The Encyclopedia Americana (1920)/Libraries, Modern

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Edition of 1920. See also Library on Wikipedia, and the disclaimer.

LIBRARIES, Modern. The origin and history of the modern libraries of the world will here be treated under the captions of the various nations as best suited to clearness and the purposes of an encyclopædia.

United States.

Origins. — Library history in America begins with the first permanent settlement in the New World by the English. At Jamestown it was proposed to establish a college, and the minutes of the Virginia Company record a gift of books to the institution. The Indian massacre of 1622, however, dissipated these plans. New England was more fortunate. Harvard College was founded in 1636, and two years later, under the terms of the will of Rev. John Harvard, the school became possessed of 300 books. An interesting chapter in early American library history was the effort of the Rev. Thomas Bray of England to establish parochial libraries in Great Britain and the colonies. In 1699, he arrived at Baltimore and established soon after a number of such collections. These libraries, with the exception of a few volumes, have disappeared, but some of the English collections are still extant. Among other libraries founded during 17th century, William and Mary College (1692) and the Yale College (1700) are still in existence, Yale Library numbering now about 1,025,000 volumes.

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Public Library of the City of Chicago

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Central Library Building of the City of Boston

Subscription and Shareholding Libraries of the 18th Century. — The 18th century marked the origin and development of the library as an independent institution. This was due to the founding of subscription or shareholding libraries. The influence of these was, of course, restricted to the members, but even so they constituted an important advance toward the modern free library. The founding of the earliest of these, the Library Company of Philadelphia (1732), was one of the multifarious activities of Benjamin Franklin. It was an outgrowth of a literary society, first called the “Junto,” which became eventually the American Philosophical Society. In 1769 the Union Library Company, and, in 1771, the Association and Amicable Library Companies were merged with the Philadelphia Library. A still more important accession was the Loganian Library (1792), which had developed from the private collections of James Logan, formerly a private secretary of William Penn. Other libraries of this type organized during the 18th century were the Redwood Library, Newport (1747), the first institution in America to erect a building solely for library purposes, which is still standing; the Charlestown, S. C, Library (1748); the New York Society Library (1754); the Providence Library (1758), and the Baltimore Library Association (1795).

Athenaeums, Mercantile and Apprentice Libraries. — A further advance toward the popularization of the library idea was the organization and development of athenæums, mercantile and apprentice libraries. A few of first group, of which the Boston Athenæum (1807) is the best example, were closely allied with the subscription libraries, yet the majority of the athenæums such as the Salem (1810), the Rochester, N. Y. (1829), the Providence Athenæum (1753), the Lancaster Athenæum (1860) and others partook more of the nature of mercantile libraries. Mercantile libraries were organized in Boston (1820), New York (1820), Philadelphia (1821), Albanv (1833), Cincinnati (1835), Baltimore (1839), San Francisco (1853). There were, approximately, 67 libraries of the mercantile-mechanics type established before 1870. Still more popular in nature were the apprentice libraries, organized for the welfare of young men. A few of these were founded prior to the 19th century; one at Charleston, S. C, another at Lexington, Ky., and one at Newport, R. I.

It is not strange, therefore, that in some cities these libraries for many years performed the functions of the public library. Their fees were low, and social considerations played little part in the selection of their clientele, hence the growth and great educational influence of such libraries as the Boston, the New York, the Philadelphia and the San Francisco mercantile libraries.

Growth of the Idea of the Free Public Library. — This popularization of the shareholding library, however, did not go far enough. It did not respond fully to American educational demands, and as a result the idea of a free public library began to assume form. Already the public school had been established and had proved its worth, and the time was ripe for its corollary, the free public library. Many years before, far-seeing men like Franklin and Jefferson perceived the value and need of such institutions, yet it was not until the middle of the 19th century that the movement gained strength. No account of the development of public libraries in America can omit reference to Prof. Charles C. Jewett, librarian of the Smithsonian Institution and later of the Boston Public Library. He can justly be termed the father of the modern library movement in America, for it was his broad vision of the importance of the library in the community, of the need for library co-operation, and his enthusiasm that bore fruit first in a conference of American librarians in 1853, which ultimately resulted in the organization of the American Library Association, and the founding of The Library Journal in 1876. The work he had initiated was at this time carried to success by Winsor, Poole, Dewey, Cutter, Spofford, Billings, Greene, Leypoldt, Bowker, Putnam and other pioneers in American library work.

Library Philanthropy. — Coincident with this awakening of librarians to the value and tremendous possibilities of their profession, there was an awakening on the part of men of wealth to a new and singularly productive field of philanthropy. Already John Jacob Astor (1849) and James Lenox (1870) had founded in New York city the institutions bearing their names; Joshua Bates of London had made munificent gifts to the Boston Public Library; the Newberry bequest had just fallen to the citizens of Chicago (1876); Dr. B. Rush had left $1,000,000 for the erection of the Ridgeway Branch of the Philadelphia Public Library; and James Lick had made gifts to the libraries of San Francisco. Now, however, began an era of gifts to American libraries that have totaled astounding figures, Andrew Carnegie, alone, giving $64,000,000, the terms of his gifts making it possible for nearly any community willing to support and develop it to have a library. State and municipal aid have also entered strongly into this great expansion of library activity, and more and more rapidly is the ideal aim of placing books freely within reach of all is being realized, even in the remote districts of mountain and prairie. This has meant a complete transformation of the whole concept of the library. Formerly it was only a conserver of knowledge, a mere storehouse of books, now it realizes its true destiny by becoming a vital and progressive force in its community, reaching out and inviting all to share in its treasures. The library thus becomes an active and not a passive agency, joining with and supplementing the schools and other institutions. It becomes, in reality, a continuing university, free to all and supported by all. The support that has been given libraries by the communities and by the States is a very tangible recognition of the popular esteem in which libraries are held. Library enabling laws have been enacted by nearly every State in the Union, and under their provisions nearly any community may establish a public library and tax itself for its maintenance. These laws are usually permissive, yet the opportunity they offer has been generously seized upon. Local control is also universal, authority being invested in boards of trustees who determine the policy and expenditures of the institution. In addition many States have library commissions, which as a rule have advisory jurisdiction, but in certain instances, such as California, actively administer a widely extended system of State libraries. Traveling library systems have also been established in various States. These are generally under direction of the State library commission. The activities of American public libraries are protean, only a few of which can be pointed out. They work hand in hand with the schools, often maintaining branches in the latter; they use every means to get in touch with the child and encourage him to read good books; they reach out to the immigrant, offering him books in his own language but at the same time endeavor to introduce him to the language and ideals of his adopted country; they endeavor to supply the needs of the business men, manufacturer, etc., building up collections, as at Grand Rapids, relating to the peculiar industries of the region; they keep in touch with the work of the clubs and associations and supply as far as possible their bibliographic necessities; they offer lecture courses. These are a few of the manifold phases of the work of the modern library that have been superimposed upon the original idea of the library as a mere storehouse of books.

The First Free Public Libraries in America. — It is almost impossible to determine the identity of the first library in the United States supported by public funds and wholly free to its users. The earliest recorded gift of books to a municipality is that of the Rev. John Sharp who bequeathed, in 1700, his library to the city of New York for the benefit of the people. This has disappeared, as has another collection founded in 1803 at Salisbury, Conn. The Town Library at Peterborough, N. H., founded through the efforts of Rev. Abiel Abbot in 1833, appears, from the data at hand, to have been the first free library which has continued to the present. This, however, was essentially a local development, and the movement in its larger aspects was probably initiated by the enactment of a law in 1848 enabling Boston to establish a free public library. In 1851 this was extended to the whole State. The Boston Public Library is thus one of the first American free public libraries in time and for many years it was the first in importance, taking second place only to the New York Public Library after the merger of its various foundations, the New York Public Library (q.v.) becoming thereby the greatest institution of the kind in the world. This primacy of the Boston Library comprehended not only the extent and scope of its collections, but also building, librarians and general cultural activities. The first home of the library, built according to the discarded alcove plan, was nevertheless for many years the most imposing public library building in the country, a position that was regained when the new structure was erected at Copley Square in 1895, at a total cost of $2,750,000. This beautiful Renaissance building, with its mural decorations by Abbey, Sargent and other distinguished artists, was the forerunner of the great library constructions of to-day, few of which have surpassed it in dignity and fitness. The Boston Public Library has 30 branches and contains collections totalling 1,157,326 volumes.

The Chicago Public Library assumes a position next to that of the Boston and New York libraries, but differs from them to the extent that it is, in fact, as well as in name, a popular library. Its collections are restricted in the main to books that would be called for by the general public and not by the scholar; the student of literature and the humanities being left to the Newberry, and the one in science and the useful arts to the John Crerar. The same principle applies to the building, which is an imposing but simple Renaissance structure, the idea of fitness for use being uppermost. This building was erected in 1898. It is an interesting fact that the Chicago Library originated in a gift of 7,000 books gathered in England by Thomas Hughes, the author of ‘Tom Brown at Rugby,’ and presented to the people of the city after the great fire of 1871. This humble nucleus has grown into a collection of about 800,000 volumes distributed through the central library and its 45 branches.

Another public library that supplies a great constituency most efficiently is the Saint Louis Public Library. This was established in 1893, being a merger of several earlier collections, the most important of which was the Public School Library founded in 1860 by Ira Divoll, then superintendent of public schools. It was further developed by Dr. W. T. Harris, and by the remarkable group of thinkers then in Saint Louis. It is at present housed in a beautiful building, completed in 1912 at a cost of $1,900,000. The collections number 487,330 volumes distributed through the central building and seven branches.

Another city library formed of smaller collections and now occupying an attractive new building is the Denver Public Library. This was formed by an amalgamation of the Denver Public Library, housed in the East Denver High School, and the Mercantile Library. It has four branches in addition to the central building with collections numbering 192,366 volumes. Mr. Carnegie's gifts have aided the larger libraries as well as the smaller ones, the most notable gift being the sum of $5,200,000 to construct branch library buildings for the New York Public Library. Toward the construction of central libraries, however, among the many, may be noted the beautiful building of the District of Columbia Library, founded in 1896. Its collections number about 200,000 volumes. Another splendidly vital library, almost wholly due to his munificence, is the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh (1895) with eight branches and 434,469 volumes. The Louisville Public Library building was also constructed with Carnegie funds ($250,000), to which he later added $200,000 for eight branch libraries. Two of these branches were constructed for the colored people of the city. Nearly all the libraries in the Southern States, in fact, have branches of this type. Among the other public libraries of the country worthy of much fuller attention are Brookline, Mass. (4 branches, 90,000 vols.); Cambridge (1858; 5 branches, 113,314 vols.) ; Somerville (3 branches, 115,216 vols.); Springfield (1857; 3 branches, 229,990 vols.); Worcester (3 branches, 244,047 vols.); Providence (1878; 4 branches, 181,307 vols.); Hartford (2 branches, 118,000 vols.); Philadelphia (1891; 26 branches, 534,152 vols.); Buffalo (1836; 7 branches, 363,546 vols.); Cleveland (1867; 44 branches, 584,340 vols.); Brooklyn (33 branches, 862,112 vols.); Pratt Institute, Brooklyn (1888; 114,775 vols.); Newark (1889; 3 branches, 256,581 vols.); Enoch Pratt, Baltimore (1886; 16 branches, 355,817 vols.); Cincinnati (1814; 24 branches, 515,906 vols.); Detroit (1865; 13 branches, 450,910 vols.); Milwaukee (10 branches, 342,194 vols.); Minneapolis (1889; 15 branches, 334,763 vols.); Saint Paul (4 branches, 161,609 vols.); Grand Rapids (1837; 13 branches, 147,761 vols.); Kansas City (12 branches, 271,077 vols.); Los Angeles (1872; 19 branches, 309,463 vols.); Cossitt Library (Memphis 1888; 8 branches, 120,263 vols.); New Orleans (1897; 4 branches, 102,927 vols.); Atlanta (1899; 4 branches, 94,770 vols.).

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College and University Libraries. — In point of time the college and university libraries antedated the other types, and while they have developed to an amazing extent yet the growth of each collection has been determined by the character and demands of the institution of which it forms a part. The collegiate library must co-ordinate its activities with those of its school, forming, as it were, a sort of bibliographic laboratory. During recent years the conception that the library was but a storehouse of reference and source material has given way in some cases to a separation of the different groups of books, each group assigned to the care of the academic department most interested. This method was extensively tried out at Johns Hopkins and Chicago universities, but the difficulties of administration, the overlapping of interests and the irregular development of collections has forced the return to the idea of the central library, the principle of the seminary or special departmental libraries being adhered to, yet restricted in scope and usually under control of the university librarian. Hence seminary libraries are to be found in practically every university in the country, some of them constituting special collections of the highest value.

