim´. "Prob. a plural of quality='God-head' (as our 'Lordship'='Lord'")—Davies' H.L., p. 9. It should be carefully observed that, although 'elohim is plural in form, yet when, as here, it is construed with a verb in the singular, it is naturally singular in sense; especially since the "plural of quality" or "excellence" abounds in Hebrew in cases where the reference is undeniably to something which must be understood in the singular number.
  3. "Prop, 'to cut' or 'carve': hence, 'form,' 'create'"—Davies' H.L., p. 103; "shape, create"—O.G.: not necessarily, nor generally, to make out of nothing, cp. verses 21, 27; chap. ii. 3; and Num. xvi. 30. Seeing that, outside this passage, no example in the O.T. can be found wherein a making out of nothing is plainly intended by the Heb. bara' the reader who insists on that meaning here does so on his own responsibility. The gratuitous introduction of difficulties should of course be avoided.
  4. The emphasis on "the earth" in ver. 2 is quite regular. (Cp. Intro., Chap. II, Synopsis, A,a). The effect of it here is to single out "the earth" from ver. 1, for special comment.
  5. Heb.: tóhu wâ-vóhu. Evidently an idiomatic phrase, with a play on the sound ("assonance"). The two words occur together only in Is. xxxiv. 11; Jer. iv. 23; examples which favour the conclusion that here also they describe the result of previous overthrow. Tóhu by itself is found in several other texts (Deu. xxxii. 10; Job xii. 24; Ps. cvii. 40; Is. xxiv. 10; xxxiv. 11; etc.).
  6. Cp. 2 Co. iv. 6.
  7. Heb. tehôm; Sep. "the abyss."
  8. This "but" is not demanded by the particle waw in itself, but springs naturally out of the tenour of the clause it introduces.
  9. The beautiful word "brooding"—an exact rendering of the Heb.—is most suggestive; since it vividly describes the cherishing of incipient life, as a preparation for its outburst. The participial form of such a word clearly denotes a process, more or less lengthened, rather than an instantaneous act. Standing where it does, it crowns the description of the condition of things on which the first creative mandate of the six days took effect.
  10. The rendering above given of these two important verses may be paraphrased as follows:—

    "In the beginning [of the present order of things] God created [that is, shaped or formed according to his own divine idea] the heavens [above] and the earth [below].

    "Now the earth [emphasised idiomatically for the purpose of singling it out for first remark] had become waste and wild [probably by previous catastrophe]; and darkness [emphasised as about to be dealt with] was on the face of the roaring deep; but [preparing the mind for a new order of things] the Spirit of God was brooding [with quickening effect] on the face of the waters. "And [things being so; such being the state of the earth] God said [and thus the renewing, re-creating divine acts commence]."
  11. 11.0 11.1 Or: "became," "came to be." Connected with the opening word "so," the simple verb "was" has the same force. Cp. verses 8, 13, 19, 23, 31.
  12. By a well-attested Heb. idiom="a first day."

    Here grammatical exegesis steps in and claims its own. Two ways of explaining this striking "refrain" are conceivable—the one, unnatural and absurd; the other, at once living and luminous. Either this six-times-repeated statement is a mere extraneous patch of information, having no organic connection with the creative acts amongst which it is inlaid—which no thoughtful reader can seriously suppose—or else on each occurrence it grows out of what has gone before. This being conceded, and the words then being grammatically rendered, the reader is on the high road to a correct decipherment of the days, as God-divided rather than sun-divided. Did the calling forth of "light" constitute the first morning.? If it did, then the previous "darkness" and the preparatory "brooding" must surely have constituted the first "evening." Then how long was the first day? If no one knows, then no one can say what was the length of the six days. Essential harmony suggests as a crown to the exegesis: That, as is man the little worker, doing a small work on six short days, so is God the great worker, doing a large work on six long, far-reaching days.
  13. Gt. (w. Sep.): "And it was so" shd be added—G.n.
  14. Gt. (w. Sep.): "And it was so," here, shd be omitted—G.r.n.
  15. The Sep. here adds:—

    And the waters were gathered together, from under the heavens into their place, and the dry ground appeared.—G.r.n.
