The Encyclopedia Americana (1920)/Deutschland, The
DEUTSCHLAND, The, a German submarine merchant vessel, the first of its class to cross the Atlantic Ocean. Commanded by Capt. Paul Koenig and a crew of 28 men, the boat sailed from Bremen 14 June 1916, stopped at Helgoland for nine days and then set out for Baltimore, Md., arriving 10 July 1916. The whole distance of about 3,800 miles, with the exception of about 90 miles when it was necessary to submerge, was traversed above water. The speed of the vessel was about 14 knots an hour. While the vessel could submerge to a depth of 300 feet, it did not go deeper than 150 feet. With a total gross tonnage of 711 tons, net 447 tons, and scuff iron for ballast. The Deutschland brought 3,042 cases of scarce and valuable dyestuffs of 157 tons gross, 125 tons net. The daring voyage attracted great admiration and praise. While both British and German submersible boats on warlike errands had sailed as far, The Deutschland was the first to achieve a noteworthy victory of a peaceful utilitarian commercial character during her hazardous voyage through enemy waters, without armed escort, eluding pursuers and accomplishing her mission safely. The vessel left Baltimore at 8:30 P.M. 2 August on her return journey, carrying a cargo of rubber, crude nickel and a consignment of gold, and arrived at Bremen 23 August. A sister ship, The Bremen, left port shortly after and never arrived at its destination. The Deutschland accomplished a second voyage across the Atlantic in 17 days and arrived in New London, Conn., 1 Nov. 1916, bringing a cargo of chemicals, gems and securities valued at $10,000,000. She departed 17 November, but within an hour was compelled to return to port for repairs, having rammed and sunk an escort tug, drowning five of the crew.