It has already been noted that all that is known of the College of Henrico is the brief notice regarding its gift of books. The experience of Harvard, however, was not so unfortunate. By the death of the Rev. John Harvard in 1638 the college came into possession of a collection of about 370 volumes, mainly theological. These were added to, until the library at the end of a century contained some 5,000 volumes, the largest collegiate collection in America. In 1764, however, this was destroyed by fire, only a few hundred books being rescued. Steps to reconstitute the library were immediately taken and in 1790 its collections numbered about 12,000; in 1840, 40,000; in 1856, 70,000 volumes and 30,000 pamphlets; in 1875, 154,000 volumes; the aggregate number of volumes of the various libraries of Harvard being 227,650 volumes. The main library now numbers 792,117 and all the libraries total 1,088,000. In 1840 the collections were moved into the Gore Hall, at that time considered adequate for the growth of many years. Nevertheless owing to the rapid growth of the library it has long been inadequate, making the necessity for a new building imperative, which was realized in 1907 by the bequest of the late Harry Elkins Widener, who also donated to the library a splendid collection of book rarities.

William and Mary College, founded in 1692 under the auspices of the Church of England, was long the wealthiest institution in the colonies. It is known to have possessed books from its beginning, though doubtless the collection was small. It, too, suffered from fire in 1705, but its collections were replenished by gifts from the mother country and from France, Queen Anne, the Georges and Louis XV being numbered among the donors of books. The college went into eclipse during the Civil War and it is only recently that it has again begun to take its place among the schools of the country.

It seems that Yale had a library provided for it before its foundation in 1700, for gifts of books had been made in anticipation of the establishment of a school in Connecticut. In 1765 the collection comprehended 4,000 volumes; in 1808, 4,700 volumes; 1913, 1,000,000 volumes; the total collections of Yale now aggregating 1,025,000 volumes.

During the first half of the 19th century a movement was well under way that forms a most important chapter in American educational and library history. This was the establishment of State universities. The national policy of permitting the States to handle their educational problems in their own way has resulted in an unequal, but on the whole a remarkable, development of institutions of learning. Some universities, Harvard and Columbia for example, partook of the nature of State schools at an early date, which they have since lost, hence it remained for the University of Virginia, which sprang to the last detail from the mind of Thomas Jefferson, to be the forerunner and model of succeeding foundations. Jefferson correctly estimated the importance of the library in the scheme of a university, and all of his plans for the school centred around that fact. Hence when the university set to work in 1825 the library building was not only complete but a collection of books, selected by him, was on the way from Europe. It may be noted that this central library building and the funds for equipping it were only obtained after a bitter struggle with short-sighted politicians and reactionaries. As might be surmised, in founding this institution Jefferson was profoundly influenced by English and French models, and the university in turn has transmitted the educational principles of its founder to many other schools in the South and Southwest. That it has been outstripped by some of these has been due to conditions that need not be discussed, one of which, the burning of the Rotunda, or library building, in 189S, was a positive disaster from which the library has not yet recovered, although the building was immediately reconstructed.

University Libraries in the South. — Perhaps it was clue to the influence of Virginia that the idea of the State university was first accepted in the Southern States. At any rate it was in these States that for decades they were the most important institutions of higher education. Each one of them possessed some sort of a library, many of which collections were destroyed during the Civil War and are only now taking place with the other collections of the country. Among these may be noted the University of North Carolina (1795; 79,205 vols.); South Carolina (1805; 46,000 vols.); Georgia (1800; 41,000 vols.); Tennessee (1796: 37,379 vols.).

University Libraries in the West. — During the middle of the 19th century, the Middle and Far West had developed to such an extent that the demand of the people for schools and libraries began to find response and then began a most remarkable development in these fields. The earliest of these educational institutions, the University of Missouri (1841; 161,470 vols.), owed more to Southern influences than Northern, as did the University of Texas (1836; 134,342 vols.), hence it is in the University of Michigan (1837; 383,976 vols.) that we find the earliest type of the great universities that have sprung up throughout the West. Among these that have large libraries the following may be noted: California (1865; 355,463 vols.); Illinois (380,000 vols.); Iowa (1850; 130,040 vols.); Minnesota (1867; 251,000 vols.); Nebraska (1871; 138,650 vols.); Ohio (1873; 176,526 vols.); Wisconsin (1849; 255,000 vols.).

Privately Endowed Universities. — Equally important has been the development of libraries of institutions owing their origin wholly or in part to private munificence. One of the earliest of these, Cornell (1868), has a library of 489,656 volumes; Lehigh (1877). 130,000; Leland Stanford (1891), 287,634. The growth of the libraries of these schools has been relatively moderate compared with that of the University of Chicago founded in 1892 by John D. Rockefeller, its collections growing from nothing to half a million volumes in 25 years. Other colleges and universities having collections of more than 100,000 volumes are: Dartmouth (1769), 140,000; Georgetown (1789), 106,341; Bowdoin (1794), 115,789; Amherst (1821), 118,000; Oberlin (1833), 175,625; Johns Hopkins (1876), 202,247; Princeton (1746), 397,126 volumes. The character of a college library is determined, of course, by the nature and aims of its institution. In schools mainly technological, like Lehigh, Cornell or Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the collections are strongly scientific or technical. The same is true of many of the libraries of the State universities, the latter often specializing in agriculture and kindred topics.

State Libraries. — Another and relatively early development of libraries in the United States was that of the State libraries. Originally these were merely reference collections, mainly law books and public documents, housed in the State capitol. In time, however, many of these collections quite outgrew their limitations, becoming general libraries, the most of them remaining essentially reference collections. A few like the New York and California State libraries in addition serve as capstones to splendidly organized State-library systems. In general, the funds for the maintenance and development of these institutions are supplied by appropriations from the State treasuries, which, it must be confessed, have not always been sufficiently generous to warrant large extensions of their activities. A few of the larger State libraries, such as that of Massachusetts, of Connecticut and of Arkansas, still adhere to the law and document principle, whereas in the case of Colorado, Illinois, Ohio, Oregon, Rhode Island, Texas and Virginia the State library has developed into a general or historical collection which had resulted in the establishment of special law or reference libraries for official use. In 1811 the State Library of Massachusetts initiated the custom of exchanging State documents which it has kept up to the present. It is difficult to say which State had the earliest collection. Pennsylvania is said to have had an official library in 1777 and New Hampshire claims to have possessed one prior to the Revolution. In some cases the libraries had developed before any official recognition was made of them. Thus Virginia appointed a State librarian in 1825, before an appropriation had been made for books, and Tennessee had accumulated some 8,000 volumes prior to the first official enactment regarding the collection in 1854. The following are the most important State libraries: Arkansas (1836), 100,000 volumes; California (1850), 207,283; Connecticut (1835), 200,000 (law); Iowa (1846), 142,841, Kentucky (1820), 116,626; Maine (1820), 110,000; Massachusetts (1826), 192,015 (law); New Hampshire (1820), 153,861; New York (1818), 449,542; Ohio (1817), 213,723; Pennsylvania (1816), 176,624; Tennessee (1854), 150,000; Virginia (1823), 114,520. In addition, Louisiana, Georgia, Maine, Maryland, Minnesota, New Jersey and Nebraska have State law libraries, and Colorado, Illinois and Ohio have Supreme Court libraries.

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San Francisco Public Library

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Newberry Library, Chicago

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The Public Library of the District of Columbia, Washington, D. C.

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Saint Louis Public Library, Saint Louis, Mo.

Special Libraries. — The development of the special library in the United States has assumed two phases which might be termed the early and the recent. The former comprehends the establishment and expansion of types of libraries already differentiated in Europe, such as theological, legal, medical, historical and, to a lesser degree, pedagogical and associational libraries. The second group is the result of the development of science during the 19th century, and of recent economic and social movements.

Theological Libraries. — The earliest of these were the theological libraries, the majority of which were developed in connection with institutions of learning. Indeed, some of the college libraries of the 18th century consisted mainly of theological literature. As the secular aspects of the institutions became more and more emphasized, the theological elements tended to become segregated, forming departments of the school, rather than permeations of the whole. The libraries followed this tendency hence we find the development of the splendid theological collections at Harvard, Princeton and other universities. The Harvard, now the Andover-Harvard Theological Library, numbers 109,321 volumes and the Princeton Theological Seminary Library 103,427 volumes. One of the few institutions whose library has remained true to the earlier type is the Georgetown University. Its collections consist to a large extent of Catholic theologic literature and number about 106,000 volumes. In addition to these university collections, the foundation of sectarian seminaries during the first half of the 19th century has resulted in the upbuilding of some very excellent special libraries of theology, such as the Union Theological Seminary (1835; 130,018 vols.); the Drew Theological Seminary (Methodist, 1867; 128,054 vols.); the Hartford Theological Seminary (1834; 109,620 vols.) and the General Theological Seminary (1817; 59,691 vols.).

Law Libraries. — Another early type of special libraries is the law library. These were first developed, as was the case of the theological libraries, in connection with colleges, the Harvard Law Library, housed in a splendid building of its own, still remaining one of the largest collections in America (172,073 volumes). Other colleges with special law libraries are Columbia (59,262 vols.), University of Chicago (40,236 vols.), Yale (40,127 vols.), Northwestern (45,000), New York University (25,791 vols.), University of Pennsylvania (57,152 vols.). Legal literature is predominant in the collections of State libraries, but as many of these have developed into general libraries, a number of States have developed in addition special legal libraries, among them being the Indiana State Law Library (55,000 vols.), Minnesota State Law Library (79,662 vols.), New York State Law Library (69,000 vols.), the Ohio Supreme Court Library (36,000 vols.). A few of the State libraries, such as the Massachusetts (192,015 vols.), remain essentially law and documentary libraries. In addition to these, bar associations and legal societies have organized and developed law collections, some of them of first importance such as that of the New York Association of the Bar (114,437 vols.), Philadelphia Law Association (62,858 vols.), Chicago Law Institute (67,072 vols.), Social Law Library, Boston (65,000 vols.), Bar Association of San Francisco (35,000 vols.), San Francisco Law Library (28,000 vols.), New York Law Institute (81,209 vols.).

Medical Libraries. — The literature of a science so progressive as that of medicine and its allied subjects loses its value after a very limited period, hence many of the books have little save historical interest. For this reason only a few institutions undertake to obtain and care for the great mass of medical lore of the past. This has been left to institutions with the necessary funds and facilities for its preservation. One library in particular in the United States has essayed to play this part with distinguished success — the Library of the Surgeon-General's office of the United States Army. Under direction of Dr. John S. Billings, the largest collection of medical literature in America has been gathered, classified and a catalogue issued that is a monument of bibliographic research. The library now numbers 190,310 bound volumes and 328,036 pamphlets. The majority of the medical libraries are connected with the medical departments of universities or of independent medical schools, the largest being that of the library of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Philadelphia, with collections numbering 107,782 volumes. The Harvard Medical School has collections numbering 27,000 volumes, and Columbia with 28,960 volumes. Medical societies have also developed excellent libraries, among them being the Medical Society, County of Kings, Brooklyn, with collections numbering 70,000 volumes; New York Academy of Medicine, 101,593; Rhode Island Medical Society, 25,000; Boston Medical Library, 85,963.

Pedagogical Libraries. — Educational libraries form a comparatively recent phase in the development of special libraries. The largest and most comprehensive, that of the Bureau of Education, was founded in 1868 and numbers about 150,000 volumes. With the establishment of teachers' colleges many special pedagogic libraries have come into being, the most important of which are that of the Teachers' College (1887), affiliated with Columbia University (63,770 vols.); State Normal School of Indiana (Terre Haute, 1870; 70,926 vols.); State Normal School of Kansas (Emporia, 1865; 40,900 vols.); State Normal College of Michigan (Ypsilanti, 1852; 43,000 vols.); Southern Illinois State Normal University (Carbondale, 1869; 30,210 vols.); Chicago Normal College (1898; 25,000 vols.); Colorado State Teachers' College (44,800 vols.); School of Education, University of Chicago (35,000 vols.); Nebraska State Normal School (25,245 vols.); Peabody College for Teachers (Nashville, Tenn., 35,000 vols.); Hampton Institute (44,962 vols.); Glenville Normal School (W. Va.; 42,000 vols.); Wisconsin State Normal (Milwaukee; 27,510 vols.). There are approximately 208 normal school libraries in the United States.

Historical Libraries. — The majority of special historical libraries in America have been organized by historical societies, either regional, State or group. Many State libraries, in that they endeavor to collect local historical material, partake of the characteristics of special historical libraries. Among these may be noted the Alabama State Department of Archives (100,000 vols.); Colorado State Library (40,000 vols.); California State Library[1] (207,134 vols.); New York State Library (449,542 vols.). Among the libraries whose collections cover the history of an area larger than a State may be mentioned the New England Historical Genealogical Society (39,711 vols.); American Antiquarian Society (Worcester, Mass.; 140,000 vols.). The State historical societies, however, have been most assiduous in collecting and preserving local historical material. Nearly every State has an active association of this nature and several possess very valuable collections, notably Kansas (1875; 90,689 vols.); Maine (1822; 40,000 vols.); Maryland (1844; 45,399 vols.); Massachusetts (1791; 56,000 vols.); Minnesota (125,000 vols.); Nebraska (53,000 vols.); New Jersey (30,000 vols.); New York (130,866 vols.); Pennsylvania (202,000 vols.); Rhode Island (90,000 vols.); Virginia (15,300 vols.); Wisconsin (376,000 vols.). A still more restricted phase is that of city historical societies, of which a number possess interesting collections, notably the Chicago Historical Society (24,738 vols.); Buffalo, N. Y. (40,000 vols.); New Haven Colony (8,000 vols.); New York Genealogical and Biographical Society (15,000 vols.); Essex Institute (Salem, Mass.; 115,856 vols.); Newport (R. I.) Historical Society (8,000 vols.); Western Reserve (Cleveland, Ohio, Historical Society; 44,850 vols.). A collection of great importance to students of early American literature and American history is the John Carter Brown Library at Providence (25,000 vols.). There are other collections representing special groups and interests that partake of the nature of historical societies, such as the Hispanic Society of New York (82,461 vols.); the Pan-American Union (Columbus Memorial Library, Washington; 37,965 vols.); Congregational Society (Boston; 64,561 vols.); the Presbyterian Historical Society (Philadelphia; 20,000 vols.); the Holland Society (New York; 6,500 vols.); National Society of the Daughters of the Revolution (Washington; 6,693 vols.).