  16. Some cod. (w. Sam., Jon., Sep., Syr., Vul.): "and fruit tree"—Gn.
  17. In ver.3, 'ôr, light diffused; here mâ˙ ôr, affording light.
  18. Most likely "sacred seasons"—O.G. Cp. Ps. civ. 19.
  19. Note the collective use of the word. Same word: vers. 21, 24, 30 where the partitive sense is to be carefully observed), and ii. 7, 19, etc. Cp. N.T. Ap.: "Soul."
  20. Prop. "dumb"; esp. "tame."
  21. 21.0 21.1 Ml: "living thing;" "esp. 'wild,' as opposed to 'tame'"— Davies' H.L. "=wild animals, on account of their vital energy and activity"—O.G. 3.2,b, b.
  22. Heb. 'âdhâm. Prob. akin to 'admâhâh, "ground" (chap.) ii. 7)—Davies, Fuerst.. "Earth-born"—Kalisch. Perh: "red," "ruddy"—T.G.
  23. Gt (w. Syr.): "over all the wild-beasts of the land"―G.n.
  24. The first snatch of poetry in the Bible, Cp. Intro., Chap. I., p. 2.
  25. The Sep. ends the verse thus (after the word "heavens"):—"and over all tame-beasts, and over all [the wild-beasts of] the land, and over every creeping thing that creepeth on the land"—G.r.n.
  26. A correction (w. Sam. & Sep.): "sixth"—G.r.n.
  27. Or: "ceased," "kept sabbath." "God's rest arises rather from the joy of achievement than from the relief of fatigue"―Murphy. Cp. Ps. xcv. 11.; Heb. iii. 11, 16; iv. 1-11.
  28. "He made creatively, i.e. perh. by making it anew out of chaos"—Davies H.L. Rather differently: "so as to make (or in making) which he created"—O.G. 517a,7,b (a).
  29. "Lit. begettings of heaven and earth i.e., account of heaven and earth and that which proceeded from them"—O.G. 410.
  30. See Intro., Chap. IV.
  31. "Prop. "cut," hence "form," "fashion": used of a carver, joiner, smith, oftenest potter (Isa. lxiv. 8). N.B.: applied to man's spirit in Zech. xii. 1.
  32. Or: "spirit." Heb.: neshâmâh, which is either synonymous with ruah, "spirit" (Ecc. xii. 7). Cp. Job xxxii. 8; xxxiii. 4; Prov. xx. 27; Isa. xlii. 5); or else, as the activity of ruah, presupposes it (Gen. vii. 22. cp. Ps. xviii. 15).
  33. Ml: "lives." Perhaps originally, "living ones"; hence, abstract, "the state of living ones," "life." It is unsafe to build an argument on this plural. Cp. "faces" for "face" (chap. i. 2), and many other words.
  34. 34.0 34.1 Or: "of blessing and misfortune."
  35. Or: "beginnings."
  36. Ml:"the gold"—prob. the article of "species."
  37. Or: "guard."
  38. 38.0 38.1 Or: "wild-beast." Cp. chap. i. 24 n.
  39. Or: "would." But prob. "should"—as if to say, "That the man, seeing it, might determine what would be its fitting name."
  40. Cp. chap. i. 24. n.
  41. Some cod. (w. Jon., Sep., Syr., Vul.): "and to every bird"—G.n.
  42. Fem. nearly="she."
  43. Heb.:'ishshah, "female man" (from 'ish, "man," or "husband"). Possibly: "manward." the ah being that of direction.
  44. Heb: 'ish. Some authorities (Sam., Sep.) have: "out of her husband"—G.r.n.
  45. Some (Jon., Sep., Syr., Vul.) add: "twain." One (Sam.): "there shall become, of them twain"-G.r.n.
  46. An exact rendering. Indirectly confirmed by note to Prov. xxvi. 11 from Sep.
  47. For em. on "serpent," see Intro., Chap. II., Synopsis, A, a.
  48. Or: "wild-beast"—Cp. chap. i. 24, n.; chap. iii. 14.
  49. Gt. (w. Sep.): "Of the fruit of every tree"—G.r.n.
  50. Em. "by repetition." Cp. Intro., Chap. II., Synopsis, B, b.
  51. Or: "gods." Heb.: 'elohim.
  52. Or: "blessing and misfortune."
  53. 53.0 53.1 Or: "voice." But "sound" is more majestic, and more suited to the act of "walking."
