The Encyclopedia Americana (1920)/Civil War in America

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CIVIL WAR IN AMERICA. The number of engagements entered in the government's ‘Chronological List of Battles’ exceeds 2,200. An alphabetical list of battles compiled at the bureau of pensions, including such minor actions and skirmishes as seemed worthy of incorporation, contains over 6,800 separate affairs. It is therefore clear that, even in a comprehensive narrative of the War, a large number of the lesser engagements must be ignored, Merely to state strength and losses for the battles mentioned would form a lengthy statistical article. For these figures the student is referred to the separate accounts in this work of the various battles herein treated.

The Civil War of 1861-65 was inaugurated by the determination of seven Southern States to withdraw from the Union. (See United States — Causes of the Civil War; Efforts to Settle the Slavery Question). South Carolina led by passing an ordinance of secession 20 Dec. 1860 followed by Mississippi, 9 Jan. 1861; Florida, 10 January; Alabama, 11 January; Georgia, 19 January; Louisiana, 26 January; and Texas, 1 February. On 7 February the Choctaw Nation declared its adherence to the Confederacy. See United States — Secession; Secession in the United States.

During the autumn of 1860 and the early spring of 1861 the forts, arsenals, custom-houses and other government property in those States, with few exceptions, had been seized by State troops, and large sums were voted for arming the States, Georgia leading in November 1861 by appropriating $1,000,000. Maj. Robert Anderson, a Federal officer, who held Fort Moultrie on the inner line of Charleston harbor, becoming aware of active preparations for capturing that work, withdrew, on the night of 26 December to Fort Sumter (q.v.) in the centre of the harbor. This move hastened results. Immediate preparations were made for bombarding the fort. The first firing upon the flag was 9 January by the batteries erected against Fort Sumter, the inciting cause being the appearance of the Star of the West (q.v) off the harbor. This vessel had been sent from New York with provisions for Sumter, and with the accompanying fleet withdrew without replying to the fire.

Delegates from the seceded States met at Montgomery, Ala., 4 February, and 8 February adopted a provisional government, “The Confederate States of America” (q.v.) and the next day elected Jefferson Davis of Mississippi President, and Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia Vice-President of the Confederacy. See United States — The Confederacy; Confederate States of America.

On 1 March Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard, appointed by the Confederate government was sent to Charleston and took charge of the preparations for reducing Fort Sumter. On 4 March Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated as President of the United States. On 10 April Beauregard was instructed to demand the surrender of the fort, and, in case of refusal, to reduce it. The next day Anderson received and promptly declined a demand to evacuate and at daylight 12 April, the Confederate batteries opened upon Fort Sumter, compelling its surrender on the 14th. The expectation of a relieving fleet probably hastened this attack. See Fort Sumter.

With the news of the attack and surrender the country received President Lincoln's proclamation calling for 75,000 volunteers, and summoning Congress to meet on 4 July. In an instant discussion over the power to coerce States, the discussion of peace conventions and movements and all similar perplexing questions were brushed aside, and the North responded with intense enthusiasm, the predominating sentiment being the preservation of the Union. The South was equally aflame, rallying under the banner of State rights.

On 8 April President Davis had called for 20,000 volunteers, and the day following President Lincoln's proclamation he asked for 34,000. Two days later the Confederate Congress authorized the raising of 100,000 men. Three days after the surrender of Sumter Virginia seceded, followed 6 May by Arkansas and Tennessee, and 20 May by North Carolina, the belief being then general that a policy of coercion had been decided upon. The border States of Kentucky and Missouri were held to the Union by their loyal element, and Maryland was held at first by the direct power of the national government, and later by its own loyalty. The first two were represented in the Confederate Congress throughout the War. The movement to take Missouri into the Confederacy was thwarted by Gen. Nathaniel Lyon, who captured Camp Jackson near Saint Louis 10 May, and on 17 June, having already taken the State capital, in a brief engagement dispersed a force which Governor Jackson had gathered at Booneville. This resulted in relieving the capital from those plotting secession. Kentucky at first declared for neutrality, but at the election for members of Congress, 20 June, it was made clear that the State was lost to the Confederacy. In May the Confederate capital was moved from Montgomery, Ala., to Richmond, Va., where troops from all parts of the Confederacy were rapidly assembling. In like manner, the Northern States were pouring troops into the national capital, and Washington soon became a vast military camp. The Union forces crossed into Virginia 24 May and encamped opposite Washington.

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For a brief time Baltimore resisted the passage of troops to the capital. Four hundred Pennsylvanians reached Washington 18 April, but the 6th Massachusetts regiment was attacked in Baltimore 19 April. The 7th New York reached Washington 25 April from Annapolis. Brig.-Gen. B. F. Butler, with the 8th Massachusetts, had reached Annapolis on the 20th, and on the 22d had proceeded to the Relay House. On the night of 13 May he occupied Baltimore, and thereafter the route to Washington was unobstructed. Harper's Ferry (q.v.), with its arsenal and machinery for manufacturing small arms partially destroyed, was seized by the Confederates 19 April (see Shenandoah Valley), and Gosport Navy Yard, near Norfolk, 20 April, with guns, stores, ships and machinery of immense value.

On 20 May General Butler, having been made a major-general of United Slates volunteers, was assigned to the command of the Department of Virginia and North Carolina, with headquarters at Fort Monroe. On 10 June he moved against a force under Gen. J. B. Magruder at Big Bethel (q.v.) and was defeated. While it was comparatively a small affair, like another about the same time at Vienna in front of Washington, both caused widespread dissatisfaction and mortification in the North. See also Romney; New Creek.

Under President Lincoln's call Ohio promptly organised 13 regiments, and 23 April Capt. George B. McClellan was appointed major-general of Ohio militia. On 14 May he was commissioned major-general in the regular army and assigned to the Department of the Ohio, embracing that State, Indiana, Illinois, and, later, West Virginia. In May the Confederate government had dispatched a small force to Grafton, W. Va., under Col. G. A. Porterfield, with the purpose of breaking the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. On 26 May General McClellan threw troops from Ohio and Indiana into the State, defeating Porterfield at Philippi (q.v.), 3 June. West Virginia seceded from Confederate Virginia 17 June, and set up a State government which was recognized by President Lincoln on the 26th. On 9 July United States senators were elected, and on the 13th they took their seats at Washington. Congress met in special session 4 July. It legalized all President Lincoln's acts with respect to the army and navy, and authorized a further call for 500,000 men, a national loan of $250,000,000 and an increase of the navy to render effective the blockade of the Southern ports which had been declared 19 April by President Lincoln.

Following the Philippi defeat, the Confederates sent Gen. Henry A. Wise to the Kanawha Valley, and Gen. Robert S. Garnett to Beverly. Gen. William S. Rosecrans, who was commissioned brigadier-general in the regular army 16 May, joined General McClellan from Ohio, and 11 July defeated the Confederate forces under Col. John Pegram (q.v.) at Rich Mountain (q.v.). On 13 July General Garnett, during the retreat of his column, was killed at Carrick's Ford. His command escaped, leaving General McClellan in control of northwestern Virginia.

The latter part of July, upon hearing of the arrival of Gen. J. D. Cox of Ohio in the Kanawha Valley, Gen. Robert E. Lee was ordered to the command of West Virginia. The campaign for regaining the State failed, and by November the Confederate authorities decided to abandon the plan of occupying it. General Lee was ordered to the command of the Department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. See West Virginia Campaign of 1861; Scarey Creek; Camp Bartow; Camp Alleghany; Carnifax Ferry; Gauley Bridge; Romney.

Early in July the army in front of Washington under Gen. Irwin McDowell (q.v.) prepared to move against the main Confederate army under General Beauregard in front of Manassas. The flanks of each army toward the Shenandoah were protected by strong forces, Gen. Robert Patterson commanding on the Union side, and confronting Gen. Joseph E. Johnston (q.v.).