Scientific and Technical Libraries. — The tremendous advances made in pure and applied science during the 19th century have resulted in the establishment of many scientific and technical libraries. The various activities of the national government has caused the location of a number of these collections at Washington. The special libraries in Washington in the most cases have been developed in connection with scientific bureaus and departments of the Federal government. In pure science may be noted the Library of the Bureau of Standards (14,900 vols.) and the library of the Smithsonian Institution with its magnificent collection of the publications of learned institutions and scientific societies[2] (521,616 vols.). The Coast and Geodetic Survey has a collection of 25,000 volumes on geodesy, surveying, hydrography, etc.; the Geological Survey, 220,000 books and pamphlets on geology, mineralogy and palæontology; and the Weather Bureau of 35,500 volumes and pamphlets on meteorology and climatology. The Bureau of American Ethnology has a collection of 33,430 items on ethnology, anthropology and American aborigines; the Bureau of Fisheries, 29,155 volumes on fisheries, fish culture, etc.; the Department of agriculture, 137,700 volumes and pamphlets on agriculture, forestry, chemistry, botany, etc.; the Forest Service, 18,852 items on forestry. In military and naval sciences the Army War College has 100,000 items, Navy Department, 50,000, the United States Army Engineers' School, 45,115. Other collections on military and naval topics are at the United States Military Academy (West Point, N. Y.; 16,121 vols.); United States Naval Academy (Annapolis, Md.; 56,851 vols.); Coast Artillery School (Fortress Monroe, Va.; 28,034 vols.); Naval War College (Newport, R. I.; 21,000 vols. and pamphlets); Army Service Schools (Fort Leavenworth, Kan.; 32,000 vols. and pamphlets).

Libraries of Economics, Political Science and Sociology. — The literature of economic and social problems is to be found in the collections of the Interstate Commerce Commission, 23,000 volumes and pamphlets; Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 20,000 volumes and pamphlets; Bureau of Labor Statistics, 32,000 volumes and pamphlets; Department of Commerce, 103,738 volumes and pamphlets; Treasury Department, 11,580 volumes and pamphlets. There is also in Washington a library of the United States public documents under direction of the superintendent of public documents which contains 193,533 volumes. Other special libraries in Washington, but non-official, are the Bureau of Railway Economics, 60,000 volumes and pamphlets, and the Volta Bureau (deafness), 9,000 volumes and pamphlets. The Library of Congress has a large collection of embossed books for the blind. Another interesting special collection at Washington is that of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, containing 11,000 items, peace, international conciliation and league of nations.

Science and Technology. — There are many scientific libraries, however, outside of the District of Columbia. The oldest collection of the sort is undoubtedly that of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, founded in 1743. This has 65,413 volumes, mainly relating to pure and applied science. The American Academy of Sciences of Boston is probably the next in point of age, its date of foundation being 1780. It has 34,681 volumes. The largest library specializing in scientific and technical literature is the John Crear Library of Chicago, with 384,603 volumes. Other collections of importance are Boston Society of Natural History, 40,617 volumes; Franklin Institute, Philadelphia (1824), 71,020 volumes, 28,845 pamphlets. The schools of technology have necessarily developed libraries along the lines of work treated in their courses. The largest is perhaps the library of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology numbering 121,711 volumes. The library of Cornell is also strong in technical works (489,654 vols.); Sheffield School (Yale; 12,500 vols.); Rose Polytechnique Institute (Terre Haute; 15,360 vols.); Armour Institute of Technology (Chicago; 27,869 vols.); Stevens Institute (Hoboken; 12,700 vols.); Worcester Polytechnic Institute (15,000 vols.); Michigan College of Mines (28,050 vols.); Missouri School of Mines (20,495 vols.); Virginia Polytechnic Institute (28,072 vols.); Alabama Polytechnic (27,550 vols.). Many State universities pay attention to technology and the applied sciences, agriculture in particular. Among the noteworthy collections are those of the State agricultural colleges of Kansas (57,800 vols.); Michigan (38,561 vols.); North Dakota (26,620 vols.); and Utah (28,946 vols.). The University of Tennessee also has a valuable collection of agricultural books and pamphlets. The largest collection, however, is the splendid library of the Department of Agriculture at Washington, numbering 137,700 items.

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California State Library, Sacramento, Cal.

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Harper Memorial Library of the University of Chicago

Social Sciences, Economics, etc.' — A very recent library development has been indicated in the departments of economics and sociology. The great industries have discovered the value of collections of literature, both as history and as a guide to future developments. Thus the railways of the United States have organized a Bureau of Railway Economics for the study of transportation problems. This has a library of some 50,000 items at Washington, D. C. Other libraries similar in purpose but in a different field are those that have been developed by the great insurance companies, the most noteworthy being that of the Prudential Insurance Company, at Newark, N. J., which has a collection which is said to number 200,000 items on life insurance and allied topics. The Mutual Life has 30,000 items; the Metropolitan 20,000 volumes; and the Insurance Library Association, Boston, 21,000 items. Finance is represented also by some interesting collections. Thus the National City Bank of New York has a library of 24,000 volumes on banking, etc.; American Bankers' Association, New York, 48,000 items; Lee, Higginson & Company, Boston, 50,000 items. See Libraries, Commercial and Industrial.

A few special collections in sociology and social reform have appeared recently, the largest probably being that of the Russell Sage Foundation, New York, with 51,695 items. The Children's Bureau at Washington has a collection of books upon its specialty and the Bureau of Labor has a library of 32,000 volumes on economic and social topics. There are a great many society and association libraries in the United States, the collections of Masonic Order being of interest, that of the Supreme Council of the Scottish Rite at Washington containing some 75,000 items.

Bibliography. — Bostwick, ‘The American Public Library’ (New York 1910); Dana, ‘A Library Primer’ (Chicago 1910); Fletcher, ‘Public Libraries in America’ (Boston 1899); Jewett, ‘Notices of Public Libraries in the United States’ (Smithsonian Reports. Appendix. Washington 1857); United States Bureau of Education, ‘Public Libraries in the United States’ (Special report 1876; Washington 1876); id., ‘List of Public Society and School Libraries’; ‘American Library Annual.’


There are few records of collections of books in Canada prior to the establishment of the British colonies. Le Moyne d'Iberville is said to have gathered together all the works on the New World and carried them with him on his expeditions, but what became of them is unknown. The Jesuit Fathers, as is well known, were indefatigable chroniclers, but whether they were equally enthusiastic readers is less certain. At any rate the first library recorded in Canada was one organized by a group of British officers stationed at Quebec in 1779, who expended £500 in London in the purchase of books. This was first housed in the Bishop's Palace. In 1843 it was transferred to the Quebec Literary Association, and again in 1866 to the Literary and Historical Society, at which time it numbered about 7,000 volumes. The collection now numbers 16,000 volumes, mainly Canadian history.

Collections in Ottawa. — In Ottawa, the seat of the Dominion government, are centred the libraries developed by the various official departments. Of these the Parliament Library is the most important and, prior to the fire of 3 Feb. 1916, was the largest in Canada, numbering between 300,000 and 400,000 volumes. The departments of Justice (8,000 vols.), State Geological Survey (20,000 vols.) and the Supreme Court (38,000 vols.) are special collections that are growing rapidly.

Provincial Libraries. — The most important collection in Quebec is the library of the legislature of the province (1792; 107,218 vols.) and the University of Laval in the same place possesses about 102,000 volumes and contains much important historical material relative to Canada, and the B. Saint Sulpice (80,000), also in Montreal, has a most attractive building. Public libraries have developed to a very limited degree in Quebec, but the contrary is true of the province of Ontario. This has a widespread and thoroughly modern system modeled upon American and British methods. The value of the library is recognized and it is liberally supported. A considerable number are an evolution out of mechanics' libraries. These were taken over by the municipalities, the communities being taxed to maintain them under provisions of the Free Libraries Act, passed in 1882. Libraries were provided for in the law reorganizing the school system drawn up by Dr. Ryerson and passed in 1848, but only a few libraries were established at that time. There are more than 500 libraries, large and small, in Ontario. The largest and most active public library in Canada is the public library of Toronto with 15 branches and 300,000 volumes. The activity in Ontario has extended to the middle and western provinces, the Provincial Library of Manitoba at Winnipeg numbering 60,000 volumes; British Columbia having several active libraries, the Provincial Library at Victoria containing 30,000 volumes; while Alberta has three collections of over 10,000, the most important being the Public and Strathcona Library at Edmonton, containing 35,000 volumes. Many new and splendidly equipped buildings are being constructed in Canada, especially in the western provinces.

Traveling Libraries. — In 1890, a system of traveling libraries was initiated by Lady Aberdeen at a meeting of ladies in Winnipeg. This, called the Aberdeen Association, has endeavored to supply reading matter to settlers and isolated families in the Canadian Northwest. This association has distributed thousands of books, magazines, etc., and has brightened the lives of many lonely people.

University Libraries. — The largest and most modern university library in Canada is that of McGill University at Montreal. This has six branches and its collections number about 152,000 volumes. The University of Toronto has also an excellent library numbering some 148,434 volumes.

There is an active library association in Canada, which was established in 1900. Canadian libraries have suffered severe losses by fire during the recent years — the collections of the University of Toronto, of the Provincial Library of Quebec and finally the Parliament Library at Ottawa was partially destroyed in the burning of the Parliament buildings, 3 Feb. 1916.

Latin America.

The continuous social and political unrest and the upheavals that have marked the course of affairs in the Latin American countries have had an injurious effect upon the development of libraries. Prior to the establishment of the various states, the only collections were in the religious institutions. These, however, in most cases were of minor importance, and during the 19th century were allowed to decline or were merged with the public collections. In a few of the more progressive states, such as Argentina and Mexico, provision was made for national libraries in the middle of the last century. As early as 1867 a national library was instituted in Mexico and in 1873 the librarian of the Argentine National Library, V. G. Quesada, made a trip to Europe in order to study its famous libraries, which resulted in an elaborate work entitled ‘Las Bibliotecas Europas y algunas de la America Latina’ (Buenos Aires 1877).

Mexico. — In 1913 there were about 150 libraries in Mexico, of which the most important is Biblioteca Nacional. This was formed from the collections of the various religious and educational institutions that came into control of the state when the Liberal party came into power. It was opened to the public in 1884. Its collections number about 200,000 volumes.

Central America. — Several of the Central American states have libraries, the majority, however, being relatively unimportant, that of Costa Rica, at San Jose, being housed in a new building with a system of arrangement, cataloguing, etc.

Cuba. — One of the most active and up-to-date libraries of Latin America is the B. Nacional at Havana, Cuba, founded in 1901.

South America. — With the exception of Argentina, Brazil and Chile there are very few collections of great importance in South America. Colombia has a national library at Bogota, Bolivia has a number of small collections, as has Peru at Lima, while Paraguay established a Biblioteca Nacional in 1915.

Brazil. — The largest and perhaps the best equipped library in South America is the Bibliotheca Publica Nacional at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This was founded in 1810 and its collections of over 330,000 volumes and 500,000 manuscripts, etc., are housed in a splendid new building completed in 1910 at a cost of $1,500,000. The most modern methods are in use here and in other libraries in the country.

Argentina. — The interest in libraries is more active and widespread in Argentina than any other South American state. There are fully 200 libraries of all types, the most important, of course, being the Biblioteca Nacional at Buenos Aires. This was founded in 1810 by Dr. Mariano Moreno, the first collections being derived from the library of the bishop of Buenos Aires. The collections now number about 300,000 and contain some interesting manuscripts relative to the early Spanish period.

Great Britain.

The English kings apparently were indifferent lovers of books. So far as is known, none but George III formed a library worthy of the name. In one case the power of the king reacted injuriously upon British libraries, for as a result of the conflict of Henry VIII with the Holy See the valuable monastic and other ecclesiastic collections of the pre-Reformation period were destroyed or scattered. Some of these books, however, were saved by John Leland (q.v.) and other book-lovers. For this reason but few of the existing British libraries assign a very early date to their foundation. In fact, according to published records, only 37 containing more than 50,000 volumes were founded prior to 1800. Of these, two, the Cambridge University Library (1444) and Lincoln's Inn Library (1497), were founded during the 15th century; six during the 16th century, eight during the 17th century, 11 during the 18th century and 64 during the 19th century.

