The Encyclopedia Americana (1920)/Knyphausen, Wilhelm von

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KNYPHAUSEN, knĭp'how-zĕn, Baron Wilhelm von, German solder: b. Lützberg, 4 Nov. 1716; d. Cassel, 7 Dec. 1800. Educated at Berlin, he entered the Prussian army in 1734, in which he became in 1775 a general officer under Frederick II (the Great), He came to the United States in that year as second in command of the Hessians in the English service, and superseded General von Heister as Commander-in-chief in 1777. He fought at Long Island, White Plains, Brandywine and Monmouth; and during the temporary absence of Clinton in 1780, commanded New York. In 1782 he returned to Germany, where he later became military governor of Cassel. He was a capable soldier, and had no high opinion of his unreliable mercenaries.