The Union advance was hastened by an almost universal cry in the North of “On to Richmond!” General McDowell left his camps on the Virginia side of the Potomac on the afternoon of 16 July with five divisions, encountering an advance brigade of Beauregard's army at Fairfax Court-House. This, with two other brigades, withdrew with light skirmishing to the main lines, which had been established behind Bull Run, its right at the crossing of the railroad from Manassas to Alexandria, and its left at the crossing of the Warrenton turnpike from Alexandria. McDowell's forces were concentrated about Centreville on the 18th, and one brigade had quite an affair on that date at Blackburn's Ford. On the 20th General Johnston arrived with all except one brigade of his army and assumed command. On the 21st McDowell, feinting in front, turned the Confederate left, and maintained a successful battle until near 4 o'clock, when the last brigade (three regiments) of Johnston's army arrived with a battery on the Union right and checked its advance. A brigade of General Beauregard's troops moving farther to the left and more directly on the Union flank, changed this check into a retreat, which soon became a panic, and the entire Union army left the field in disorderly haste. There was slight pursuit, but the panic increased, and only ended when the army was inside the fortifications of Washington. (See Bull Run, First Battle of). The North was astounded at the result, and the South correspondingly elated. Both sections immediately redoubled their efforts to prepare for vigorous war. General McClellan was summoned from West Virginia and given command of the Department of the Potomac, and began to organize the troops pouring in from all parts of the North. On 20 August he took command of the Army of the Potomac, then for the first time organized under that title, and 1 November he was made commander-in-chief of the armies of the United States in place of Gen. Winfield Scott who had asked to be retired on account of failing health. In the rapid organization going forward in both sections, the South had the advantage of the services of the majority of regular officers from that section who resigned their commissions and went with their States.

After Bull Run there was little heavy fighting during the remainder of 1861, both sides devoted their chief attention to establishing their lines. On 15 August Jefferson Davis ordered all Northern men to leave the South within 40 days; and the next day President Lincoln proclaimed the seceded States in insurrection and prohibited all intercourse. On the Union side. General Butler in command of a joint expedition of land and naval forces, sailed from Fort Monroe, and 29 August captured the forts guarding Hatteras Inlet (q.v.) opening the way to Pamlico Sound. On the lines of the Army of the Potomac the Union forces under Col. E. D. Baker, senator from California, were defeated at Ball's Bluff (q.v.), 21 October, Colonel Baker being killed. On 7 November a joint expedition from Annapolis, under Gen. Thomas West Sherman and Adm. S. F. Dupont, captured Port Royal, thus securing one of the most important harbors on the Southern coast. (See Port Royal Bay; Port Royal Ferry). Gen. E. O. C. Ord, with a Union brigade, defeated a brigade under J. E. B. Stuart, at Dranesville, 20 December. Gen. N. P. Banks succeeded General Patterson in the Shenandoah; General Rosecrans commanded in West Virginia. See also Pensacola in the Civil War; Fort Pickens.

On 29 Nov. 1861, Gen. Quincy A. Gillmore was ordered to reconnoiter Fort Pulaski at the mouth of the Savannah River. On 1 December he reported that it could be reduced with batteries at 1,700 yards' distance, a third greater than foreign authorities laid down as practicable against permanent works. His batteries opened 10 April 1862, breached the walls within 24 hours and the fort surrendered 11 April.

Gen. Robert Anderson was assigned to the Department of Kentucky 28 May. His headquarters were fixed at Cincinnati on account of the position of Kentucky in regard to neutrality, but on 1 September his headquarters were moved to Louisville. On 8 October General Anderson's health failing, Gen. W. T. Sherman succeeded to the command of the Department of the Cumberland. On 9 November this Department was discontinued, and under the title of the Department of the Ohio, embracing the States of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana and most of Kentucky and Tennessee, Gen. D. C. Buell was assigned to the command, which he assumed 15 November. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant was ordered to the District of Southeastern Missouri with headquarters at Cairo, Ill., which he reached 4 September. On the 6th he seized Paducah at the mouth of the Tennessee, and 7 November was defeated in an expedition to Belmont. Gen. J. C. Frémont was ordered to Missouri, and assumed command 25 July. Before his arrival General Lyon had moved against forces under Gen. Sterling Price with which ex-Governor Jackson was seeking to regain the State (see Carthage; Springfield), and in the battle of Wilson's Creek (q.v.), 10 August, where Gen. Ben McCulloch commanded, Lyon was killed and Price occupied southern Missouri. Frémont, upon assuming command, advanced against Price, and occupied Springfield. (See also Lexington, Siege of). Gen. H. W. Halleck succeeded Frémont assuming command 19 November. Gen. David Hunter then in command at Springfield withdrew under orders, leaving the Confederates in possession of southern Missouri for the rest of the year.

On the Confederate side, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston commanded the Army of Northern Virginia, “Stonewall” Jackson was in the Shenandoah, Gen. Robert E. Lee in West Virginia until November, Gen. Humphrey Marshall and Gen. G. B. Crittenden in eastern Kentucky, Gen. A. Sidney Johnston at Bowling Green, Gens. G. J. Pillow, J. B. Floyd, Simon B. Buckner and N. B. Forrest at Fort Donelson, Gen, Leonidas Polk at Columbus, Ky., and General Price in Missouri. Thus stood the opposing lines at the close of 1861. Half the year had been spent in establishing them. The campaigns of 1862 began early and were prosecuted with the greatest vigor on both sides.

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From January to April Gen. H. H. Sibley, with Texas forces, was engaged in attempting to secure New Mexico to the Confederacy. He inflicted much loss on Union posts and commands under Gen. E. R. S. Canby, but abandoned his purpose the middle of April and retired to Fort Bliss. See Valverde.

On 6-8 March a severe battle occurred at Pea Ridge (q.v.) or Elkhorn Tavern, Ark., between the forces of Gens. S. R. Curtis and Earl Van Dorn, resulting in the retreat of the latter.

As Gen. George H. Thomas was concentrating to attack General Crittenden at Beech Grove, Ky., opposite Mill Springs (q.v.) on the Cumberland River, the latter marched at night from his entrenchments and attacked Thomas at Logan's cross roads the morning of 19 January. The Confederates were defeated, pursued to the river and dispersed. This, with Gen. J. A. Garfield's movement up the Big Sandy, and his defeat of Humphrey Marshall at Prestonburg (q.v.), 10 January, broke the right of the Confederate line through Kentucky. On 6 February Admiral Foote's fleet, supported by Grant's forces, captured Fort Henry on the Tennessee, and Grant's army, moving at once to Fort Donelson on the Cumberland, forced its surrender on the 16th, with about 15,000 men. (See Fort Henry and Fort Donelson). Gen. A. Sidney Johnston (q.v.) then evacuated Bowling Green 15 February, and Gen. Leonidas Polk withdrew from Columbus 3 March, the movements of the latter being hastened by Gen. John Pope's advance on New Madrid and Island No. 10. This latter was captured 7 April. The Confederate forces in Kentucky and Tennessee then withdrew to the line of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, General Johnston establishing his headquarters at Corinth. General Buell, moving rapidly from Kentucky, occupied Nashville, 25 November. General Johnston, learning that Buell was to join Grant, whose army had been brought from Fort Donelson to Pittsburg Landing, and was camped there awaiting Buell, marched from Corinth to attack Grant before the junction could take place. The Union army was unexpectedly attacked 6 April at Shiloh Church, two miles and a half in front of Pittsburg Landing, and forced back to the immediate vicinity of the landing. The advance of Buell arrived about sundown, and during the night four divisions, three of Buell's army and Lew Wallace's of Grant's, reached the field. The next day the Confederates under General Beauregard, being largely outnumbered, were defeated and returned to Corinth. Gen. A. Sidney Johnston was kilted near the close of the first day's fight. See Shiloh.