Among these institutions, the British Museum (q.v.) of course assumes greatest importance. The date of its foundation is usually designated as 1753, the year of the bequest of Sir Hans Sloane, yet Edward Edwards finds the origins of its collections in a much earlier period. A royal library, according to Walpole, was established by Henry VIII, which was increased by gifts from monarchs abroad. Slight additions were made under Henry VIII, but during the brief reign of Edward VI was a decided development owing to the efforts of Sir John Cheke and Roger Ascham. The accessions later of the collections of Henry, Earl of Arundel, Lord Lumley, Archbishop Cranmer, Casaubon, Sir John Morris and the Orientalia of Sir Thomas Roe formed the nucleus, to which was added the splendid collections of Sir Hans Sloane and King George III.

University Libraries. — As one would expect, the earliest large collections were formed by the universities, many of which have grown into imposing libraries. The oldest of these, and one of the most ancient in England, is the Cambridge University Library. That it was in existence prior to 1425 is indicated by a list of its books made at that time. Its first great benefactor was Thomas Scott, archbishop of York, who erected the building (1475) in which it was housed until 1755, and who made additions to its collections and endowment. It contains about 900,000 volumes, which include many early English imprints. More famous, even, than the Cambridge Library is that of Oxford, named the Bodleian, after the founder, Sir Thomas Bodley. It was due to the enthusiastic labors of this bibliophile that the Bodleian was opened to the public in 1602 with 2,000 volumes, almost entirely gifts from his private collection. These activities were crowned by the generous provisions contained in his will. Other distinguished benefactors were Archbishop Laud, Sir Kenelm Digby, John Selden, Francis Douce, etc. The library now contains about 800,000 volumes, 41,000 manuscripts, which include a wonderful collection of Orientalia, Greek and Latin manuscripts, and much valuable material in history and literature. In 1860 it was united with the Radcliffe Library of Medicine and Science, the collections being transferred to the Radcliffe Camera, its present home. Among the university libraries of Scotland, those of Edinburgh and Saint Andrews are the most important. The library of the latter is perhaps the older of the two, as the university is known to have possessed books as early as 1456, but the assigned date is 1610 at which time the various collections were united by command of King James VI. It contains about 150,000 volumes, including valuable local history. Edinburgh University was founded in 1583 by the bequest of the library of Clement Little, a lawyer of Edinburgh. This collection was transferred to the university at its foundation in 1583. Among the library's benefactors was the famous Scotch poet and bibliophile, Drummond of Hawthornden, who made a large donation of books in 1627. The collections number 270,000 volumes and 800 manuscripts. The library of Trinity College at Dublin had a somewhat romantic beginning, having been founded by a gift of £1,800 made by the English army as a memorial to its victory over the Spanish at Kinsale in 1602. This sum was placed in the hands of James Usher, later primate of Ireland, who was a friend of Bodley, the two co-operating in the interest of their libraries. Usher's own library was purchased at his death in 1655 but its transfer to the university was held up by Cromwell, and not consummated until the Restoration. The library has received many valuable gifts of books and manuscripts and now numbers about 350,000 volumes and 2,078 manuscripts. Among the more recent university foundations may be named the University College Library, London (1823; 150,000 vols.) and the University of London (1839; 100,000 vols.). The majority of the English cathedrals have collections of books. The most of these, however, are small and their use is usually restricted to the diocesan purposes. A few, however, are open to the public.

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Bibliotheca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro

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Central Library Building of Baroda, India. Formerly a Palace of the Majaraja

Public Libraries. — The development of the free public library has in the main followed a course parallel with that in the United States, the movement toward popularization of existing collections and the establishment of new ones occurring simultaneously in both countries. The work of the public library of to-day was formerly done by proprietary and subscription libraries, analogous to the mechanics' libraries in the United States. Some of these, such as the London Library, founded by Carlyle, Gladstone and other distinguished men, are still operative, but in great part they have been absorbed by the public libraries. The most active worker for the establishment of free public libraries, was Edward Edwards, the author of ‘Memoirs of Libraries.’ At a meeting of the Statistical Society, 20 March 1848, he read a paper in which he deplored the lack of interest in free libraries. He found only 29 free libraries, possessing more than 10,000 volumes each, while France had 107, Austria 41 and Switzerland 13. This paper attracted the attention of William Ewart, M.P., and resulted in the appointment of a library commission on the subject of public libraries, and finally in the Public Libraries Act of 1850. (Consult Axon, ‘Statistical Notes on the Free Town-Libraries of Great Britain,’ Journal of the Statistical Society, September 1870). The development under the provisions of this act was slow. Prior to 1886, 133 libraries had been established; from 1887 to 1890, 70; since which date the annual average was 17. Under a new law, which came in force in 1893 “any local authority (i.e., town council or district board), save in the county of London, may establish and maintain public libraries without reference to the wishes of the rate payers.” (Library Journal, Vol. XVIII, p. 422). Since 1900 the growth of free public libraries in Great Britain and her colonies has been remarkable. Not a little of this has been due to Andrew Carnegie, whose benefactions have been extended to the British Empire.

Only two of the great British public libraries, Dundee, Scotland (1601; 154,922 vols.), and Bristol (1613; 180,825 vols.), were established prior to the 19th century. Indeed, the tremendous growth in free public libraries has been a very recent thing in all countries. This is indicated in Great Britain by the fact that some of the most important free libraries in the kingdom have been established during the last few decades. Thus Glasgow (430,000 vols.) was founded in 1877; Lambeth-Tate, London (159,000 vols.), in 1886; Edinburgh Public Library (200,000 vols.), in 1887; Hull (106,000 vols.), in 1892; John Rylands in Manchester (200,000 vols.) is one of the relatively few private endowed libraries in England. This was founded by Mrs. E. A. Rylands in 1899 as a memorial to her husband and is housed in a splendid building. Its collections are based upon the famous Althorp Library, formed by Earl Spencer. Other public libraries of more than 100,000 volumes are Birmingham (1861; 445,675); Bolton (1852; 128,322); Bradford (1871; 178,035); Cardiff (1862; 221,000); Liverpool (1850; 338,796); Guildhall Library, London (1824; 148,757); Westminster, London (125,000); Manchester Free Public Libraries (1852; 500,000); Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1874; 170,000); Nottingham (1868; 149,657), and Sheffield (1853; 186,551).

Special Libraries. — There are many valuable special collections in Great Britain, among which may be noted: Law: London, Inner Temple (1540; 58,000); Lincoln's Inn (1497, 72,000); Edinburgh, Signet (1722; 122,000). Political Science Statistics, etc.: London, British Library of Political Science (1896; 300,000); Foreign Office (75,000 public documents); Reform Club (1836; 56,000); Royal Colonial Institute (1868; 100,000); Royal Statistical Society (1834; 50,000). Medicine: London, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons (60,000). Science: London, Royal Society (1662; 80,000); Science Museum (105,000); British Museum, Natural History Library (1881; 72,000); Society of Antiquities (40,000); Geological Society (1807; 30,000); Linnean Society (1788; 35,000); Royal Geographical Society (1830; 50,000); Chemical Society (1841; 25,000). Military and Naval Science: London, British Admiralty (1700; 50,000); Royal United Service Institution (1831; 32,000). Fine Arts: National Art Library (1841; 115,000). Consult Edwards, ‘Memoirs of Libraries’ (London 1859); Garnett, ‘Essays in Librarianship’ (London 1899); Ogle, ‘The Free Library’ (London 1897); Rye, ‘The Libraries of London’; Savage, ‘The Story of Libraries and Book-Collectors’ (1909).


Owing to the fact that Austria has remained firm in her allegiance to the Roman Catholic Church, the library situation there is rendered interesting by the great number of monastic collections remaining intact. From the viewpoint of the bibliographer they are of immense interest, some of them having been founded in the early mediæval period and still in possession of their ancient treasures. There are 13 of these libraries containing over 50,000 volumes of which the following may be noted: the Benediktinabtei at Admont (1074; 88,000); Closternburg (1106; 81,000); Kremsmünster (777 and 1571; 91,000); Moelk, Salzburg (fd. circa 790 by Archbishop Arno, 72,000). In modern library movements, however, Austria, until recently, has not taken an active part. For a long period the empire possessed the richest collections in Europe, but they have not kept pace with those of Germany, Great Britain and France during the 19th century. In the K. K. Hofbibliothek at Vienna, Austria possesses, however, a library of the first importance. This is based upon the palace collections of Emperor Frederick III, established in 1440, but its growth was limited until the reign of Maximilian I, who is considered to have been the real founder by its noted librarian, Lambrecius. One of its early librarians was Enea Silvio Piccolomini, who later became Pope Pius II. The library is housed in an imposing and elaborately decorated building on Josephplatz and was completed in 1826. It has many exceedingly valuable and interesting collections, among them being the library of the famous Fugger family, manuscripts from the collections of Matthew Corvinus, king of Hungary, the library of Tycho Brahe, the astronomer, that of Prince Eugene of Savoy, etc. The collections number about 1,000,000 volumes, 8,000 incunabula and 27,000 manuscripts. Of particular importance is the collection of 100,000 papyri formed by the Archduke Ranier.

University Libraries. — With the exception of the Hofbibilothek at Vienna, the most important collections in Austria are those possessed by the universities, the largest being the K. K. Universitäts-B at Vienna. This was founded in 1775 by the Empress Marie Theresa, and contains 882,394 volumes, 663 incunabula and 906 manuscripts. Other large university collections are Budapest (1635; 491,831 vols.); Cracow (1400; 429,355 vols.); Czernowitz (1852; 222,133 vols.); Graz (1586; 271,000 vols.); Innsbruck (1746; 266,812 vols.); Klausenburgh (1872; 253,000 vols.); Lemberg (1784; 241,000 vols.); Prague (1784; 381,000 vols.).

Special Libraries. — The following special collections may be noted: Law, Politics, Statistics, etc.: Fürstl. Leichsteinische Fideikommiss-B. (100,000 vols.); K. K. Familien-Fideikommiss-B. (1784; 250,000 vols); Archiv u. B. des K. K. Finanz-Ministeriums (63,000 vols.); B. des Ö. Reichsrats (1873; 56,000 vols.), in Vienna, and B. des K. Ungar Statistiches Amt. (1867; 118,132 vols.), in Buda-Pest; Theology: Reform-Theologische-u.-Rechts-Academie B., Sarospatak (1531; 60,000 vols.); Science and Technology: K. K. Geologische Reichsanstalt-B. (1849; 65,000 vols.); Hungarian Academy of Sciences (160,000 vols.) ; the Königl. Ungar. Josephs-Technis. Hochschule-B. (1850; 105,098 vols.), in Buda-Pest, and the K. K. Technis. Hochschule-B. (140,173 vols.), in Vienna. Consult Bohatta and Holzmann, ‘Adressbuch der Bibliotheken der oesterreich-ungarischen Monarchie’ (Vienna 1900); Kukula, ‘Die oesterreichischen Studienbibliotheken in den Jahren 1848-1908’ (Vienna 1908); Gulyas, ‘Das ungarische Oberinspektorat der Museen u. Bibliotheken’ (1909); ‘Die über 10,000 Bande zahlenden oeffentichen-Bibliotheken ungarns in Jahr 1908’ (Buda-Pest 1910).


The greater part of the French libraries originated in the collections of religious orders and the mediæval universities. These collections, many of which date back to the 14th and 15th centuries, remained relatively intact until the Revolution, during which the libraries suffered in common with all of the institutions of the nation. Yet its effect on library development in France, on the whole, was beneficial, for while many valuable manuscripts and books were lost, yet their loss was more than compensated by the foundation of the public library system of France, which was for many years superior to any. When the monasteries and other religious foundations were disestablished, their libraries were made the property of the state and placed in the care of the communes, thereby forming the nuclei of the present bibliothèques municipales, or free public libraries. This transfer was made under the Decrees of the Constituent Assembly, 1789 and 1790, and of the Legislative Assembly, 1792 and 1793. The Decree of 1793 fixed the distinction between libraries and archives and laid the foundation for the provincial libraries. The provisions of these enactments were strengthened by the Orders of Napoleon, 1803 and 1809, which provided for the organization and administration of these libraries.

