The Encyclopedia Americana (1920)/Varnhagen, Francisco Adolphe de
VARNHAGEN, värn-ä'gĕn, Francisco Adolphe de, Brazilian historian: b. São João de Ypanema, Brazil, 17 Feb. 1816; d. Vienna, Austria, 29 June 1878. He was taken to Portugal when very young, educated in the royal military college and in 1833-34 served in the constitutional army against Dom Miguel. He afterward engaged in historical researches, returned to Brazil in 1841 and during the remainder of his life was largely occupied on various diplomatic missions in South America and in Europe. As a historian he ranks easily at the head of Brazilian men of letters, his work displaying profound research and presented with clearness and force. He edited and published various historical documents, contributed numerous papers to the ‘Revista do Instituto do Brazil’ and wrote ‘Noticias do Brazil’ (1852); ‘Historia geral do Brazil’ (1854-57); ‘Das wahre Guanahani des Columbus’ (1869); ‘L'origine Touranienne des Américains Tupis-Caribes, et des anciens Egyptiens’ (1876), etc.