General Halleck arrived from Saint Louis 11 April and took command. General Pope's army was brought from Island No. 10. On 30 April an advance began on Corinth (q.v.) by slow approaches. The Confederates brought Price and Van Dorn from west of the Mississippi. On 30 May General Halleek's lines were close to the city, and an attack was meditated, when it was found that the Confederates had already evacuated the place. After a short pursuit under Pope and Buell, as far as Blackland, the Union army was concentrated at Corinth, and extensive fortifications were erected. The army was soon divided, and Buell with the Army of the Ohio was sent toward Chattanooga, with orders to repair the railroad as he advanced. Gen. Braxton Bragg, who had succeeded Beauregard, proceeding to Chattanooga by way of Mobile and moving rapidly north behind the Cumberlands, compelled Buell to withdraw to the Ohio River to protect his department, which included Indiana, Ohio and Michigan. (See Morgan's Raid). Gen. E. Kirby Smith, at the same time, invaded Kentucky by way of Cumberland Gap (q.v.), defeated Union forces at Richmond (q.v.), 30 August, and threatened Cincinnati. Buell, upon reaching Louisville, advanced upon Bragg. On 8 October resulted the battle of Perryville (q.v.), by which Bragg was compelled to abandon Kentucky. Passing through Cumberland Gap he retired to Chattanooga, whence he advanced to Murfreesboro in central Tennessee, and went into winter quarters. See Hartsville; Parker's Cross Roads.

During the operations at Pittsburg Landing and Corinth Gen. O. M. Mitchell advanced with a division from Murfreesboro 5 April, reached Huntsville 11 April, and seized the Memphis and Charleston Railroad from Decatur to Bridgeport. Gen. J. S. Negley's brigade crossed the mountains and bombarded Chattanooga 7 June. Mitchell's operations drew Gen. E. Kirby Smith from East Tennessee, and left the way open for Gen. G. W. Morgan at Cumberland Ford, Ky., to seize Cumberland Gap.

In September Price and Van Dorn, who had previously joined Beauregard from beyond the Mississippi, moved against Grant and Rosecrans in the region of Corinth. Price was defeated by Rosecrans 19 September, at Iuka (q.v.), and Van Dorn, supported by Price, 4 October, at Corinth (q.v.). (See also Hatchie River). From this campaign Rosecrans was sent to relieve Buell in command of the Army of the Cumberland, then styled the Fourteenth corps. On 30 October General Rosecrans relieved General Buell, and concentrated his army at Nashville (q.v.). On 26 December he moved toward Murfreesboro to attack Bragg. The battle began on the last day of the year, and continued during the days of 1-2 Jan. 1863. (See Stone River). General Bragg retreated the night of 3 January, eventually taking up positions at Shelbyville, Tullahoma and Wartrace. General Rosecrans occupied Murfreesboro. The respective armies remained on these lines until Rosecrans' advance in June 1863.

While Rosecrans was succeeding at Murfreesboro, there was a noted Confederate victory at Galveston (q.v.). General Magruder, with a fleet of ordinary river boats, protected with hay and cotton bales, captured the Harriet Lane 1 January, sunk the gunboat Westfield and received the surrender of the forces holding the city. The Confederate Alabama (q.v.), arriving shortly after, captured the gunboat Hatteras.

Both river fleets of armored and unarmored gunboats, mortar-boats and rams were actively engaged on the western rivers. The Union fleet, Com. A. H. Foote, was composed of 45 vessels of various classes and 38 mortar-boats. The Confederate fleet, Commodore Montgomery, was somewhat less, but contained several formidable vessels. Commodore Foote's gunboats captured Fort Henry on the Tennessee and played an important part at Fort Donelson, Pittsburg Landing and New Madrid. Commodore Montgomery awaited Foote's fleet, now under the command of Com. C. H. Davis, before Memphis. The Union fleet was made up of 5 gunboats with 68 guns and 4 rams; the Confederates of 8 gunboats with 28 guns. After a desperate battle, 6 June, against great odds, the Confederate flotilla was destroyed and Memphis surrendered to the fleet (See also Saint Charles). Davis left Memphis 29 June and 1 July reached Young's Point, where he joined Adm. David G. Farragut's fleet from New Orleans, which had run the Vicksburg batteries.

The year 1862 opened at the east with very general dissatisfaction over the long inaction of General McClellan. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston was at Manassas and Centreville with some 50,000 men, but General McClellan, misled by his secret service, continually insisted that there were three times that number. The Army of the Potomac numbered fully 150,000 present for duty. The Potomac was blockaded and the Confederate flag floated on Munson's Hill in sight of Washington. On 31 January President Lincoln gave McClellan a peremptory order to move on Manassas not later than 22 February. McClellan asked leave to present a plan of his own for a movement down the Potomac, up the Rappahannock, across to York and thence to Richmond. While he was discussing it, Johnston, placing “Quaker guns” in his embrasures at Centreville, withdrew unmolested behind the Rappahannock to a line of works and field depot already prepared.

Just as his movement began occurred the ominous attack, 8 March, of the Confederate ironclad Merrimac, Flag Officer Franklin Buchanan, which suddenly moved out from Norfolk and attacked the Union fleet in Hampton Roads (q.v.), sinking the frigate Cumberland, capturing and destroying the frigate Congress, doing much other damage and startling the entire Eastern coast. On resuming operations the next day the Merrimac was met and foiled by the Monitor, Lieut. John L. Worden (q.v.), which had just arrived. The Merrimac then retired to Norfolk, being blown up when the Confederates evacuated that city, 9 May. See Monitor and Merrimac.

McClellan was allowed to undertake his Peninsula campaign (q.v.). On 11 March he was relieved from the general command of the armies. The Army of the Potomac was transported to Fort Monroe and the movement up the peninsula toward Yorktown (q.v.) began 4 April. Heavy rains caused delays from the start. It was found at Washington that the designated number of men had not been left for the proper defense of the capital. McDowell's corps was therefore retained. Arriving before Yorktown with about three times the strength of the enemy, he concluded to lay regular siege to the position. (See Lee's Mills). Parallels were therefore opened, nearly 100 heavy siege guns were brought up and at the end of a month, as his batteries were about to open, Gen. J. E. Johnston evacuated the place 3 May and withdrew toward Richmond. He halted at Williamsburg (q.v.), where on the 5th an attack was made upon his lines and at night he withdrew toward Richmond. (See West Point, Engagement at). McClellan followed to the Chickahominy. On 15 May the Union fleet in the James made an unsuccessful attack on Drewry's Bluff (See Fort Darling), eight miles below Richmond. On 20 May the right of his army crossed the Chickahominy (see also Hanover Court House) and advanced to Seven Pines, or Fair Oaks (q.v.), about five miles from Richmond, where he was attacked by General Johnston 31 May. The prompt advance of Sumner's corps from the other side of the Chickahominy prevented serious disaster. At the close of the day General Johnston was badly wounded and carried from the field. Gen. Gustavus W. Smith commanded temporarily and was succeeded 2 June by Gen. Robert E. Lee, who continued in command of the Army of Northern Virginia until Appomattox. On 1 June the battle was renewed by the Confederates, the troops regained their lost ground and Lee withdrew to the fortifications of Richmond.

On 16 June the Union forces on James Island in Charlestown harbor, under General Benham, met with a severe repulse at Secessionville (q.v). General “Stonewall” Jackson, by a brilliant campaign in the Valley, had prevented the most of McDowell's corps, then in the vicinity of Fredericksburg, from reinforcing McClellan. (See Shenandoah Valley; Kernstown; McDowell; Front Royal; Harrisonburg). By moving rapidly down the Valley he defeated Banks at Winchester (q.v.) and forced him across the Potomac, 26 May. Returning, he defeated Gen. J. C. Frémont at Cross Keys, 8 June, on one flank and Gen. James Shields at Port Republic, 9 June, on the other, and after a week spent in deceiving General Frémont into the belief that he was about to advance down the Valley, by a rapid and unsuspected movement he appeared 25 June at Ashland on the flank of McClellan's army in front of Richmond. Then followed the Seven Days' battles, beginning with Mechanicsville 26 June and ending at Malvern Hill 2 July, whence the Army of the Potomac withdrew to Harrison's Landing on the James. (See Seven Days' Battles; Oak Grove; Mechanicsville; Gaines' Mill; Peach Orchard; Savage Station; Glendale; Malvern Hill. See also Stuart's Ride Around the Army of the Potomac). The only victories of the series were the first and last battles. The Peninsula campaign had ended as a disastrous failure. General McClellan had been relieved from the command of all the armies 11 March, retaining that of the Army of the Potomac and Halleck assumed the chief command 23 July.