  54. Or: "day-breeze"; i.e. "the cool of the evening"—Davies' H.L.
  55. Ml: "tree." N.B.: "tree"="trees." Cp. Rev. xxii. 2.
  56. Or: "showed."
  57. Or: "||What, now||, hast thou done?" Cp. O.G. 261, 4, d.
  58. Sep. apatao, "cheat," "outwit," " deceive." N.T.: 2 Co. xi. 3; 1 Tim. ii. 14, exapatao, "to deceive thoroughly."
  59. Cp. chap. 1. 24. n.
  60. Vul. wrongly "she." Possibly "it"; cp. Ro. xvi. 20.
  61. 61.0 61.1 Same word in the two clauses. "Most of the ancient translators render it by crushing"—Kalisch. Cp. again Ro. xvi. 20, Gr. suntribo.
  62. Ml: "sons." Daughters often included = "children,"—according to "context and circumstance."
  63. Or: "wast"; cp. chap. ii. 7: cp. also Ps. ciii. 14; Ec. xii. 7; 1 Co. xv. 47.
  64. ="Life," "giver of life," "life-spring." N.B.: Adam's faith in the promise.
  65. Ml: "the man"; but the article prob. that "of species."
  66. Or: "blessing and misfortune."
  67. Plainly implying that, from some cause, he had not yet done so.
  68. N.B.: the unfinished sentence; as if in haste to act, and avert danger.
  69. Prob. as a habitation for himself: 1 S. iv. 4; Ps. lxxx. 1; xcix. 1; esp. chap. iv. 14.
  70. Prob. "seized," "held," "possessed"; i.e.: by God as either his living chariot (1 Ch. xxviii. 18; Ps. xviii. 10; Eze. x.), or his living throne (Rev. iv.) In the present passage, ml "the cherubim," but article prob. that "of species."
  71. Or: "guard."
  72. ="acquisition," "procreation."
  73. Or: "acquired." Heb.: kained= "gained."
  74. Or: "with" (the presence and help of). More prob. as in text—unless we conclude that Eve could not have been so mistaken.
  75. ="evanescence," "transitoriness."
  76. Or: "after a time." Ml: "at an end of days."
  77. Ml: "Shall there not—if thou do right—be an uplifting" [?="of my countenance and of thine"]?
  78. As often later. As much as to say, "With which thy brother will supply thee,"—which would prepare for the word "longing" which follows.—Less prob.: "Sin is a crouching beast"—O.G. 308.
  79. So the Heb. correctly: "talked with" is but a make-shift due to the accidental omission of the words spoken.
  80. According to the Massorah a space should be left here; where, however, the words (here supplied in brackets) are found in Sam., Jon., Sep., Syr., Vul.
  81. Or: "aloud."
  82. Or: "by reason of."
  83. Or: "iniquity."
  84. Gt. (w. Rashi): "Is mine iniquity too great to be forgiven?"—G.r.n.
  85. So is shd be―G. Intro. 140-141. Cp. however O.G. 487a, d (a).
  86. Cp. chap v. 4.
  87. "Perh. 'teaching,' 'initiation'"—Davies' H.L.
  88. Some cod. (w. Sep. & Syr.): "by"—G.n.
  89. "Ornament" or "beauty."
  90. "Shade."
  91. 91.0 91.1 N.B. this use of the word "father"—cp. Is. ix. 6.
  92. So O.G.
  93. Some think ="organon," made up of several reeds together; others think of "bag-pipe." Cp. O.G., 721b.
  94. Gt. (w. Onk., Vul.): "the father of every one working in bronze and iron" —G.r.n.
  95. "Because of my wound"—O.G. 514b, f.
  96. Some obscurity rests on this snatch of song, and other renderings are possible. The above seems to agree with the facts.
  97. Prob. "substitute."
  98. Or: "to invoke with the name Y." See Intro., Chap. IV.
  99. Or: "book," "scroll."
  100. Or: "geneses."
  101. Heb.: 'adham. Cp. chap, i. 26, 27; ii. 7.
  102. This almost literal quotation from ch. i. 27 shows conclusively that "man" there and "man" here are the same race, and that this narrative simply folds back on the previous one: quite, indeed, in the manner of Hebrew history.
  103. Cp. chap. i. 26, n.