Municipal Libraries. — The majority of the municipal libraries, therefore, as now constituted, were established during the early portion of the 19th century, yet, as has been indicated, their original collections are vastly older. The earliest existent collection, if the German guns have spared any of it, is the Bibliothèque Municipale of Rheims founded in 1146, while that of Angers was established by Alain de la Rue in 1376. Michel Anglici began the collection now the library of Charpentras in 1452. This still retains many of the manuscript rarities of the original collection. The Bibliotheque Municipale of Bourges was established in 1466, and that of Clement-Ferrand by Mathieu de la Porte in 1490. Francis I founded the library of Lyons in 1527, which was originally a part of the Collège de la Trinité, established at the same time. The collection later passed into the hands of the Jesuits, and suffered considerable losses when the order was suppressed. Its collections have been largely increased by private benefactions. A library, free to the public, was established at Aix-en-Provence in 1409. This was partially scattered, but restored in 1705 with the gift by André Tournon of his private collection and 7,000 francs for the establishment of a free public library. The Bibliothèque Municipale of Tours originated in the collections of the abbey of Marmoutiers and other religious foundations of the region. Its earlier collections have suffered losses, but is now one of the largest public libraries in France. Another ancient library of France is that of Caen, William the Conqueror's town, which was founded in 1431. In spite of the vicissitudes of many wars, particularly the religious ones, it has developed into its present collection of 128,000 volumes. It was suppressed in 1701, but re-opened in 1736. Cardinal Fleury was one of its most liberal benefactors. The Bibliothèque Municipale of Lille is based like the others upon church collections and must have been established prior to the 14th century as a catalogue of that period is still in existence. It likewise suffered losses during the Revolution, but at the same time was augmented by additions from other monastic collections. Just what it has suffered from the German occupation is yet to be determined. One of the largest municipal libraries to develop from ecclesiastical origins is that of Rouen, which has steadily grown to its present size of 150,000 volumes. It was largely increased in 1855 by the accession of the splendid collection of M. Leber, containing 50,000 choice books and manuscripts. The Bibliothèque Municipale of Troyes was founded in 1651, by the gift of the library of Jacques Hennequin, to the Cordeliers of Troyes, on the condition that the library be opened to the public (135,550 vols.). When the religious orders were suppressed this collection, with that of the Oratorians and the remnants of the collection of the famous abbey of Clairvaux, were united to form the municipal library. Many of its treasures have been lost, but rare and precious items still remain, some antedating the death of Charlemagne. Among its collections of particular interest are the autograph works and correspondence of the Port Royal fraternity. The library of Besançon (103,830 vols.), founded by the Abbé Boisot in 1696, contains many manuscripts from the famous library of Cardinal Granvelle which had passed into the hands of the abbey of Saint Vincent and turned over to the city during the Revolution. Douai library (96,186 vols.), founded in 1767 under the auspices of the university, received in 1791 the splendid collection of the Benedictine Community of Marchiennes, which contained 1,718 rare manuscripts. The Bibliothèque Municipale of Bordeaux (200,000 vols.) owes its origin to the bequests of MM. Bel and Cardoze to the Bordeaux Académie des Sciences in 1738. This collection has been generously added to by the city. Among other French libraries of interest may be noted: Rochelle, originating in the collection of the Consistoire Réformé de la Rochelle, 1604 (109,712 vols.); Dijon (125,000 vols.), founded by P. Fevret in 1701; Nancy (142,018 vols.), founded by Stanislas in 1750; Nantes (220,000 vols.), 1753; Nice (60,000 vols.), founded by Abbé Massa in 1786; Nimes (110,000 vols.), founded by Jean de Dieu and R. Bion in 1778; Perpignan (35,000 vols.), founded by Maréchal de Mailly in 1759; Rennes (120,000 vols.), 1733; Toulouse (213,000 vols.), founded by the archbishop of Brienne in 1782; Marseilles (124,039 vols.), 1799.

Paris, of course, is richest in libraries of all types. The principal institution is the Bibliothèque Nationale, one of the world's greatest libraries, the importance of which calls for a detailed description. (See special article National Library of France). Next in importance to the Bibliothèque Nationale is the Bibliothèque Saint Geneviève, founded by Cardinal de Rochefoucauld in 1642. Originally it was the library of the abbey of Saint Geneviève, which he gathered upon his appointment as abbot. From this small beginning, it developed under the librarianships of Du Molinet, Gillet, Le Courayer, Merrier de Saint Léger, Pingré, Lemonnier and the historian Daunou. It steadily increased until at the outbreak of the Revolution it possessed about 80,000 printed books and 2,000 manuscripts. Two noteworthy collections were added during the 18th century; the splendid collection of Archbishop le Tellier (1716; 45,000 books and manuscripts) and that of the Duke of Orleans in 1791. At the dissolution of the abbey (1791), the library became state property and was renamed the Bibliothèque Pantheon. Durine the empire it was united with the Lycée Henri IV. The collections of the Bibliothèque Saint Geneviève number at present about 400,000 books, 1,225 incunabula and 3,855 manuscripts. The Bibliothèque Mazarine is of great interest in part owing to its founder, the great cardinal, and in part to the treasures it contains. The famous Gabriel Naudé, the first librarian, opened it to the public in 1642. It was dispersed by the Fronde but reconstituted in 1661, at which time it contained about 40,000 volumes. The collection remained in the Mazarine Palace until 1688 when it was transferred to the Collège de Mazarine. Its collections number about 250,000 volumes, 1,900 incunabula and 4,600 manuscripts. The Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal owes its origin to Antoine d'Argenson, Marquis de Paulmy, who in the midst of a life of greatest activity as a general, statesman and author contrived to gather a private library of approximately 100,000 volumes. At his death in 1789, this was acquired by the Comte d'Artois who united it with the equally splendid collection of the Duc de La Vallière. This collection, in 1858, contained 202,000 volumes and some 6,000 manuscripts. Its collections in 1915 numbered 624,904 volumes and 10,341 manuscripts. It possesses the most complete collection extant of romance literature, of drama, particularly of the period of mystery plays and by early French poetry.

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Public Library, Petrograd

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Bibliothèque Sainte Geneviève, Paris

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Bibliothèque Nationale, Cour d´honneur, Paris

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Bibliothèque de la Ville, Bordeaux

Special Libraries. — There are, in all, about 200 libraries in Paris of which many are special collections of great importance. Of these the Bibliothèque des Archives may be mentioned. It was founded by the Daunou in 1808 and contains 30,000 volumes, mainly source material in history. A library similar in nature is that of the Office de Législation Etrangère et de Droit Internationale. Other special libraries are Law: Bibliothèque des Avocate (1704; 65,000 vols.); Bibliothèque de la Faculté de Droit (100,000 vols.); Legislation: Bibliothèque de la Chambre des Députés (1706; 200,000 vols.); Bibliothèque du Sénat (1818; 140,000 vols.); Medicine: Académie de Médecine (1820; 60,000 vols.); Faculté de Medicine (220,000 vols.); Military and Naval Sciences: Bibliothèque du Ministère de la Guerre, founded by Louvois (135,000 vols.); Bibliothèque et Archives du Ministère de la Marine (1836; 100,000 vols.); Bibliothèque Hydrographique de la Marine (60,000 vols.); Education: Bibliothèque de l'Enseignement Public (80,000 vols.); Science and Technology: École Nationale des Ponts et Chausées (100,000 vols.); École Polytechnique (50,000 vols.); École Superieure des Mines (1778; 5,000 vols.); Museum d'Histoire Naturelle (220,000 vols.); Societé de Statistique (60,000 vols.); Bibliothèque de la Societé de Géographie (60,000 vols.); Music, Fine Arts: Bibliothèque d'Art et Archéologie (100,000 vols.); Conservatoire National de Musique (1775; 80,000 vols., 500,000 music manuscripts); Miscellaneous: École Spéciale des Langues Orientales Vivantes (75,000 vols.); Bibliothèque Historique de la Ville de Paris (1872; 24,000 vols.); Institut de France (1795; 550,000 vols.); Bibliothèque Polonaise (1838; 100,000 vols.); Société de l'Histoire du Protestantisme (60,000 vols.).

University Libraries.— In comparison with the libraries of some of the provincial universities, that of the Université de Paris, or the Bibliothèque de la Sorbonne (600,000 vols.), is of relatively recent birth, having been founded in 1762. Next to the Bibliothèque Nationale it is the richest in special collections and source material. In 1897 it was housed in the buildings of the New Sorbonne, even then inadequate for its collections. Many of the provincial university libraries date from the mediæval foundations of their schools. Thus the Bibliothèque Universitaire, Aix-en-Provence (85,000 vols., 63,000 theses) was established in 1409, that of the University of Bordeaux (107,000 vols., 174,400 theses) in 1441. More recent foundations are the University of Grenoble (1879; 175,000 vols.); Lille (407,000 vols., 194,000 theses); Lyon (137,352 vols., 117,000 theses); Montpellier (126,399 vols., 127,000 theses); Nancy (107,254 vols., 106,000 theses); Poitiers (114,000 vols., 170,000 theses); Rennes (1733; 193,000 vols., 68,000 theses); Toulouse (1879; 140,000 vols ).

Prior to the 20th century France was perhaps better supplied with excellent collections of books than other countries. Her institutions have tended to cling to old methods, hence the modern movement that has transformed bibliographic systems in the United States and England has been but slowly accepted there. In 1906, however, the Minister of Public Instruction appointed a committee to study the condition of the archives and libraries of France which presented a report recommending radical reforms in methods, and a more liberal treatment of libraries and their personnel in income and scholarly recognition. At this time, also, a national library association was founded and a periodical started which might serve as an organ of intercommunication between librarians. There is every reason for believing that this movement will prove as wholesome for library conditions in France as the similar ones in Great Britain and America. Consult Marcel, H., and others, ‘Bibliothèque Nationale’ (2 vols., Paris 1907); Franklin, ‘Guides des savants, des littérateurs, etc., de Paris’ (Paris 1908); Le Prince, ‘Essai historique sur la Bibliothèque du Roi, aujourd'hui Bibliothèque Impèriale’ (Paris 1856); Martin, ‘Histoire de la Bibliothèque de l'Arsénal’ (Paris 1899); Morel, ‘Le Développement des Bibliothèques publiques’ (Paris 1899); Mortreuil, ‘La Bibliothèque Nationale’ (Paris 1878); Pécheur, ‘Histoire des bibliothèques publiques du Départment de l'Aisne’ (Soissons 1884); Saint-Albin, ‘Les bibliothèques municipales de la Ville de Paris’ (Paris 1896); Supercaze, ‘Les bibliothèques populaires, scholaires et pédagogiques’ (Paris 1892).

German Empire.

The German Empire has a great number of large libraries. This is due in the main to the existence of the many separate states that form the empire, the rulers of which have encouraged the formation of libraries in their capital cities. The interest, likewise, taken by the Germans in popular education and in scholarship has had its effect also. Hence, while Germany has no individual collections that compare with the Bibliothèque Nationale or the British Museum, it has a dozen that exceed 500,000 volumes in size. Four classes of libraries may be distinguished in Germany, the Hof or Royal, the Stadt or Municipal, the university and the popular libraries, or Volk-bibliotheken.

In origin the German libraries, like the French, may be traced to three movements: (1) The mediæval or ecclesiastic foundations; (2) the humanistic or university; (3) the modern. As in France, it has been the privilege of the last period to gather together and organize the material that has been saved from the earlier collections. For this reason many of the German libraries assign their foundations as early as the 14th and 15th centuries. The suppression of the religious orders during and after the Reformation resulted in the liberation of many collections of books, some of great interest, and, while many valuable items were lost, a large proportion was saved as is evidenced by the splendid collections of manuscripts and early printed books in the various libraries.

Germany has produced many librarians and bibliographers of distinction, among whom may be noted Lipsius, Pertz, Panzer, Halm, Petzholdt, Heyne, Ritschl, Hain, Jahn, Forstmann and Dziatzko. The modern library movement, owing to the early efficiency and completeness of Germany's early library system, did not develop in that country until the beginning of the present century. While an excellent library journal, Zentralbtatt fur Bibliotekswesen, has been in existence since 1884, no national association of librarians was formed prior to 1889. During the last decade legislation has been enacted in Prussia and Bavaria providing for more careful attention to the development of libraries and for raising the standard of librarianship, it being enacted in 1904 that librarians should be university graduates and candidates for the doctorate, and in 1907 a director of library affairs, under the Minister of Education, was established.

The Königl. Bibliothek at Berlin (1661) is not only the greatest library in Prussia, but, in a sense, fills the role of the national library of the German Empire. It is one of the 10 greatest libraries in the world, containing now about 1,500,000 volumes, 5,000 incunabula and 42,000 manuscripts. Its founder was the Elector of Brandenburg, Friedrich Wilhelm, who formed a collection in his palace in 1650, consisting mainly of spoils from monasteries destroyed during the religious wars. In 1699 the copy privilege was assigned, but no large additions were made either during the reigns of Friedrich Wilhelm I and Frederick the Great. The predilection of the latter for French literature, however, indirectly benefited the Royal Library, for he immediately turned over to it every book in the German language that came into his possession. Under Friedrich Wilhelm III many large additions were made. The library possesses important special collections, among which may be noted German history and literature, philology, the sciences and a splendid collection of incunabula. Its collections were housed for more than a century in an imposing but sombre building erected by the command of Frederick the Great during the years 1775-80. A new and more commodious building was erected in 1909.

The Königl. Hof- u. Staatsbibliothek, the Royal Library of Bavaria at Munich, has long been recognized as a model institution. It was founded during the reign of Gross-Herzog Albrecht V during the years 1550-79, its nucleus being the private library of the ruler. A building was erected for it in 1575 and the collections have gradually increased until it possessed about 20,000 volumes at the beginning of the 16th century. It suffered losses during the Thirty Years' War, but gained in the end, for a number of valuable collections, such as that of Gross-Herzog Christopher of Württemberg and the library of Tübingen, came to it as spoils of battle. All previous accessions, however, were overshadowed by the expansion under Maximilian Joseph resulting from the suppression of religious institutions, 150 of which were closed in 1803. Vast collections came from the Jesuits' College at Ebersberg, the Benedictine abbey of Saint Emmeran, Ratisbon and other monasteries of the same order; the canonries of Saint Udalrich, Saint Afra, and from libraries at Mannheim and Bamberg. Ludwig I was equally generous and during his reign many important special collections were received, such as those of von Moll and K. F. Neumann. He built the splendid palace on Ludwigstrasse, which houses the collections, the library being reorganized and reclassified when installed. The collections number about 1,200,000 volumes, 50,000 manuscripts and are particularly rich in Hebrew literature and Orientalia.