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Against McClellan's protest, it was decided to withdraw his army from the Peninsula to the vicinity of Washington. To cover this movement and protect Washington, Gen. John Pope was given command of the Army of Virginia, organized with the corps of McDowell, Banks and Frémont. Pope concentrated his army north of Culpeper and began with his cavalry to operate towards Lee's railroad communications at Gordonsville. Lee, though McClellan's army was still within striking distance of Richmond, at once sent a portion of Jackson's and Gen. James Longstreet's corps to Gordonsville. Pope took the field 29 June and threatened Gordonsville again. “Stonewall” Jackson advanced on the 7th, reaching Cedar Mountain on the 9th. Here Banks attacked and was defeated. Jackson retired beyond the Rapidan, and upon Lee, with Longstreet, coming up, Pope retired behind the Rappahannock. By a long detour, by way of Salem and Thoroughfare Gap, Jackson moved rapidly around Pope's right and 26 July destroyed his stores at Bristoe Station and Manassas in his rear, retiring to the former battlefield of Bull Run. On the 23d Reynolds' division from the Army of the Potomac joined McDowell and on the 25th Gen. S. P. Heintzelman's corps, two divisions, arrived and the next day Fitz-John Porter's corps of two divisions reached Pope. The battle of Gainesville followed on the 28th resulting in the retirement of two of McDowell's divisions. At Groveton on the 29th the head of Longstreet's forces reached the field and took part in the closing fight. All the battles of the campaign had been desperately fought by both sides. On the 30th occurred the second battle of Bull Run (q.v.). Pope was defeated, but withdrew unmolested to Centreville beyond Bull Run. Here he was joined by the strong corps of Sumner and Franklin from McClellan's army. A flank movement by Jackson led to the battle of Chantilly (q.v.). Pope then, under orders, 2 September, withdrew his army to the fortifications of Washington.

Pope was then relieved; his forces were added to the Army of the Potomac and McClellan took command of the combined army. The first Confederate invasion of the North followed. On 3 September Lee put his army in motion from Chantilly toward the Potomac The crossing was accomplished in the vicinity of Leesburg on the 5th, the army moving forward to Frederick, where on the 7th Lee issued a proclamation setting forth that his army had come to help them regain the rights of which they had been despoiled. This was coldly received. Upon learning that the garrison of Harper's Ferry (q.v.) had not withdrawn, he detached forces which invested and captured that place with its garrison of 11,000 men and over 70 guns. (See Maryland Heights). Lee, who with Longstreet's command, had marched to Hagerstown, turned back to hold Turner's Gap in South Mountain (q.v.), but was defeated on the 14th and fell back to Sharpsburg; where he was subsequently joined by the forces detached against Harper's Ferry.

McClellan advanced from Washington 5 September toward Frederick, Md., the right wing and centre passing through that place on the 13th, the right moving to Turner's and the left to Crampton's Gap. Both these positions were carried on the 14th after sharp fighting. On the 15th Lee took position on the high ground beyond Antietam Creek and in front of Sharpsburg. Gen. Joseph Hooker's corps attacked his left toward evening of the 16th, the fighting continuing until after dark. The general engagement began at daylight on the 17th, lasting for 14 hours, the losses being greater than for any one day's fighting of the war. (See Antietam). The advantages were with the Union army, though Lee maintained his lines during the 18th, but at night withdrew and crossed the Potomac, ending the first invasion of the North. (See Maryland Campaign of September 1862). Lee remained a month about Winchester (see Shepherdstown (Boteler's) Ford), and upon the Union army's crossing into Virginia and moving toward Winchester he took position behind the Rappahannock.

Near Warrenton, 7 November, McClellan was superseded by Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside, under an order dated 5 November. The latter took position opposite Fredericksburg (q.v.) 19 November, and, 13 December, forced a crossing into the city and below it. After great slaughter, largely incurred in assaults on Marye's Heights, he was repulsed and obliged to recross the river. The next month he attempted to cross above Fredericksburg and turn Lee's left. An unusual storm made advance impossible, the army finding itself actually stalled, the movement becoming known as the great Mud March. After this failure Burnside was relieved by Holder 26 Jan. 1863.

The navy was active and effective throughout 1862. The blockade became exceedingly stringent for the Confederacy; warlike and commercial supplies alike were very difficult to obtain. On 11 January General Burnside and Com. L. M. Goldsborough sailed from Fort Monroe, capturing Roanoke Island (q.v.) 5 February, Newbern (q.v.) 14 March, and taking Fort Macon (q.v.) with its garrison 26 April. See also South Mills.

General Butler and Admiral Farragut sailed from Fort Monroe 25 February for a move against New Orleans (q.v.). After a terrific engagement, participated in by Commander D. Porter with mortar-boats, and in which the Confederates exhibited great endurance, the chain across the river below forts Saint Philip and Jackson was cut, and 24 April Farragut forced his fleet past the forts, and after terrific fighting, during which the Varuna was sunk by the fire of the forts, appeared before New Orleans on the 25th, General Lovell, who held the city with a small force, some 3,000, retiring. General Butler arrived with his troops 1 May, and took full possession, taking Baton Rouge 9 May, and Natchez on the 13th, neither being fortified. Farragut's fleet then ascended the Mississippi, He ran past the batteries at Vicksburg and joined Commodore Foote's (Davis') fleet from Memphis at Young's Point. Retiring to New Orleans, thus running the Vicksburg batteries a second time, he found letters from Washington urging him to clear the Mississippi. On 25 June his fleet, with Porter's mortar fleet, was assembled at Vicksburg, and on the 28th, after a short engagement, two ships and five gunboats ran the lotteries and again joined Davis' fleet above the city. On 15 July the Confederate ironclad Arkansas came out of the Yazoo, ran directly through the Union fleet, none of its vessels having steam up, and gained the shelter of the Vicksburg batteries. Farragut ran the batteries that night, and attempted to destroy the Arkansas while passing the city wharves, but failed. On 20 July his fleet was ordered to New Orleans, where it arrived on the 29th.

Grant, from Corinth, 1 November, began his first move against Vicksburg (q.v.), by ordering his troops forward to Grand Junction, purposing to move along the railroad by way of Holly Springs and Grenada to the rear of the city, while Sherman should co-operate from Memphis. A raid by Forrest destroyed long reaches of railroad above Jackson, and the destruction of the depot of supplies with its immense stores at Holly Springs (q.v.) 20 December, by Van Dorn, effectually paralyzed Grant's advance toward Vicksburg.

During Forrest's and Van Dorn's operations east of the Mississippi Gen. T. C. Hindman, in Arkansas, attacked Gens. F. J. Herron and J. G. Blunt at Prairie Grove (q.v.), but retreated after a severe engagement. On 16 December Gen. N. P. Banks relieved General Butler at New Orleans,

Sherman was then sent, 20 December, from Memphis down the Mississippi to ascend the Yazoo and attempt the capture of the left flank of the defenses of the city at Haines' Bluff. He assaulted at Chickasaw Bayou (q.v.) 29 December, with disastrous results, and returned to the mouth of the Yazoo, where he was met by Gen. J. A. McClernand with orders to assume general command. This officer at once moved up the Arkansas River with Porter's gunboat fleet and Sherman's and G. W. Morgan's corps, captured Fort Hindman (q.v.) 11 January, and returned to Young's Point. From this position the Vicksburg campaign of 1863 began, which opened the Union operations of that year.

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The first attempt was to cut a canal across the peninsula opposite Vicksburg, which would allow the army to move below Vicksburg. After working on this from 22 January to 7 March, a flood destroyed it. Efforts were next made to open a way through Lake Providence to the Red River, making a circuit of 350 miles to a point below the city. Both this plan and one for the east side through the Yazoo pass leading to the rear of the city, being actively opposed by the Confederates, and found otherwise exceedingly difficult, were abandoned. See Yazoo Pass and Steele's Bayou.

