The Encyclopedia Americana (1920)/Fischer, Ernst Kuno Berthold
FISCHER, Ernst Kuno, koo'nō, Berthold, German historian of philosophy: b. Sandewalde, Silesia, 23 July 1824; d. Heidelberg, 5 July 1907. He studied at the universities of Leipzig and Halle and in 1849 became a lecturer on philosophy at the University of Heidelberg. However, he was interdicted from teaching philosophy at Heidelberg in 1853; but after filling professorships in Berlin and Jena, had the satisfaction of being called to the chair of philosophy and history of modern German literature at Heidelberg in 1872. He was a brilliant lecturer and possessed a remarkable gift for clear exposition. His fame rests primarily on his work as a historian and commentator of philosophy. As far as his philosophical views were concerned, he was, generally speaking, a follower of the Hegelian school. His writings in this direction, especially his interpretation of Kant, involved him in a quarrel with A. F. Trendelenburg, professor of philosophy at the University of Berlin, and his followers. His greatest work was his ‘Geschichte der Neueren Philosophie’ (6 vols., Stuttgart-Mannheim-Heidelberg 1854-77; new edition, Heidelberg 1897-1901), written in the form of brilliant monographs on Descartes, Kant, Fichte, Schelling and other great philosophers down to Schopenhauer. He also published ‘Diotima. Die Idee des Schönen’ (Pforzheim 1849); ‘Die Interdict meiner Vorlesungen’ (Mannheim 1854); ‘Die Apologies meines Lebens’ (Mannheim 1854); ‘System der Logik und Metaphysik oder Wissenschaftslehre’ (Stuttgart 1852); ‘Franz Baco von Verona’ (Leipzig 1875; translated into English by J. Oxenford, London 1857); ‘Kants Leben und die Grundlagen seiner Lehre’ (Mannheim 1860); ‘Akademische Reden: J. G. Fichte; Die Beiden Kantischen Schulen in Jena’ (Stuttgart 1862); ‘Lessings “Nathan der Weise” ’ (Stuttgart 1864; translated into English by E. Frothingham, New York 1868); ‘B. Spinozas Leben und Charakter’ (Heidelberg 1865; translated into English by F. Schmidt, Edinburg 1882); ‘Shakespeares Charakterentwickelung Richards III’ (Heidelberg 1868); ‘Uber die Entstehung und die Entwickelungsformen des Witzes’ (Heidelberg 1871); ‘Kritik der Kantischen Philosophie’ (Munich 1883; translated into English by W. S. Hough, London 1888); ‘Goethe-Schriften’ (8 vols., Heidelberg 1888-96); ‘Kleine Schriften’ (Heidelberg 1888-98); ‘Schiller-Schriften’ (2 vols., Heidelberg 1891); ‘Philosophische Schriften’ (3 parts, Heidelberg 1891-92). Other translations of his works are Mahaffy, J. P., ‘A Commentary of Kant's “Critic of Pure Reason” ’ (London-Dublin 1866); Gordy, J. P., ‘Descartes and his School’ (New York 1887). In honor of his 80th birthday, celebrated in 1904, there was published by O. Liebmann, W. Wundt, T. Lipps and others, ‘Die Philosophie im Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts. Festschrift für Kuno Fischer’ (Heidelberg 1907). Consult Alexander, A. B. D., ‘Kuno Fischer. An Estimate of his Life and Work’ (in Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods, Vol. V, p. 57, New York 1908); Falkenheim, H., ‘Kuno Fischer und die Litterar-Historische Methode’ (Berlin 1892); Goehring, H., ‘Von Kuno Fischers Geistesart’ (in Pädagogisches Magazin, Heft 317, Langensalza 1907); Petsch, R., ‘Kuno Fischer’ (in Deutsche Shakespeare Gesellschaft Jahrbuch, Vol. XLIV, p. 189, Berlin 1908); Trendelenburg, A. F., ‘Kuno Fischer und sein Kant’ (Leipzig 1869); Vaihinger, H., ‘Der Streit zwischen Trendelenburg und Fischer’ (in ‘Commentar zu Kants “Kritik der Reinen Vernunft,” ’ Vol. II, pp. 290 and 545, Stuttgart 1882-92); Windelbrand, W., ‘Kuno Fischer’ (Heidelberg 1907).