The Royal Library of Saxony, at Dresden, was founded by Elector Augustus in 1556, who established a collection in his palace, Castle Annaburg. In 1595 it contained 5,668 volumes. Its greatest expansion was experienced under Friedrich Augustus II, the second founder of the library. He installed it in a new home, adding a number of valuable collections such as those of von Besser and Maurice of Saxe. Under Friedrich Augustus III it took first rank, due mainly to the efforts of Prince Xavier, guardian of the young prince. Two vast collections were added; the Bünau (43,000 vols.) and the Brühl (62,000 vols.). In 1800 the collections numbered 200,000 volumes, in 1850 300,000 volumes, and at present it contains about 600,000 volumes and 6,000 manuscripts. It is particularly rich in German history, literature and the fine arts.

Among the other royal libraries may be mentioned Königl. Landesbibliothek of Stuttgart (603,186 vols.), opened to the public in 1777, containing at that time 6,000 volumes and 4,000 manuscripts from the palace collections at Ludwigsburg. It contains many of the books from the private library of the famous French scholar De Thou which were purchased when his library was dispersed. It is also famous for its collection of editions of the Bible. The Hertzogl. B. of Wolftenbüttel (300,000 vols.), founded by Julius, Duke of Braunsweig-Luneburg, in 1558, was a large collection at the beginning of the 18th century. The poet Lessing at one time was librarian and among its patrons was the philosopher Leibnitz, many of whose papers, however, are in the Königl. u. Provinzial-Bibliothek at Hanover (211,200 vols.), founded by Duke Johann Friedrich in 1660; Gotha, Öffentliche B. des Herzogl. Hauses, founded 1646 by Ernest I of Saxony, has been developed by the reigning sovereigns (25,000 vols. in 1723; 150,000 in 1858; 205,638 in 1912 and 7,655 manuscripts). The Grossherzogl. Hof-B. at Darmstadt (564,512 vols.) was founded in 1670 by Ludwig I, but based upon the collections of the Landgrave Ludwig VI. It contains manuscripts from Cologne Cathedral. Saxe Weimar has long been a centre of art and literature, its rulers encouraging all things that would foster learning. Hence the Grossherzoglich Bibliothek (300,000 vols.) is large and most interesting. It was founded in 1700 by Duke Wilhelm Ernest, who gathered all of the books of his predecessors together into one collection. During the 18th century it was accounted the best library in Germany. It contains a fine collection of military literature.

Municipal Libraries. — One of the most interesting and perhaps oldest of the German stadt or town libraries is that of Nürnberg, founded in 1445 by Dr. Konrad Kühnhofer, who presented his private collection to the city. To this has been added many valuable collections, notably that of Jerome Paumgärtner, the friend of Luther. It also contains monastic books, the manuscripts of Hans Sachs and of Dürer, and many rarities greatly treasured by the city. The collections, numbering about 112,000 volumes and 2,550 manuscripts, are housed in the ancient monastic building of the Dominicans. The Staats-Kreis.-u.-Stadtbibliothek of Augsburg was founded in 1537, its collections originally having been monastic. In 1806, when the city of Augsburg was ceded to Bavaria, the greater part of its library was transferred to Munich. Steps were soon taken to rebuild it and books were gathered from the convents and monasteries to that end. These amounted to 42,791 volumes, which were formed into a Kreisbibliothek. The collections number (1912) 205,000 volumes, 2,300 manuscripts. Hamburg contains a number of excellent libraries, of which the most important is the Stadtbibliothek, founded in 1529. This contains about 418,000 volumes, 917 incunabula, 8,000 manuscripts. Frankfort-on-Main also is well supplied with libraries, possessing four of more than 50,000 volumes each. The Stadtbibliothek, founded in 1668, is the largest, containing approximately 370,000 volumes. The Königl. Öffentliche B. of Bamberg (1611) contains splendid collections, being particularly rich in examples of early printing, the majority coming from the libraries of suppressed religious' institutions. It is housed in the building of the former Jesuits' college. Among the other public libraries in Germany, too numerous to be discussed, may be noted those of Berlin (124,866 vols.); Lübeck (1620; 129,056 vols.); Mainz (1803; 235,000 vols.); Bremen (1660; 148,837 vols.); Breslau (185,000 vols.); Cassel (1580; 250,000 vols.); Cologne (1602; 255,000 vols.); Danzig (1591; 167,000 vols.); Treves (1803; 100,000 vols.); Weisbaden (1813; 172,211 vols.). Leipzig, the centre of German publishing activities, is also the home of a number of excellent libraries, among which may be noted the Bibliothek des Reichsgerichts (1870; 170,000 vols.), the Pädegogische Zentralbibliothek (1872; 190,000 vols.) and the Universitäts-B. (1543; 610,000 vols.). The Stadtbibliothek originated in a bequest of Hulderich Gross in 1677. It contains many valuable collections, among them that of Prof. H. L. Pölitz, the historian, bequeathed in 1838.

University Libraries. — The universities have played an extraordinary rôle in the development of modern Germany. This has been due in part to their large and well-equipped libraries and to the German research methods which enforce constant reference to their collections. The oldest German university library is probably that of Heidelberg, founded in 1386. Its modern development, however, dates from the purchase of the private library of the scholar Grævius by the Elector Palatine Johann Wilhelm, in 1707, who incorporated with it the remnant of the ancient library. Other collections were received from dissolved monasteries and other sources, and by careful purchases, until it comprehends at present 500,000 volumes, 200,000 theses and 3,530 manuscripts.

The University of Halle (Friedrichs-Universität Halle-Wittenberg) possesses an exceptionally well-organized library, rich in early printed books and research literature. Its foundation was laid in the purchase of the library of Prof. J. G. Simon in 1696, by duplicates from Berlin and the collections of Bergen Convent. The merging of the University of Wittenberg with Halle in 1816 resulted in another large increase. The collections now number about 300,000 volumes and 2,016 manuscripts. Another admirably equipped library is that of the University of Göttingen, founded by George II in 1734. The famous bibliographer Heyne was librarian for 50 years, and to this fact is due the completeness of its collections and their excellent catalogues. Heyne's successors were equally devoted. The library contains many valuable special collections, among them those of the historian Heeren, of von Bülow, Uffenbach and J. C. Jahn. The library is particularly rich in philology, history and science, and contains about 619,102 volumes and 6,940 manuscripts. The united Royal and University Library of Königsberg was founded by the Margrave Albert of Brandenburg, 1st Duke of Prussia, in 1534. The library at first was called the Schlossbibliothek. It numbers some 318,000 volumes and 1,500 manuscripts.

The Jena University Library (270,000 vols.) was founded by the transfer of books from Wittenberg in 1548. The Grand Duke Karl Augustus of Saxe-Weimar was a patron of it and Goethe took great interest in its development. Another splendidly equipped university library is that of Leipzig, containing some 610,000 volumes and 6,500 manuscripts. It was formed out of monastic collections in 1543 and is particularly rich in history, the sciences and classics. Among other university libraries of Germany may be noted Erlangen (254,083 vols.), formed by the Margrave Friedrich, in 1743, out of the collections of the margraves of Anspach and dissolved monasteries; Breslau (402,767 vols.), founded in 1811 from earlier collections and from the library of the former University of Frankfort-on-Main; Bonn (376,800 vols.), founded 1818 by the purchase of the collections of Prof. C. G. Harless and those of the former University of Duisburg; Marburg (265,000 vols.), founded in 1527 by Philip, Landgrave of Hesse; Rostock (294,000 vols.), founded by Grossherzog Albrecht of Mecklenburg in 1552, based in part upon the collections of the short-lived University of Bützow; Würzburg (400,000 vols.), founded by the Prince-Bishop Julius Echter v. Mespelbrunn; Giessen (261,747 vols.), formed of a collection purchased in Prague in 1605, and Tübingen (555,283 vols.), founded in 1477, based originally in monastic collections.

Special Libraries. — Germany has many excellent special libraries, of which the most important are at Berlin, the collections in law, medicine and technology being particularly noteworthy. As might be expected, the military collections are impressive, the Bibliothek des grossen Generalstabes, Berlin, numbering about 100,000 volumes, and that of Kreigsakademie about 105,000 volumes. The majority of the schools of technology have large and well-selected libraries. Consult ‘Addressbuch der deutschen Bibliotheken’; Ebert, ‘Geschichte u. beschreibung der K. Oeffentlichen Bibliothek zu Dresden’ (Leipzig 1822); Hortzschansky, ‘Die K. Bibliothek zu Berlin’ (Berlin 1908); Jaeschke, ‘Volks-bibliotheken’; ‘Jahrbuch der deutschen Bibliotheken’ (Leipzig 1902); Petzholdt, ‘Addressbuch der bibliotheken Deutschlands mit einschluss von Oesterreich — Ungarn u. der Schweiz’ (3 vols., Dresden 1875).


The library history of the kingdom of Italy has its roots in antiquity. Here was established the first Western monastery, Monte Cassino, whose library still exists. This was founded by Saint Benedict in 529. It was in Italy that Petrarch, Boccaccio, Poggio and their confrères began the search for manuscripts and objects of ancient art that initiated the Renaissance. As in Germany, another thing that encouraged the development of libraries was development of the small states and free cities. The rulers of these, during the later mediæval period and throughout the Renaissance, were often patrons of art and learning who loved books and found much delight in collecting them. Many of the modern Italian libraries originated in such collections, and in spite of numberless wars and vicissitudes of all kinds they still possess a great share of their original treasures. Italy was deprived of many rarities during the wars with the first French republic and Napoleon, but the majority were returned after the fall of the latter. The unification of Italy and the establishment of the present kingdom resulted in the nationalization of the libraries, most of which passed under government control. Successive laws have been enacted for the organization and administration of these biblioteca governati which are under direction of the Minister of Public Instruction, who has under him a Board of Library Control. Careful watch is made over the library treasures. In 1875, 1,700 monastic libraries were confiscated by the state. These were transferred to the governmental libraries already in existence or new collections were formed (371 in 1875, 415 in 1878). The personnel of the libraries are government employees and are divided into the following classes: (1) librarians; (2) keepers of manuscripts; (3) assistants, cataloguers, etc.; (4) ushers, messengers, etc.

The national library of Italy is the Nazionale Centrale Vittorio Emanuele, in Rome, founded 1875, and based on the collections of the Collegio Romano, or Jesuits' College. It has the copy privilege and contains many splendid collections, such as the Farfensi, the Sessoviani manuscripts of Santa Croce, Jerusalem, and much material on the history of Italy, particularly the period of the Renaissance. Another important library in Rome is the Biblioteca Casanatense, founded by Cardinal Casanate in 1698. This contains 200,000 volumes, 2,000 incunabula, 5,000 manuscripts, many of them of the 8th to 10th centuries, and is rich in the literature of theology, law, economic, political and social sciences and history, particularly that of the Middle Ages. Among the other libraries of Rome may be mentioned the Biblioteca Universitaria Alessandrina called the Sapienza, founded by Alexander VII, in 1667, the Cossini and the Chiagi. The collections at Milan are perhaps next in importance to those of Rome, the largest being the Biblioteca Nazionale, or Braidense, founded in 1770 by Maria Theresa, who purchased the collections of the naturalist Haller consisting of 14,000 volumes and manuscripts. The collections have been greatly increased by transfers from religious institutions and by public and private munificence. It contains many interesting items, among the manuscripts of Dante, Galileo, Tasso and Manzoni. The collections number 259,680 volumes, 167,948 pamphlets, 1,834 manuscripts. There is an excellent catalogue in three parts, accession, author and subject, developed by Sacchi and Rossi. The classification system devised by Rossi for the Braidense has been adopted by other Italian libraries. More famous, even, than the Braidense is the Biblioteca Ambrosiana founded in 1609 by Cardinal Federico Borromeo, and based on his private collections. This is housed in an ancient conventual building adapted to the purposes of a library, and contains many bibliographic treasures, among them manuscripts of Petrarch and Laura, drawings and manuscripts of Leonardo da Vinci and rare examples of early books. In 1879 it received the library of Prof. C. Mensinger, “Biblioteca Europea,” containing material on the history and linguistics of Europe. Cardinal Mai, the celebrated antiquarian, was librarian of the Ambrosiana for several years.