A way was finally found from Milliken's Bend (q.v.) by way of New Carthage to a point on the river opposite Bruinsburg. On the night of 16 April the memorable running of the Vicksburg batteries by the fleet of Admiral Porter, convoying transports, was successfully accomplished. The means of ferrying his forces over the Mississippi being thus secured, the advance of the army crossed 30 April. Port Gibson was captured 1 May, after a stubborn and most gallant defense against a greatly superior force by Generals Bowen, Baldwin and Cockrell. Grant was then on solid ground in rear of Vicksburg. See also Raymond.

He moved at once to intervene between Pemberton at Vicksburg and Johnston, who was seeking a junction with Pemberton. Johnston was forced out of Jackson by Sherman's and Gen. James B. McPherson's troops 14 May. Grant then turned toward Pemberton, advancing from Vicksburg, defeated him at Champion's Hill (q.v.) on the 16th, again at Big Black Bridge (q.v.) on the 18th, whence Pemberton withdrew into Vicksburg, followed by Grant. On the 19th Grant ordered an assault, which was repulsed, and again on the 22d, with the same result. A regular siege was then undertaken, and Pemberton's army was starved out and surrendered 4 July. See also Jackson, Siege of; Yazoo City.

On 24 May 1863, Gen. J. M. Schofield, who had been active and prominent in Missouri from the first, relieved General Curtis in command of the Department of the Missouri. During the Vicksburg campaign he sent all troops that could be spared to Grant. Upon their return he was able to advance General Steele to the line of the Arkansas and hold it thereafter. (See also Helena; Little Rock; Pine Bluff). During 8-14 June, Grant received a division from Gen. S. A. Hurlbut's command, under Gen. Sooy Smith, one from the Department of the Missouri, under General Herron, and two divisions of the Ninth corps under Gen. J. G. Parke. During the operations of General Grant about Vicksburg General Banks was active in Louisiana. After three unsuccessful attempts against Port Hudson (q.v.), which he twice assaulted, it finally surrendered 8 July, upon hearing of the capture of Vicksburg.

In January, February and March 1863, the Union ironclads under Admiral Dupont made unsuccessful attacks upon Fort McAllister (q.v.) in the Ogeechee River, but in one of them destroyed the noted blockade' runner Nashville. The Confederates were active on the North Carolina coast early in 1863 (see Newbern; Washington; Suffolk) and General Hoke captured Plymouth (q.v.) 20 April 1864, See also Albemarle, The.

The campaign of the year in the Army of the Potomac was opened by Hooker. (See Stoneman's Virginia Raid). On 28 April Gen. John Sedgwick's corps was thrown across the Rappahannock at Fredericksburg, the rest of his army crossing above at Kelly's ford, and thence advancing across the Rapidan at Germanna and Ely's fords, to and beyond Chancellorsville (q.v.). His force was fully twice that of Lee. On 1 May Hooker's advance fell back to Chancellorsville. On 2 May “Stonewall” Jackson's corps of three divisions was descried at different times during the day from several points of the Union line moving toward its right. No preparations were made to guard against a flank attack, though, orders to that effect were early given. At 6 p.m., while the troops of the Eleventh corps holding the right were at supper, Jackson's solid columns burst upon them and disastrously routed the Union right. On the 3d Sedgwick's corps advanced from Fredericksburg to Salem Church, was defeated that afternoon, and recrossed the river on the night of the 4th. The night of the 2d Jackson, reconnoitering in front of his pickets, was mistakenly fired on by them and mortally wounded On the 3d, by hot fighting, Hooker's lines were forced further to the rear. The 4th passed without an engagement, as Lee, with the greater part of his army was at Salem Church. The night of the 5th Hooker, thoroughly defeated, recrossed the river, and his army was reassembled at Falmouth.

On 3 June, Lee, from Fredericksburg, began his second invasion of the North, Longstreet's troops leading. After minor engagements in the Valley (see Fleetwood and Brandy Station; Winchester, Second Battle of; Middleboro, Aldie and Upperville; Hanover; Martinsburg), Gen. R. S. Ewell's advance crossed the Potomac at Williamsport 15-16 June, moved forward to Chambersburg, and had reached the vicinity of Harrisburg and Columbia on the Susquehanna, and captured York 28 June, when recalled to Gettysburg, where Lee's army was concentrating. See Stuart's Raid to Chambersburg; Wrightsville.

Meantime, the Army of the Potomac under Hooker reached the vicinity of Frederick, when Hooker, not being allowed to order the garrison of Harper's Ferry, over 10,000 strong, to join him, asked to be relieved, and Gen. George G. Meade succeeded him. The two armies met at Gettysburg 1 July. A three days' battle followed. Lee retreated the night of the 3d, but succeeded in recrossing the Potomac without a battle, and after a month's rest in the Shenandoah resumed his former lines behind the Rappanhannock. (See Gettysburg, Battle of). Meade followed later to that stream. (See Manassas Gap; Jeffersonton; Kelly's Ford; Rappahannock Station). With the exception of the Mine Run campaign (q.v.) 26 November to 2 December, inaugurated by General Meade, but without important results, both armies remained in their camps until the spring of 1864. See also Richmond, Kilpatrick's Expedition to.

The campaign of the Army of the Cumberland for 1863 began 23 June, the objective being the recovery of middle Tennessee. (See also Sanders' Raid into East Tennessee). The Union army under Rosecrans held the line of Stone's River, headquarters at Murfreesboro; the Confederates under General Bragg, the general line of Duck River, with headquarters at Tullahoma. By feinting against Bragg's left at Shelbyville and turning his right, both flanks being established in entrenched camps, Bragg was forced out of his lines and retreated over the Cumberlands and across the Tennessee to Chattanooga. It was chiefly a strategic campaign, carried on in continuous rains of most unusual severity, occupying nine days, and involving a total loss of only 560 killed, wounded and missing. The Union line advanced to the western base of the Cumberland Mountains. See Thompson's Station; Vaucht's Hill; Streight's Raid from Tuscumbia; Morgan's Raid; Tullahoma Campaign.

