The Forth Bridge

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THE

FORTH BRIDGE.

 

Reprinted from "ENGINEERING," February 28, 1890.


 

THIRD EDITION, REVISED, WITH APPENDIX.

 

LONDON:

OFFICES OF "ENGINEERING," 35 & 36, BEDFORD STREET, STRAND, W.C.

 

CONTENTS.


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The Engineers and Contractors of the Forth Bridge:
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APPENDIX.
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71
 

 

LIST OF PLATES.


plate

I. Portrait of Sir John Fowler, K.C.M.G.

II. Portrait of Mr. Benjamin Baker.

III. The Forth Bridge.

IV. General View of Bridge; South Central Girder Connected; North Central Girder not Completed.

V. General View of Site Looking North-East. Caisson Building on Launching Ways.

VI. View from Inchgarvie Castle. The South Caisson in Position.

VII. Launching of Caisson for South-West Pier, Inchgarvie.—General View of Site, with Piers of South Approach Viaduct, Looking North.—Building of North-East Circular Granite Pier, Inchgarvie.—Caisson for Queensferry North-West Pier. Constructing Timber Casing Round the Tilted Caisson.

VIII. Front View of North Cantilever End Pier, and View of Viaduct and Arches.—North Approach Viaduct; Raising Viaduct Girders.—North Approach Viaduct; Girders Raised to Full Height.

IX. Fife Pier. Erection of Superstructure; Construction of Lifting Platforms.—Inchgarvie Pier. Erection of Superstructure; Rivetting Cages and Hydraulic Rivetting Machines on Vertical Columns and Diagonal Strut.—Fife Pier. Erection of Superstructure; Lifting Platforms about 100 ft. above High Water.—Cage for Rivetting and Building Bottom Members.

X. Queensferry Pier, looking North. Platforms about 190 ft. above High-Water Level.

XI. Queensferry Pier, looking North. Platforms Raised to Full Height.—Fife Pier, looking South. Platforms Raised to Full Height.—Fife Pier from the North-West. Platforms Raised to Full Height.

XII. Fife Cantilever. Side Elevation Looking East.

XIII. Effect of Sea Fog. Central Tower and South Approach Viaduct.—H.M.S. "Devastation" passing Fife Pier.—General View of Central Towers and Approach Viaducts, looking North.—Queensferry North-East Pier. Putting together Upper Bedplate.

XIV. Inchgarvie Pier. Rivetting in Top Members between Vertical Columns.—Queensferry Pier. Intersection of Diagonal Struts with Horizontal and Diagonal Bracing Girders.

XV. Fife Pier. First Half-Bay in Fixed Cantilever, showing Lifting Platform for Building the Lower Portion of Bay, and Top Member Crane with Platform Suspended from it.—Making Good a Crossing between Struts and Tiers in First Bay of Cantilever.

XVI. Central Tower, Queensferry Pier; Horizontal and Diagonal Bracing Girders; Part of Internal Viaduct and Temporary Staging.—Queensferry Pier. Internal Viaduct from Centre of Bay to within Central Towers.

XVII. Fife Pier. Lower Half of First Bay in Fixed Cantilever.—Fife Pier. Central Tower and Lower Half of First Bay in Free Cantilever.

XVIII. Fife Pier. Cantilever Completed and Central Girder Commenced; Fixed Cantilever not Quite Completed.

XIX. Queensferry Pier and Inchgarvie South Cantilever, with Parts of Central Girder Built Out.—Inchgarvie South Cantilever, with First Bay of Central Girder Built Out.—Central Tower on Inchgarvie; Internal Viaduct Girders and Wind Fence.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