Florence has a number of interesting collections, the oldest and most important being the Mcdiceo-Laurenziana housed in the Uffizzi Palace. It was formed from the collections, that of Lorenzo the Magnificent and the one gathered by Niccolo Niccoli and Cosimo. Edward Edwards, ‘Memoirs of Libraries,’ Vol. 2, p. 369, calls this “The noblest monument which the Medicis have left of the glory of their line.” It has suffered many losses, particularly during the régime of Savonarola, yet it still remains one of the most interesting collections of bibliographic treasures in the world. Second only to the Vittori Emanuele at Rome is the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of Florence. This has developed from the amalgamation of the private collections of the famous bibliographer Magliabechi and the Biblioteca Palatina, formerly the library of the grand dukes of Tuscany and housed in the Pitti Palace. Magliabechi was librarian of the ducal library for many years during which time he gathered his own splendid collection, bequeathing it to the Grand Duke in 1714. Many valuable additions have been made to these collections, among them Poggi and Reviczky libraries. The library is very rich in Italian history and literature. Manuscripts of Machiavelli and of Galileo, Torricelli, Viviana and other early Italian scientists are among the collections. A new building, appropriated for in 1902, has been erected on the Corso dei Tintori, near Santa Croce. Its collections now number about 600,000 volumes, 900,000 pamphlets and manuscripts including many prior to the 11th century. Others of special interest are those of Boccaccio and Cellini. Among other Florentine libraries are the Biblioteca Riccardiana, rich in Italian literature, and the Biblioteca Marucelliana, remarkable for its collection of Italian art. The Biblioteca Marciana (library of Saint Mark's) is the most important one in Venice, and if the tradition that Petrarch founded it in 1362 is correct it is the oldest. At any rate books from Petrarch's collections were discovered by Tomasini. The present collection is based upon the gift of manuscripts and codices brought by Cardinal Bessarione from Constantinople and presented to Saint Mark in 1468. Many additions have been made from the collections of religious institutions and by private gift. The library is particularly rich in Venetian history and early geography and travel. It was first housed in the Libreria del Sansovino, from which it was transferred in 1812 to the Palazzo Ducale and in 1904 to the Palazzo della Zecca, or The Mint. Naples has a number of libraries, the most important being the Biblioteca Nazionale, opened in 1804. It originated in the library of Cardinal Seripando, to which large additions have been made, particularly in 1848 from monastic collections. It contains 395,439 volumes, 221,859 pamphlets, 4,218 incunabula, 7,997 manuscripts, and is very rich in scientific literature, particularly the publications of learned societies. The Biblioteca Brancacciano (115,000 vols.) was founded by Cardinal Brancaccio in 1690. Balogne, long famous as a centre of learning, has an excellent library, the Biblioteca Comunale, founded 1801 (313,133 vols.), which is especially rich in Orientalia, as has Padua (Museo Civico, founded 1778, 230,000 vols.) and Modena, whose library, the Biblioteca Estense, is based upon the collections of the famous Este family, which were transferred from Ferrara to Modena by Cesare d'Este in 1598. It now forms the Biblioteca Estense-Universitaria. Other large collections are at Genoa, Pavia, Lucca, Palermo, Perugia, Pisa, Verona and Vicenza. The library at Messina was destroyed by the earthquake of 1908, but reconstituted in 1910.

University Libraries. — The universities of Italy are very ancient and the majority possess excellent collections of books. One of the oldest of these, Bologna, doubtless had some type of a library at an early date, yet the founding of its present collection is assigned to 1605 at which time the naturalist Aldrovandi bequeathed his collection of 3,800 volumes and 350 manuscripts to the university. Great additions were made by gifts from Count Luigi Marsili (1712), Mezzofanti, the famous bibliophile and linguist, and others. The collections now number 255,000 volumes, 880 incunabula, 5,000 manuscripts. The University of Padua, another early foundation, has a library of 300,000 volumes and Pisa one of 203,000 volumes. The Biblioteca Universitaria of Naples is based on a collection established by Joachim Murat in 1812. This was transferred to the university and opened to the public in 1849. It contains a number of monastic collections and is rich in medical and scientific works. Other important collections are at the universities of Pisa, Pavia, Genoa and Turin.

Special Libraries. — There are a number of important special libraries in Italy, the majority being in Rome. Among these are Law, etc.: The Biblioteca dei Deputati (133,700 vols.), Biblioteca del Senato (100,000 vols.); Military Science: Biblioteca Militare Centrale (70,000 vols.); Music: Biblioteca Musicale (115,000 vols.); Agriculture: Institute International d'Agriculture (60,000 vols.). Consult ‘Le biblioteche governative del regno d'Italia’ (Rome 1893); ‘Le biblioteche popolari in Italia, relazione al Ministro della Pubblico Instruzione’ (Rome 1893); Fabietti, ‘Manuale per le biblioteche popolari’ (Milano); ‘Statistica della biblioteche’ (Rome 1893-96).


The Netherlands has long been a centre of culture and there were many excellent public and private collections during the era of their greatest prosperity. Popular libraries have been in existence for centuries, but Belgium and Holland fell behind the states of Europe during the 19th century. Since 1900, however, considerable progress has been made. Modern methods have been applied, old libraries have been rejuvenated and many new ones established.

Belgium. — It is quite impossible to give any true statement of the libraries of Belgium at the present, on account of the destructive invasion of the Germans in the World War. We know that the wonderful collection of manuscripts and book rarities of the University of Louvain has perished, as doubtless is true of the collections at Liège, Tournai, Alost, Courtrai, Namur, Malines (Mechlin) and Mons.

Brussels of course has the largest and richest collections in Belgium, the Bibliothèque Royale containing about 700,000 volumes. Its present collections date from 1837, but it is based upon the ancient Bibliothèques des ducs de Bourgogne, and the Austrian rulers of the Low Countries. These were augmented by collections from suppressed religious institutions, particularly the Jesuits, but many valuable works were confiscated by the French during their occupation. Much of its modern development has been due to the activity of Van Hulthem, under whose direction it became one of the best libraries in Europe. It is particularly rich in Netherlands history. Brussels is also the headquarters of the Institut International de Bibliographie designed to constitute a centre for co-operative bibliographic work throughout the world.

Special Libraries. — The majority of the governmental departments have collections relating to their special fields, notably the library of the Ministry of War (120,000 vols.), Chambre des Représentants (100,000 vols.), Commission Centrale de Statistique (70,000 vols.), Ministère des Affaires Etrangères (100,000 vols.), Ministère de la Justice (50,000 vols), and Ministère des Sciences et des Artes (75,000 vols.). Other important collections are the Bibliothèque des Bollandistes (1640; 200,000 vols.), Bibliothèque de l'Académie Royale (141,000 vols.), the Bibliothèque Collective International (75,000 vols., proceedings of learned societies), Académie Royal de Médécine (100,000 vols.), Conservatoire Royal de Musique (60,000 vols.) and the Musée Plantin Moretus (1640), containing 26,000 books and manuscripts on the history of printing.

The Bibliothèque Communal et Universitaire at Ghent is based upon the collections of the Conseil de Flandres, College des Echevins, the Baudeloo Abbey and other suppressed religious institutions. It was made a public library in 1797 and merged with the university upon its foundation in 1817. Collections, 450,000 volumes. The only library of importance in Antwerp is the Bibliothèque Municipale, founded according to some authorities in 1476, but probably a century later. It contains, if still extant, about 125,000 volumes.

Holland. — The most important libraries of Holland are the Koninklijke Bibliotheek at The Hague, and the university libraries of Utrecht and Leiden. The Koninklijke Bibliotheek (1798) was formed from the collections of the princes of Orange and the library of the Staats-General, and various smaller collections, which arc notably augmented by the bequest of Baron van Westreenen in 1848. It numbers some 600,000 volumes, comprising a very complete collection of Netherlands history. The library of the University of Utrecht originated in a collection brought together by the town council in 1581, but its true establishment was probably the date of the foundation of the university in 1636. It contains many rarities in its collections, among them the famous “Utrecht Psalter.” Its collections number about 400,000 volumes. The University of Leiden, founded as a memorial to the brave and successful defense of the city against the Spaniards in 1574, was long one of the most noted in Europe, and immediately upon its establishment by William of Orange (1575) steps were taken to develop a library. This has been augmented by books from many sources, particularly by bequests and gifts from its distinguished scholars such as Grotius, Vossius and Joseph Scaliger, Ruhnken and Hemsterhuis. In 1877 the Library of the Society of Netherlands History was merged with it, forming a notable collection of national history and literature. It is also strong in Orientalia, Greek manuscripts and early Dutch travels. Its collections number 400,000 volumes, 6,000 manuscripts.


“The first library ever known in Russia was organized in the 11th century when the great Duke Yaroslaw, the Sage, ordered several books on religion to be copied and kept in the Church of Saint Sofia, at Kief.” (Mme. Haffkin-Hamburger, ‘Russia Libraries,’ in Library Journal, March 1915). The principal libraries of Russia originated in the spoils of war. This is particularly true of the Imperial Library at Petrograd. Its first collections were seized in 1714 in Courland, and its true establishment dates from the transfer of the great Zaluski collection from Warsaw in 1796. It is perhaps true that the collection was deteriorating in Poland, yet that only in part justifies the transaction. This collection was formed by Counts Josef and Andrei Zaluski, who had devoted their lives and great wealth to its accumulation, and when opened to the public in 1747 it probably numbered about 300,000 items. The addition of this to its other collections made the Imperial Library one of the largest in the world, a position it still maintains. Among the many collections of which it was formed may be noted those of Catherine the Great, containing Shcherbatof, Voltaire and Diderot, the Slavonic collections of Tolstoi, Tischendorf manuscripts, including the wonderful Codex Sinaiticus, Dolgorousky's Orientalia, the libraries of Adelung, Tobler, and Jungmann and the collections of the Jesuits' college of Polotzk. The library was opened to the public 2 Jan. 1814. The development of the collection was due in large part to the librarians of Olenin and Korff, the increase during the latter's administration being remarkable, growing from 640,000 volumes to over a million. There is a catalogue in manuscript, and lists of special collections have been published from time to time. The collections number 2,615,374 volumes and 207,816 manuscripts.

Other large collections at Petrograd are the Academy Library (1725; 200,000 vols.); Archives of the Senate (4,061,042 vols.); Goruyi Institute (1773; 250,000 vols.); Imperial Academy of Science (1728; 500,000 vols.). At Warsaw is the library of the Polish Kingdom (1,749,837 vols.). Moscow has also some large collections of books, notably the Rumiantseff Museum (1828; 1,000,000 vols.) and the Duchovanja (1689; 240,000 vols.). Russian universities have also extensive libraries, Charkov (1804; 240,916 vols.); Helsingfors (1640, 1827; 150,000 vols.); Kiev (1832; 500,000 vols.); Moscow (1756; 394,845 vols.); Odessa (1865; 280,144 vols.); Imperial University, Petrograd (453,772 vols.); Warsaw (1817; 576,387 vols). The university at Tomsk, Siberia, has a collection of 226,167 volumes.

There are a few special libraries of interest, the majority being in Petrograd. Agriculture: Archives of the Department of Agriculture (1837; 300,000 vols.); library of the College of Agriculture and Forestry at Novaya-Alexandriya (79,374 vols.). Law, etc.: Archives of the Senate (4,061,042 vols.). Theology: Clerical Academy, Kazan (1842; 106,666 vols.). Science and Technology: Archives of the Department of Roads (140,000 vols.); Imperial Academy of Science (1728; 500,000 vols., 13,000 MSS.); Russian Geographical Society (70,000 vols.). Medicine: Academy of Medicine (1725; 200,000 vols.). There has been no particular development of popular libraries in Russia, but during the last 10 years efforts have been made to establish them.


Prior to the latter part of the 19th century there was no general interest in library development in the Scandinavian countries. There were a few collections in the larger cities and the universities possessed libraries, but none of these were extensive. During the last few decades, however, there has been an awakening to the value of the library to the community and Scandinavian librarians have gone abroad, especially to America, to study modern systems.

Denmark. — The most important Danish libraries are at Copenhagen, the largest being the Royal Library (Det Kongelige Bibliothek), founded originally by Christian III in 1533-39, but re-established by Frederick III in 1665, who erected the building in which it was housed until 1906 when it was transferred to a new home. It is essentially a national library and possesses a most complete collection of Danish literature and history. Among its treasures are the manuscripts of the astronomer Tycho Brahe. Its collections number about 770,000 volumes.

Next in importance is the Universitets Bibliotheket, the oldest research collection in Denmark, having been founded in 1482, the foundation date of the university. The collections were burned 1728, but soon reconstituted. It contains the famous Arne-Magnean collections. The collections number some 400,000 volumes, 150,000 theses, 6,500 manuscripts, rich in medicine and science.

Copenhagen also contains some special libraries of importance (law, history and economics), the Town Hall library (local history), the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural College (agriculture) and the Academy of Fine Arts. There are also several collections on military and naval sciences, aggregating about 100,000 volumes. The only large collection outside of the capital is at Aarhus, which contains 200,000 volumes. A new building was erected for this in 1902. During the last decade of the 19th century a movement was initiated to establish popular libraries throughout Denmark. Prior to that time there had been a few parochial collections in cathedral towns, but they were relatively inactive. The new movement invigorated these and resulted in the establishment of many new collections, hence there were some 500 of these in 1904, with an aggregate of 200,000 volumes. The libraries are controlled by a state library commission.