The succeeding campaign, having Chattanooga for its objective, required extensive repairs to the railroad and an accumulation of supplies sufficient for leaving a base for a month, and moving in a mountainous region largely barren. The movement began 16 August. Bragg was at Chattanooga. Rosecrans' army lay along the western base of the Cumberlands from Winchester to McMinnville. Rosecrans feinted with his left corps, Gen. T. L. Crittenden's, by throwing it from McMinnville over the mountains, its advance being into the valley of the Tennessee above Chattanooga. This led to the belief that a junction was to be formed with Burnside from Knoxville, or an attack made upon the city from that quarter. Bragg, as a result, fixed his attention upon this move. Meantime the centre corps, Thomas', and the right, Gen. A. McD. McCook's, crossed the Cumberlands and the Tennessee River some 30 miles below Chattanooga, continued over the Sand Mountains, and ascended the Lookout range — all bold mountains with palisaded summits crossed only by very difficult and widely separated mountain trails. When Rosecrans' columns were ascertained to be on Lookout, Bragg, 7 and 8 September, withdrew from Chattanooga, the heads of the Union columns having in the meantime descended into McLemore's Cove, south of Chattanooga. Upon Bragg's reaching Lafayette, 26 miles south of Chattanooga, he awaited Longstreet's arrival from Virginia, meantime unsuccessfully demonstrating against Rosecrans' centre and left east of Lookout in the valley of the Chickamauga. Crittenden's corps, after having accomplished its diversion, had crossed the Tennessee, left one brigade in Chattanooga, 9 September, and moved south through Rossville to a position on Rosecrans' left at Lee and Gordon's Mill on the Chickamauga. Bragg strengthened by Longstreet, started back 17 September toward Chattanooga, seeking to interpose between Rosecrans and that city. Rosecrans, by a night march, 18 September, proceeded toward Chattanooga, formed his lines between Bragg and the city, nine miles south of it, at Chickamauga (q.v.). A two days' battle, 19 and 20 September, ensued for the possession of the roads to Chattanooga. At noon of the second day Longstreet broke through a gap at the centre of the Union lines, cut off two divisions of the right wing, and forced them with fragments of other divisions from the field, Rosecrans, McCook and Crittenden being caught in the break. General Thomas, with the greater part of seven divisions, held the field, and at night withdrew to Rossville and there reformed the army between Bragg and the city, thus securing its possession without further fighting. Bragg advanced on the 22d, and formed his lines in front of the city, which Rosecrans soon rendered impregnable by heavy earthworks. Bragg's lines embraced Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, heights overlooking the city, the mountain position closing the river line of supplies. The situation of the Union army soon became precarious for want of food and forage. (See also Philadelphia, Tenn., Military Operations at). Hooker, with the Eleventh and Twelfth corps was ordered from the Army of the Potomac, reaching Bridgeport 30 September; and Sherman, with four divisions from the vicinity of Vicksburg. Grant was assigned to general command, arriving 23 October. Rosecrans was replaced by Gen. George H. Thomas 19 October. The river line of supplies was opened 28 October upon a plan devised by General Rosecrans and executed by Gen. W. F. Smith, Hooker being brought forward to Lookout Valley, and troops from Chattanooga forming a junction with him. The battle of Chattanooga (q.v.) occupied three days. On 23 November Thomas, in the centre, threw forward one division, supported by four, and captured the advanced line of Bragg. The night of the 23d Sherman crossed the river six miles above the city and seized an unoccupied range overlooking the north end of Missionary Ridge. On 24 November Hooker carried the western and northern slopes of Lookout Mountain, and the next day moved against the south end of Missionary Ridge. The afternoon of 25 November Thomas, at the centre, assaulted Missionary Ridge, his storming line being two and a half miles front, carried the earthworks at the foot of the ridge, and next the ridge itself, capturing 37 guns on the summit, and forcing a general retreat. From this time Chattanooga remained in Union control to the close of the war. See also Ringgold Gap.

The same day that Rosecrans started from Winchester, Tenn., for Chattanooga, Burnside with the Army of the Ohio (Twenty-third corps) left Lexington, Ky., for Knoxville, Tenn. (q.v.), his Ninth corps being still with Grant near Vicksburg. He reached Knoxville 2 September. Being ordered to assist Rosecrans at Chattanooga, he was held by demonstrations of a small force from making the junction. (See Rogersville; Campbell's Station). On 4 November Bragg dispatched Longstreet's corps from Chattanooga to besiege Knoxville. On the 29th he assaulted Port Saunders and was repulsed with serious loss. Sherman, who was sent by Grant from Chattanooga after the success there, now approaching, Longstreet retreated to Virginia. On 16 December Burnside was relieved and ordered to recruit the Ninth corps, which was assembled at Annapolis.

Throughout these operations both Union and Confederate forces in Charleston harbor had been engaged in formidable attack and most stubborn and brilliant defense. General Gillmore, who had reached Charleston 12 June, immediately undertook engineering and siege work of unprecedented character as to success at long ranges; and finally, after several severe repulses, forced the evacuation of Fort Wagner (q.v.) 7 September, and soon shells reached the city from his long-range guns. While some of these fell in Charleston 31 August, the regular bombardment began 16 November.

On 28 Jan. 1864, General Rosecrans was ordered to relieve Gen. John M. Schofield in Missouri, the latter being assigned a little later to the command of the Department and Army of the Ohio at Knoxville. General Rosecrans repulsed the invasion of General Price, and then sent troops not needed to General Thomas at Nashville. On 20 February an expedition sent from Charleston to Florida by General Gillmore under General Seymour was disastrously defeated by General Finegan at Olustee (q.v.). From February to December 1864, General Forrest was active throughout West Tennessee and northern Mississippi and Alabama, performing much brilliant cavalry service, to the continued disturbance of all Union commands in those regions. See Fort Pillow; Guntown; Tupelo.

Early in the spring of 1864 Banks, supported by Admiral Porter's fleet, was ordered to advance up the Red River (q.v.). (See also Sabine Pass; Sterling's Plantation). At Sabine Crossroads (q.v.) 8 April, he was defeated and driven back to Pleasant Grove, and thence to Pleasant Hill 13 April, where A. J. Smith, from Sherman's army, reinforced him. The fleet narrowly escaped capture by the falling of the river, and altogether the campaign was a decided failure. (See Yellow Bayou). The defeat of Banks enabled the Confederate general, J. F. Fagan, to force Gen. Frederick Steele, who was advancing to co-operate with Banks, back to Little Rock. (See Marks' Mills; Jenkins' Ferry; Poison Springs). Banks was relieved 12 May by Gen. E. R. S. Canby.

On 12 March 1864, General Grant, who had been commissioned lieutenant-general, that grade having been revived by Congress, was placed in command of all the armies. Early in April he had formed a plan for a combined movement of the armies to begin toward the last of the month, and had communicated the same to Meade with the Army of the Potomac, Butler at Fort Monroe, Sherman at Chattanooga and Banks at New Orleans. The main Confederate armies were those of Lee, at Orange, with Longstreet at Gordonsville, confronting Meade in the vicinity of Culpeper, and Johnston at Dalton, Ga., facing Sherman in the vicinity of Chattanooga.

Grant's general plan was for Gillmore, from South Carolina, with 10,000 men, to join Butler at Fort Monroe, giving him 23,000 troops for a move up the James to capture City Point, threatening Petersburg and the rear of Richmond. (See Richmond, Union Campaigns Against). Burnside, with 25,000 men assembling at Annapolis, was to join Meade, and the Army of the Potomac was to advance toward Richmond by Lee's right. Sherman, with three armies, the Cumberland, under George H. Thomas, the Tennessee, under McPherson, and the Ohio, under Schofield, aggregating nearly 100,000 men, was to move against Johnston's army at Dalton and follow it. (See also Meridian, Expedition to; Yazoo City). Banks was to leave the Red River country to Steele and the navy, abandon Texas and move against Mobile with his 25,000 men, re-inforced by 5,000 from Missouri

Grant established his headquarters with the Army of the Potomac, Meade having the full direction of the army under Grant's general orders. The Army of the Potomac moved toward the Rapidan in the early morning of 4 May, and by night all the troops had crossed. Grant's force was about 119,000, and Lee's about 62,000. Lee pushed rapidly to his right and struck Grant's advance in the Wilderness (q.v.) 5 May. Terrific fighting followed till the night of the 6th. (See Todd's Tavern). Lee pushed on to Spottsylvania (q.v.), reaching it in advance of Grant and interposing on the line to Richmond. Both armies entrenched, and from the 8th there was bitter fighting until the night of the 20th (sec Po River), when Grant started for North Anna (q.v.). From Spottsylvania 8 May, P. H. Sheridan (q.v.), commanding Grant's cavalry, made a raid around Lee's army encountering and defeating J. E. B. Stuart at Yellow Tavern 11 May where Stuart was killed. Sheridan spent a day within the outer defenses of Richmond, and joined Butler on the James. (See Richmond, Sheridan's Raid on Communications with). Grant proceeded to move to his left, everywhere opposed by Lee, fighting heavily at North Anna and Bethesda Church (see also Hawes' Shop; Pamunkey and Totopotomoy), reaching Cold Harbor (q.v.) 2 June. On the 3d Grant assaulted along his whole line, to meet in an hour with terrible slaughter and repulse, so serious that an order for a second assault was not carried out. Grant had failed to interpose between Lee and Richmond. From Cold Harbor he sent Sheridan with his cavalry to occupy the attention of Fitzhugh Lee's and Hampton's (qq.v.) cavalry while he withdrew to the James. Sheridan defeated both at Trevilian Station. (See Trevilian Raid; also Saint Mary's Church). Grant then moved without interruption to the James, reaching it 13 June, and crossing it in the vicinity of City Point and Bermuda Hundred (q.v.). General Butler had occupied these points 5 May. (See also Swift Creek). On the 14th Butler carried the outer defenses of Drewry's Bluff (q.v.), but was thence driven back by Beauregard's troops, who had arrived from the south, and his contemplated movement toward Petersburg (q.v.) and the rear of Richmond was defeated, Lee occupied the Petersburg lines. Grant attacked the works several times unsuccessfully from 15 to 18 June. On 30 July an attempt on the works was made by exploding a mine. The explosion was a great success, but the assault to follow it was a failure. This was the battle of The Crater.