page
Map showing the Forth Bridge and Railway Connections
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2
Fig. 1. Anderson's Design for Bridge over the Forth, 1818
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Figs. 2 and 3. Alternative Preliminary Designs for the Forth Bridge
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Figs. 4 and 5. The Forth Bridge, Cantilever Type; Original and Final Designs
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5
Figs. 6 to 15. Types of Cantilever Bridges
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6
Fig. 15a. Living Model, Illustrating Principle of the Forth Bridge
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Fig. 16. Map of the Firth of Forth
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8
Figs. 17 and 18. Wind Gauges on Inchgarvie
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9
Fig. 19. Expansion Diagram of Forth Bridge
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12
Fig. 20. Temporary Staging on Inchgarvie
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12
Figs. 21 and 22. Bearing of Caissons on Rock Foundation
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15
Figs. 23 to 28. Details of South Approach Piers
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16
Figs. 29 and 30. Inchgarvie South-West Caisson
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16
Fig. 31. Raft used for Survey of Foundation
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17
Fig. 32. Cutting Edge of Caisson
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19
Figs. 33 to 35. Pneumatic Caissons, Queensferry
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20 and 21
Fig. 36. Section of Caissons at Inchgarvie
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22
Fig. 37. Caisson and Cradle in Launching Way
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22
Figs. 38 and 39. Air Locks
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23
Fig. 40. Air Locks on Caissons for Admitting and Removing Materials
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Figs. 41 to 45. Air Lock and Hoisting Gear on Caissons
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Fig. 46. Tilted Caisson at South Queensferry
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26
Fig. 47. Section of Tilted Caisson after Completion
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27
Fig. 48. Sinking the Queensferry Caissons
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27
Figs. 49 and 50. Hydraulic Spade
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27
Fig. 51. Section of Caissons with Air Locks and Working Chambers
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28
Floating Out Caisson for Queensferry Pier, March 26, 1884
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29
Fig. 52. Struts and Wedges in Air Chamber
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30
Fig. 53. Pier with Permanent Caisson
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30
Figs. 54 to 59. Mode of Fixing Under Bedplates on Piers
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31
Figs. 60 and 61. Heating Furnace for Plates
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33
Figs. 62 and 63. Hydraulic Bending Press for Plates
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33
Figs. 64 and 65. Machine for Planing Ends of Curved Plates
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33
Fig. 66. Machine for Planing Edges of Curved Plates
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34
Fig. 67. Plan of Drill Roads
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34
Figs. 68 to 71. Bottom Member on Drill Road
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35
Figs. 72 and 73. Tube Drilling Machine on Drill Road
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36
Fig. 74. Radial Drilling Machine
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36
Fig. 75. Tube Drilling Machine and Travelling Crane on Drill Roads
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
37
Fig. 76. Plan Of No. 1 Drill Shed
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
37
Figs. 77 and 78. Multiple Drilling Machine, No. 1 Shed
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
38
Figs. 79 and 80. Multiple Drilling Machine, No. 1 Shed
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
39
Figs. 81 to 83. Edge Planing Machine for Long Plates of Lattice Girders, No. 1 Shed
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
40
Figs. 84 and 85. Hydraulic Cranes
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
41
Figs. 86 and 87. Rivetting Machine on Pier For Bedplates
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
41
Fig. 88. Arrangement of Bedplates on Granite Piers
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
41
Figs. 89 to 94. Details of Skewbacks over Piers
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
42
Fig. 95. Holding Down Bolts for Bedplates
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
43
Fig. 96. Bedplates On Inchgarvie And Fife Piers
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
43
Figs. 97 and 98. Long Hydraulic Rivetter with Fixed Arms
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
44
Figs. 99 and 100. Short-Jointed Hydraulic Rivetter
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
44
Figs. 101 and 102. Hydraulic Rams and Girders for Lifting Platforms in Central Towers
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
45
Figs. 103 and 104. Erection of Towers
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
46
Figs. 105 and 106. Hydraulic Rivetting Machine for Tubes
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
47
Fig. 107. Skewback on Fife Pier
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
48
Fig. 108. Queensferry Pier from the River
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
48
Figs. 109 to 115. Details of Junctions at Top of Towers
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
49
Figs. 116 to 118. Details of Cantilevers
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
50
Fig. 119. Elevation of Internal Viaduct
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
51
Fig. 120. Section Of Internal Viaduct
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
51
Fig. 121. Erection Of Cantilevers
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
52
Fig. 122. Erection Of Cantilevers
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
53
Figs. 123 And 124. The "Jubilee" Crane on Top Members of Cantilevers
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
54
Figs. 125 and 126. Hydraulic Lifting Arrangement for Bottom Members of Cantilevers
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
55
Fig. 127. Expansion Joint for Rails at Ends of Central Girders; Inchgarvie, North and South
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
55
Figs. 128 to 134. Details of Connections of Central Girders and Internal Viaduct
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
56
Figs. 135 to 143. Connections of Central Girders And Cantilevers
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
57
Figs. 144 to 146. Oil Furnaces for Heating Angle Bars
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
60
Figs. 147 To 152. Oil Furnaces for Heating Rivets
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
60
Figs. 153 and 154. Disintegrator for Oil Furnaces
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
60
Figs. 155 And 156. Permanent Way
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
61

Portrait of Mr. W. Arrol

APPENDIX.

Fig. 157. Diagram Showing Distribution of Load during Tests
.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .
71