Norway. — The chief library of Christiania is that of the University. It contains about 500,000 volumes and was founded by Frederick II in 1811. its first collections being duplicates from the Royal Library. Next in importance is the Deichmanske Bibliothek, the free public library. This was established in 1780, reorganized in 1898 and contains 126,638 volumes; Bergen (1872; 117,831 vols.) and Trondhjem (1760; 132,000 vols., 1,940 MSS.) are the other libraries of importance in Norway. The formation of small public libraries has been encouraged since the municipal reform of 1837, but their growth was slow prior to the reorganization in 1901, since which time the development has been more rapid. They number about 1,000. The books for these collections are purchased co-operatively.

Sweden. — The most important collections of Sweden are the Royal Library (Kungliga Biblioteket) at Stockholm and the university libraries at Upsala and Lund. The Royal Library has a somewhat unusual history, for it has been established three times. Gustavus Adolphus presented the original collections, founded in 1585, consisting of books confiscated from monasteries, to the University of Upsala. Another collection was then developed from other libraries conquered during the Thirty Years' War. This Queen Christina gave the Vatican upon her abdication, where it now remains among the treasures of that library. The third collection was, in the main, destroyed by fire in 1697, about one-third being saved. It grew slowly during the 18th century, but the gift of the Royal Antiquarian Collections in 1786 added 30,000 valuable books to the shelves. Its collections now number about 400,000 volumes and 1,000,000 pamphlets. A new building was erected in 1882. Owing to the efforts of the librarian, G. E. Clemming, the collection of Swedish history and literature is very complete. At Stockholm is also the Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapsakademie or the Royal Academy of Science. This was established in 1739, the naturalist, Linnæus, being one of the founders. Its collections number about 115,000 volumes and contain among other items of interest the manuscripts of the Swedish scientists, Swedenborg and Berzelius. The Nobel Institute, which awards the Nobel Prize, has a valuable reference library, and in addition there are several special collections of importance, particularly that of the Royal Statistical Office. The library of the Royal University at Upsala is perhaps the oldest in Sweden, having been established in 1477. It was reconstituted in 1593, but its present development dates from 1620, when Gustavus Adolphus presented the Royal Library to the university. It contains the magnificent De la Gardie collection, received during the latter part of the 17th century. The collections number about 400,000 volumes, to which may be added hundreds of thousands of theses. The library of the University of Lund was founded in 1666, being based on the old collection of the cathedral of Lund. It has been supported by the Swedish rulers and numbers 200,000 volumes. Gothenburg and Linkoping each have public libraries containing more than 100,000 volumes, the latter possessing some interesting manuscripts.

Spain And Portugal.

Spain. — The interest shown in libraries in Spain, prior to the end of the 19th century, has not been very keen. Indeed many old collections have stood still or deteriorated. Recently, however, there has been a revival, particularly in the larger cities, and considerable advance has been made in augmenting the collections and in improving their administration. Madrid, of course, has the richest collections, the Biblioteca Nacional being the largest and most important library in the kingdom. This was founded in 1711 by Philip V, being based upon the royal collections. It has occupied several buildings; the present one, the only one constructed for its purpose, was erected by Fernando VII in 1826. The collections number about 700,000 volumes, 2,057 incunabula, 30,000 manuscripts, and contain much valuable and interesting material on Spanish history and literature, especially early discovery and exploration. Madrid has 23 libraries in all, containing collections aggregating 1,500,000 volumes, among which may be noted the Biblioteca de Universidad Central (1508; 270,000 vols.) and the Real Biblioteca (100,000 vols.). In the environs of the city is the famous library of the Escorial (q.v.). The universities of Barcelona and Seville also have excellent collections.

Portugal. — The National Library of Portugal at Lisbon was founded in 1796 and numbers about 400,000 volumes, 16,000 manuscripts. It is based upon monastic collections. Another notable collection is that of Academia das Sciencias (1779), numbering 120,000 volumes. Oporto has a public library, founded 1833, of 200,000 volumes, and the university at Coimbra (1591) has a collection of 100,000 volumes.


Switzerland has many libraries (5,798 in 1917) in comparison with its population and area. Only seven of these, however, contain more than 200,000 volumes. The majority of these are cantonal or communal collections. There are, however, 1,335 devoted to science or technology. This showing is all the more remarkable as the state did not concern itself with library development until the first half of the 19th century. A few of the ancient monastic collections of Switzerland still exist, the most interesting being the library of the famous abbey of Saint Gall. This collection was established by Abbott Gozbert about 820. “There remains enough of the old collection to attract and gratify the student of mediæval literature.” Edwards, ‘Memoirs of libraries’ (Vol. I, p. 262).

The largest collection is the Oeffentliche Bibliothek at Basel (1460), which contains about 330,094 volumes, 175,000 pamphlets, 5,140 manuscripts. This was united with the university in 1905. The National Library (Bibliothek Nationale Suisse) is at Berne. It was founded in 1895 and already has collections numbering 225,500 volumes. The city library (Stadt Bibliothek) has about the same number of volumes. Freiburg i. U, Geneva, Lausanne and Zürich each has a public library of over 200,000 volumes, while Zürich has in addition a library of technology in connection with the Technische Hochschule. Zürich also is the headquarters of the Consilium Bibliographicum, the purpose of which is to develop a universal card bibliography of scientific literature. The Swiss libraries are also co-operating in the formation of a general catalogue of Swiss literature, the libraries at Berne and Lucerne forming the collections upon which it is based. A Swiss library association was organized in 1900.


There are two libraries of importance in Athens, the Chamber of Deputies library (160,000 vols.), and the National Library (1842; 314,000 vols.).


Japan. — The early history of libraries in Japan is involved with that of China and presents no important distinctions. During the last quarter of the 19th century, however, the great transformation produced in Japan by the introduction of Western ideals and methods has had an influence equally far-reaching upon the libraries. These are now modeled upon accepted modern systems and a number are large and very active.

The most important is, of course, the Imperial Library at Tokio, founded in 1872. This is a reference library and contains about 298,663 volumes, of which one-half are Japanese and Chinese works. There are several other large collections in Tokio. among them the University Library (1872; 491,082 vols.); the Imperial Cabinet Library (1885; 507,500 vols.); the Hibaya Library (1908; 153,000 vols.); and the Waseda University Library (1902; 151,000 vols.).

There are also large libraries at other places, notably the Imperial University Library (291,117 vols., mainly technology) and the Fukuoka Medical College (113,000 medical works) at Kioto. Osaka has a public library containing 109,186 volumes, of which 8,218 are in the native tongues. There are, in addition, collections of books in nearly all the cities and towns. None of these are large, but the government is encouraging their development in every way, and undoubtedly the future of Japanese libraries is bright.

China. — Very little is known regarding the library history of China, yet it is believed that collections were formed at an early period. Huang-ti, one of the semi-mythical emperors, is said to have organized a board of historians to collect and transcribe the records of the empire. It is known, too, that the so-called “First Emperor” (221 B.C.) decreed that all books save those on medicine, magic and agriculture should be burned, and himself took charge of the censoring of the books. It was only through concealment that many treasures of Chinese learning, including the works of Confucius, were saved from destruction. Hsiao Wu (139-86 B.C.) established what were known as “Repositories,” the Chinese equivalent of the modern reference library. During the first century before Christ, Liu Hsiang (80-9 B.C.) and his son were commissioned to transcribe the masterpieces of Chinese literature and form a library. An annotated catalogue resulting from their labors which contains 11,332 entries is still extant.

There are also records of Chinese travelers, particularly Buddhist priests, who brought books from India and elsewhere into China and translated them into the vernacular. Of these Fa Hsien (circa. 400 A.D.) and Hsuan (629 A.D.) are of especial consequence.

The National Library at Peking was formed originally from a collection of 100,000 bamboo books and the Shu King, which had been concealed from destruction. These were added to by successive dynasties, but suffered many losses by fire and war. At present the library has about 200,000 volumes and manuscripts. There are collections at Canton and other cities. These are mainly for reference use only. There are a few small modern libraries in China, the one at Boone University being of some importance.

India.— There are many libraries in India, both native and foreign. Few, however, of them are of considerable size. The largest collection is doubtless that of the Imperial Library, Calcutta (1891; 152,000 vols.). The Royal Asiatic Society has collections at both Calcutta and Bombay, the latter numbering 80,000 volumes. In general, particularly in the British ruled states, the interest in libraries has not been very keen, the greatest development along modern library lines being in a few of the native states. A most remarkable instance is that of the state of Baroda. The library movement here was initiated by the Maharaja of Baroda, a highly enlightened and clear-visioned ruler. Under direction of an American librarian, Mr. Borden, a modern library system has been established which comprehends every portion of the state, all administered from the Central Library, a reference collection of 200,000 volumes housed in a beautiful building, a former palace of the Maharaja. All the libraries are state supported, and free to everyone without restriction of caste or position. A library school has also been established for training native librarians.

The only other state having a free library system is Indore. There are libraries at Madras, Benares, Allahabad and other cities but they are mainly used by scholars. A number of the native princes have made if a point to collect manuscripts, that of the Rajah of Tanjore being famous for its Sanskrit rarities. Eight thousand of its items are written on palm leaves.

Siam. — As a memorial to their father, the children of King Mong Kut founded a library in Bangkok. This was enlarged in 1904 and made the depository for the national archives. Its collections are divided into three sections: works in foreign languages, native languages and ancient languages. The last is of particular interest and contains over 100,000 items, many of them unique. The library also contains a collection of ancient inscribed stones.

Hawaiian Islands.

The most important library of the Hawaiian Islands is the Public Library of Hawaii which occupies an attractive Carnegie building at the civic centre of Honolulu. It grew out of a merger of several libraries, the Honolulu Library and Reading Room, founded in 1878, forming the bulk of the collection. The new building was occupied in 1913, and the library was made free to all in 1914. Oahu College has a growing collection housed in a $75,000 building, the gift of C. M. Cooke.

Philippine Islands.

There were collections of books in the Philippine Islands prior to the American occupation, the most of them developed by the Church. None of these, however, appear to have been of great importance. The first modern collection established was that of the American Library at Manila founded through the efforts of Mrs. Charles R. Greenleaf, the wife of General Greenleaf, and based upon books contributed by the Red Cross Society of California. This was turned over to the Philippine government in 1901 and is now under direction of the Bureau of Education. It is housed in a large building constructed by the Spanish government. The Bureau of Science also has an excellent collection, which is rich in material relative to the resources of the Philippines.


Australia. — Great interest in libraries has been evidenced in Australia, virtually all of which are state supported. The most important libraries of Australia are the New South Wales Public Library, Sydney (1869; 258,742 vols.), the Victoria Public Library, Melbourne (1854; 254,756 vols.) and the Adelaide Public Library (85,804 vols.). The Victoria Library is housed in a splendid new building, erected in 1915. There arc two modern university libraries, the Sydney University (100,000 vols.) and the Melbourne University. Tasmania has also established a system of public libraries. While none of these are large they are growing rapidly. The largest collection is the Public Library of Hobart, containing about 50,000 volumes. A library association was founded in 1902 and reorganized in 1911.

New Zealand. — New Zealand is not less alive to the value of libraries, which have been encouraged by very liberal library acts. The four largest centres of population, Auckland, Wellington, Christ Church and Dunedin, each has an excellent collection, the largest being the Auckland Free Public Library with approximately 100,000 volumes. Dunedin Library is housed in a Carnegie building erected at a cost of $50,000. Trained librarians, only, are employed in New Zealand libraries, whose interest in their work is shown by the organization of a library association in 1910.


Although there are a few libraries in northern Africa, such as the Bibliothèque Universitaire (58,620 vols., 135,252 theses) at Algiers, and the Bibliothèque Khediviale (75,000 vols., 12,000 MSS. at Cairo, it is only in South Africa that any noteworthy progress is evidenced. This has been encouraged by the enactment of library laws, the first being an ordinance passed by Cape Colony government in 1818 establishing the South African Public Library at Cape Town. This was given the copy-privilege in 1836. Grants of money have been made from time to time. The library is very rich in local history, due in part to the bequest (1862) of the large collection of Sir George Grey, the famous colonizer. Collections of books are to be found in nearly all of the South African centres, notably Fort Elizabeth, Durban, Kimberley, Johannesburg, etc. See also Library Data; Library Periodicals.

Bibliography. — General References: Adams, ‘Public Libraries and Popular Education’ (Albany 1900); ‘American Library Annual’ (New York 1911—); Brown, ‘Manual of Library Economy’ (London 1907); Clegg, ‘Directory of Booksellers’ (London 1902); Edwards, ‘Free Town Libraries’ (London 1869); id., ‘Memoirs of Libraries’ (2 vols., London 1859); id., ‘A Statistical View of the Principal Public Libraries in Europe and America’ (3d ed., London 1894); Greenwood, ‘Public Libraries’ (London 1894); id., ‘Year Book’ (London 1897, 1900-01); Larned, ‘History for Ready Reference’ (Springfield 1901); ‘Library Association Yearbook’ (1891—); ‘Literary Yearbook’ (1897—); Pellison, ‘Les bibliothèques populaires a l'étranger et en France’ (Paris 1906); United States Bureau of Education, ‘Papers prepared for the American Library Association. Annual meeting held at the Columbia Exposition. 1893’ (Washington 1896).

Edwin Wiley,
Librarian, United States Naval War College.
  1. Not including Sutro Library in San Francisco, 81,851 volumes.
  2. Deposited in the Library of Congress.