The Encyclopedia Americana (1920)/Key to pronunciation

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The Encyclopedia Americana
Key to pronunciation

Edition of 1920. See also the disclaimer. There is a substitution in one place: for the th with the bent t, a single phonetic symbol is used. In the articles, occasionally ẽ is used instead of ė, for example Kocher, Emil Theodor; and even both can be used, as in Oberhoffer, Emil.


ä far, father
ā fate, hate
a or ă at, fat
ã air, care
ado, sofa
â all, fall
ch choose, church
ē eel, we
e or ĕ bed, end
her, over: also Fr. e, as in de; eu, as in neuf; and oeu, as in boeuf, coeur; Ger. ö (or oe), as in ökonomie.
befall, elope
ë agent, trident
ff off, trough
g gas, get
gw anguish, guava
h hat, hot
h or H Ger. ch, as in nicht, wacht
hw what
ī file, ice
i or ĭ him, it
between e and i, mostly in Oriental final syllables, as, Ferid-ud-din
j gem, genius
kw quaint, quite
Fr. nasal m or n, as in embonpoint, Jean, temps
Span. ñ, as in cañon (căn'yǒn), piñon (pēn'yŏn)
ng mingle, singing
nk bank, ink
ō no, open
o or ŏ not, on
ô corn, nor
ȯ atom, symbol
book, look
oil, soil; also Ger. eu, as in beutel
ö or oo fool, rule
ou or ow allow, bowsprit
s satisfy, sauce
sh show, sure
th thick, thin
ð father, thither
ū mute, use
u or ŭ but, us
pull, put
between u and e, as in Fr. sur, Ger. Müller
v of, very
y (consonantal) yes, young
z pleasant, rose
zh azure, pleasure
′(prime), (secondary) accents, to indicate syllabic stress.