From the establishment of Grant's lines before Petersburg frequent and heavy fighting continued until about 1 November, but with little permanent impression on General Lee's lines. (See Jerusalem Plank Road; Deep Bottom; Globe Tavern; Reams' Station; Poplar Springs Church; [[The Encyclopedia Americana (1920)/Hatcher's Run [Boydton Road]|Hatcher's Run [Boydton Road]]]; Fair Oaks — Darbytown Road). The Union left, however, was extended across the Weldon Railroad. On 28 September General Butler, with two corps, crossed to the north side of the James and captured Fort Harrison (q.v.), a position from which Richmond was seriously threatened. On 16 November Butler, supported by Porter's fleet, was sent to capture Fort Fisher (q.v.), but failed. During the winter the lines of each army were greatly strengthened. On 7 December Grant had extended his left 20 miles to Hicksford on the Weldon Railroad. On 22 June Gen. James H. Wilson, with two divisions of cavalry, moved against the railroads south of Richmond, destroying nearly 50 miles of track, and inflicting much other serious damage. His return route was blocked, but be brought his forces in with some loss of both artillery and trains. He had severed all railroad connections with Richmond, and they were not fully restored for several weeks. (See Weldon and South Side Railroads). Gen. Franz Sigel's campaign began 1 May. On the 15th he moved up the Shenandoah to New Market and was defeated, cadets from the Virginia Military Institute taking prominent part. At Grant's request Sigel was suspended and Gen. David Hunter assigned. The latter pushed on to Lynchburg (see Piedmont), but was compelled by Gen. Jubal A. Early (q.v.) to retreat from that point by way of the Kanawha and Ohio rivers to Parkersburg, and thence by rail to the east. Gen. George Crook's wing of Sigel's column from the Kanawha penetrated to the Tennessee and Virginia Railroad at Wytheville (q.v.). See also Cloyd's Mountain.

On 6 May General Sherman moved from the vicinity of Chattanooga against General Johnston at Dalton (q.v.). The Union army had in round numbers 100,000, the Confederates being about half as strong. After vainly attacking the gaps and ranges in front of Dalton for several days, Sherman passed his army through Snake Creek Gap leading to the rear of Dalton. This compelled General Johnston to retire from his camps, and he was defeated at Resaca (q.v.). Johnston resisted stubbornly at every step, but he was successively flanked out of every new position until he reaiched Atlanta. (See Rome; Dallas; New Hope Church; Marietta; Pine Mountain; Kolbs Farm; Kenesaw Mountain; Smyrna Camp Ground). Fighting had been in progress at some points of the line from May till September. Johnston was succeeded by Hood 18 July, and on the 20th Hood attacked at Peach Tree Creek (q.v.) and was repulsed with great loss. He then moved out of Atlanta and attacked, and was again defeated. (See Leggett's or Bald Hill). General McPherson, commanding the Army of the Tennessee, was killed. The next attack was at Ezra Church (q.v.) 28 July, upon the Army of th6 Tennessee, this also being repulsed after three hours' severe fighting, with much loss. See also Stoneman's Macon Raid.

On 2 September Sherman occupied Atlanta, which was evacuated as a result of his moving to the rear of the city on Jonesboro (q.v.). Hood first raided Sherman's railroad conununications, fighting heavily at Allatoona 5 October. and soon after moved northward. General Thomas was sent to resist his movement if he invaded Tennessee, and Sherman started 15 November on his March to the Sea (q.v. See also Griswoldville). While it was originally intended by General Grant that he should move from Atlanta to Mobile, the harbor there having been captured 5-23 August by Farragut and Canby, he decided upon the alternative which Grant had suggested before the campaign opened, and started for Savannah.

The fight of Farragut's fleet in the harbor of Mobile, which decided Sherman's march to Savannah, was one of the most brilliant in naval warfare. (See Fort Gains and Fort Morgan; Mobile Bay; Fort Blakely). The Confederate fleet was destroyed, including the far-famed ironclad ram Tennessee. Sherman reached Savannah with slight opposition. (See Fort McAllister; also Honey Hill). On 17 December he summoned Hardee to surrender. The latter refused, and on the night of the 20th retired with his force of 10,000 without molestation. The next morning the Union army entered.

Meantime Hood had invaded Tennessee with the entire army with, which Sherman's three armies had been confronted from March till September. General Thomas left with two small but excellent corps, by great exertion organized an army to oppose Hood. (See Spring Hill). On 30 November General Schofield, commanding in the field in front of Hood, inflicted a nearly fatal blow upon him at Franklin (q.v.). After General Thomas' forces were united at Nashville (q.v.) 15-16 December, he attacked Hood's entrenchments in front of the city and dispersed and practically annihilated his army. See also Russellville; Stoneman's Raid from East Tennessee; Saltville.

The forced retreat of Hunter from Lynchburg over the mountains of West Virginia left the Shenandoah unprotected. General Early entered it, drove Sigel across the Potomac (see Martinsburg; Maryland Height), then on 9 July defeated Wallace, who was in small force at Monocacy, Md. (q.v.), threatened Baltimore and appeared before Washington 11 July. Here he was met by veterans of the Sixth and Nineteenth corps, Army of the Potomac, hurried to Washington by Grant, and forced into rapid retreat. {See Washington, Early's Attempt on; Snicker's Ferry and Berry's Ferry; Stephenson's Depot; Shepherdstown; Kernstown, Second Battle of). Upon the withdrawal of troops from the Army of the Potomac Early again sent a force under Gen. John McCausland, into Pennsylvania, and these invaders burned Chambersburg 30 July. (See McCausland's Raid). Sheridan, being assigned to command, forced Early beyond Staunton; and devastating the Valley, he withdrew to Cedar Creek. While Sheridan was absent Early attacked and drove the army out of its camps. Gen. H. G. Wright, however, rallied the troops near Middletown and restored the battle. Sheridan arriving, the army advanced, and Early was so seriously defeated as to close the campaign in the Valley. See Shepherdstown; Smithfield; Opequon; Fisher's Hill; Cedar Creek; Milford; Nineveh.

The first movement of the final campaigns of 1865 began 2 January in Tennessee, when General Schofield with the Twenty-third corps left Columbia, Tenn., for Clifton on the river bound for the east. The corps left Alexandria on transports soon after 1 February, and landed at the mouth of Cape Fear River, 9 February, where the Tenth corps was established, which, under Gen. Alfred H. Terry, had captured Fort Fisher (q.v.) that had been most stubbornly and gallantly defended against the army and the fleet by Gen. W. H. C. Whiting. Fort Anderson was attacked by army and fleet, and abandoned 19 February; the position of Town Creek was carried 20 February, and Wilmington (q.v.) was taken 22 February. Operating next by way of Newbern, Gen. R. F. Hoke was defeated at Kinston (q.v.) 10 March. Goldsboro (q.v.) was occupied by General Schofield on the 21st. Sherman's army joined Schofield here on the 23d. On 26 January General Terry had been dispatched to co-operate with Admiral Porter in reducing Fort Fisher at the mouth of Cape Fear River. A previous expedition under General Butler, 13-16 December, had failed, but the fleet had remained, and Porter had appealed to Grant to send another force. Terry's troops effected a landing above the fort 13 January. The next morning he was entrenched across the peninsula. Early on the 15th the fleet opened a terrific bombardment, which was continued until a force of marines was landed in the afternoon to co-operate in the assault of the army. This was delivered at 3.30 in the afternoon, the flank of the work next the river being carried. Then followed severe fighting for each succeeding traverse. It was not until 10 o'clock at night that the fort was finally carried. Sherman started northward from Savannah 1 February (see Savannah to Goldsboro). Marching through swamps, and crossing all streams at flood, he was before Columbia on the 16th. It was surrendered without fighting the next day, Charleston, being cut off from interior communications, was evacuated by Gen. W. J. Hardee 18 February. Fayetteville, N. C. was reached 11 March. The first opposition stronger than skirmishing was at Averasboro 16 March, where General Hardee made a brief stand. On 19 March Johnston's army, which had been collected on Sherman's front at Bentonville (q.v.), checked his advance and nearly overwhelmed his left wing before the right wing which was widely separated from the left, could reach it. On the 21st Johnston was defeated after sharp fighting, and Sherman marched for Goldsboro, which he reached 23 March. See also Stoneman's Raid in East Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia and Western North Carolina.

