The Encyclopedia Americana (1920)/Lützow, Ludwig Adolf Wilhelm, Baron of

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LÜTZOW, Ludwig Adolf Wilhelm, Baron of, Prussian general: b. Berlin, 18 May 1782; d. Berlin, 6 Dec. 1834. He is renowned as the leader of the noted Freischar (volunteer cavalry). He entered the ranks (1795) of the Prussian Guards, fought in the Reizenstein regiment (1806) at Auerstadt, and joined the Schill corps at Kolberg when his regiment was disbanded. He organized the cavalry, fighting and being wounded at Stargard and, receiving (1808) his discharge with the rank of major, he rejoined Schill, to be again wounded at Dadendorf. He re-entered (1811) the cavalry and was empowered (1813) to organize a corps of volunteers in Silesia and Jahn, Friesen, Körner, etc., joined him. The Lützow Volunteers were generally called the “Black Troopers” after their uniform, and were engaged in attacking flanks or in guerilla fighting and in Thüringen, Hessen and Westphalia raising insurrections. The plan proved a failure on account of apathy of the inhabitants and the raids on the rear of the French were followed by the battle of Grossgörschen. On the 17th June in spite of the armistice of Poischwitz being in operation Generals Fournier and von Normann (the latter a Wurtemberger) ambuscaded him near Leipzig and nearly wiped out the small body of troopers. They reorganized and added to their fame as intrepid raiders in the engagement at Göhrde (16 Sept. 1813) when they helped beat the French division, he again being severely wounded. He next is found with his troopers fighting the Danes. In March 1814, he was taken prisoner by the French militia while carrying dispatches from the Silesian army corps under Blücher at Chalons. Gaining his freedom when peace was made he was advanced to lieutenant-colonel and (1814) was given command of the 6th Uhlan regiment, to be taken prisoner in the battle of Ligny, to be again freed by the peace gained through the victory of Belle-Alliance. He was raised to a colonelcy in 1815, to major-general in 1822, retiring in 1830 as a lieutenant-general. Theodore Körner the poet, one of his volunteers, has made the Black Troopers eternally noted by his gripping poem ‘Lützows wilde Jaged.’ Consult Ciselen, ‘Geschichte des Lützowschen Freikorps’ (2d ed., Halle 1841).