The Encyclopedia Americana (1920)/Rolland, Romaine

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ROLLAND, rōl'lạṅ, Romaine, French author: b. Clamecy, 29 Jan. 1866. He studied at the Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris, and in 1889-91 was a member of the Ecole Française de Rome. He was for a time professor of the history of art at the Ecole Normale Superieure, and was later called to the chair of history and music at the Sorbonne. He was awarded one-fourth of the Nobel Prise for literature in 1915 for the completion of his ‘Jean Christophe,’ a species of rambling novel, written in 10 volumes and carrying much philosophic discussion of life, the sub-titles being ‘L'Aube’; ‘Le Matin ’; ‘L'Adolescent’; ‘La Revolte’; ‘La Toire sur la place’; ‘Antoinette’; ‘Dans la Maison’; ‘Les amies’; ‘Le Buisson Ardente’; and ‘Le Nouvelle Journee.’ It was translated into English by Cannan, G. (1911-13). His other works include ‘Les origines du théatre lyrique moderne’; ‘Les Loups,’ drama; ‘Le Temps,’ drama; ‘Vie de Michel Auge’; ‘Vie de Beethoven’; ‘Haendel’; ‘Vie de Tolstoi’, etc. Consult Stephens, W., ‘French Novelists of To-day, Second Series’ (1915).