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On 2 March Sheridan advanced up the Valley, defeated Early at Waynesboro (q.v.) and proceeded through Charlottesville and along the Richmond and L. Railroad, destroying roads and stores, and joined Grant at Petersburg. Gen. James H. Wilson, operating under Gen. George H. Thomas, crossed the Tennessee 22 March with a thoroughly equipped mounted force of 12,500, and 1,500 dismounted, to follow, until horses could be captured. (See Wilson's Raid from Chickasaw to Selma and Macon). His first objective was Selma, Ala. A portion of Forrest's cavalry was encountered and defeated at Montevallo 30 March. The fortifications of Selma (q.v.) were carried against Forrest 2 April, and immense war supplies and plants for the manufacture of war materials destroyed. Montgomery surrendered 12 April; West Point was captured 15 April, after sharp fighting; Columbus was carried by a night assault 16 April; Macon surrendered 20 April. Here Wilson received notice of the Sherman-Johnston truce. An expedition, sent out 7 May by Wilson from Macon, under Colonel Pritchard, Fourth Michigan, captured Jefferson Davis, 10 May, at Irwinsville, Ga. On 6 February the Confederates made a heavy attack at Hatcher's Run on Grant's left, but were finally repulsed with a Union loss of about 1,500. (See [[The Encyclopedia Americana (1920)/Hatcher's Run [Dabney's Hill and Armstong's Mill], Battle of|Hatcher's Run [Dabney's Hill and Armstong's Mill], Battle of]]). The night of 24 March Gen. J. B. Gordon made a daring and most successful assault upon the right of Grant's lines at Petersburg, capturing Fort Stedman (q.v.) and three strong works. These were recaptured the next day.

The Army of the Potomac was the last to move in the opening campaigns of 1865. It had occupied its lines before Petersburg without general movement from November till the last of March. The general movement, which was to the left, began on the 29th, and brought on the battle of Dinwiddie Court House (q.v.) and White Oak Road on the 31st, and the battle of Five Forks (q.v.) on 1 April, in which latter engagement the Confederates were defeated. On 2 April the Confederate entrenchments were carried, and General Lee abandoned his lines during the night, having notified President Davis during the forenoon that he would begin a retreat on Amelia Court House that night. Jefferson Davis received this dispatch in church. He and his Cabinet immediately collected personal effects and Confederate archives, and left Richmond on a special train. Gen. Godfrey Weitzel received the surrender of the city on 3 April.

General Lee's army was assembled at Amelia Court House 5 April, and continued its retreat at night. On the 6th General Meade advanced on Amelia Court House, but, finding that General Lee had left, he moved toward Deatonsville (Sailor's Creek), where the most of Ewell's corps, the rear of Lee's army, was captured 6 April. (See Sailor's Creek). About the same time some 10,000 men of the divisions of Anderson, Pickett and Bushrod Johnson (qq.v.), were captured. Lee continued his retreat and reached Farmville on the morning of the 7th. Here his troops received their first rations since the retreat began. At 11 o'clock, Union troops appearing, the march was renewed, his men being greatly exhausted with loss of sleep, hunger and hard marching. On this day the correspondence began between Generals Grant and Lee, which, on the 9th, resulted in the surrender of Lee's remaining forces at Appomattox. The number paroled was 28,231 officers and men, extra duty men and detailed men of every description, this remnant being all that was left within the control of General Lee of his magnificent fighting machine, the Army of Northern Virginia. See Farmville and High Bridge.

In North Carolina Sherman and Schofield moved against Johnston, occupying Raleigh 13 April. On the 14th Johnston asked for a conference, and on the 18th terms of surrender were agreed upon, subject to the approval of the President of the United States. These, being deemed in part political, were disapproved, and General Grant was sent to Raleigh to insist upon the same terms made with Lee. These General Sherman demanded of and received from General Johnston 26 April, and the war was over, though small independent forces were in the field for a short time thereafter, Gen. Dick Taylor in Alabama not surrendering to General Canby till 4 May. The last engagement of the war occurred at Palmetto Ranch, Tex. (q.v.).

President Lincoln made nine calls for troops during the war. Under these about 2,800,000 men of all classes were enlisted, including emergency men of a few weeks, three, six and nine months' men, two and three years' men, conscripts and substitutes. There were 52,000 drafted men held to service; 75,000 conscripts who sent substitutes; and 42,000 men who sent substitutes, although not themselves drafted.

The Confederate records are very deficient, having been largely destroyed. The best estimate from the data in the possession of the War Department places the Confederate strength at something over 600,000. After Mr. Davis' calls of the first year a general conscription act was passed l6 April 1862, including all white men between the ages of 18 and 35 for the term of three years. On 27 Sept. 1862, this act was extended to include those of 45 years. On 17 Feb. 1864, the law was extended to those between 17 and 50, the term to be for the war.

According to the latest compilation of the record and pension office of the War Department, the total number of deaths from all causes in the Union army during the war was 359,528. As many records are incomplete, the actual number must be somewhat larger. On the basis of the figures given there were killed in action, 67,058; died of wounds received in action, 43,012; died of disease, 224,586. The Confederate losses were quite as severe in proportion to strength, but the records are wanting to such an extent as to make definite estimates of little value. The most complete records show that 74,524 Confederates were killed or died of wounds and that 59,927 died of disease. These returns are very incomplete and nearly all the Alabama rolls are missing.

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R., ‘The Blockade and the Cruisers’ (New York 1903); Speed, Thomas, ‘The Union Cause in Kentucky, 1860-1865’ (New York 1907); Steele, M. F., ‘Jackson's Valley Campaign’ (Fort Leavenworth, Kan., 1907); Stephens, A. H., ‘Constitutional View of the Late War between the States’ (Philadelphia 1868-70); Stevens, Hazard, ‘Military Operations in South Carolina in 1862’ (Boston 1912); Swinton, W., ‘Campaigns of the Army of the Potomac’ (rev. ed., New York 1882); Swinton. W., ‘The Twelve Decisive Battles of the War’ (New York 1867); Van Horne, T. B., ‘The Army of the Cumberland’ (Cincinnati 1875); Victor, O. J., ‘History of the Southern Rebellion’ (New York 1861-63); Walker, F. A., ‘History of the 2nd Army Corps’ (2d ed., New York 1891); ‘War of the Rebellion Official Records’ (Vols. I-CXXXVI); Wheeler, Joseph, ‘Campaigns of Wheeler and His Cavalry’ (Atlanta 1899); Whiting, W., ‘War Powers of the President’ (Boston 1863); Wilson, Henry, ‘Rise and Fall of Slave Power in America’ (Boston 1872-77); Wilson, J, H, ‘Under the Old Flag’ (New York 1912); Wise, J. S., ‘The End of an Era’ (Boston 1902); Wise, G., ‘Campaigns and Battles of the Army of Northern Virginia’ (New York 1916); Woodbury, A., ‘Burnside and the 9th Army Corps’ (Providence 1867); Wise, J. C., ‘History of the Artillery of the Army of Northern Virginia’ (Lynchburg 1915). See also the bibliographies under the titles of individual battles and of persons engaged.

H. V. Boynton.
Revised by Irving E. Rines.