The Gall Wasp Genus Cynips: A Study in the Origin of Species

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Vol. XVI June, September, December, 1929


Indiana University
Studies
Indiana University Seal 1920.png
Studies Nos. 84, 85, 86
THE GALL WASP GENUS CYNIPS
A Study in the Origin of Species
By Alfred C. Kinsey, Professor of Zoölogy and Waterman Research Associate, Indiana University


For Sale by the University Bookstore, Bloomington, Ind. Price, $2.50

The Gall Wasp Genus Cynips, Figs 1-5.jpg
FIGS. 1-5. ALTERNATING GENERATIONS

An eastern American species, Cynips (Acraspis) erinacei. Figures 1, 2, 5 = bisexual form ; 3, 4 = agamic form.

Studies Nos. 84, 85, 86

The Gall Wasp Genus Cynips

A Study in the Origin of Species


By Alfred C. Kinsey, Professor of Zoölogy and Waterman Research Associate, Indiana University


Waterman Institute for Scientific Research Publication No. 42;

Contribution from the Department of Zoology, Indiana University, No. 220 (Entomological Series No. 7)


Actual date of publication, February 27, 1930


SUMMARY

This investigation was undertaken with the conviction that an intensive study of any group of species should contribute to the elucidation of biologic problems of general concern. Ninety-three species represented by more than 17,000 insects and 54,000 galls have been available for this analysis of the genus Cynips and these have offered an opportunity for studying the nature of species, individual variation, mutation and hybridization in nature, and the factors affecting the origin of species.

Species are defined as populations with common heredity. The thesis is maintained that species, in this sense, are more than mental concepts—that species are realities which preserve a morphologic and physiologic identity under varying conditions, over vast areas, and thru periods of time that may extend beyond the present geologic epoch. Within these populations individuals are found to vary, mutations to occur, and Mendelian races to develop as they are observed to develop in the laboratory. It appears that in Cynips, at least, these mutations have been the chief source of new species, but only when they are isolated from close relatives with which they might have interbred. Altho hybrid individuals prove common, and local colonies which have arisen by hybridization between related species are not unknown, the isolation of such hybrid populations to form species seems to have occurred in only a few instances in this genus.

The data on which these conclusions are based constitute a taxonomic revision of the genus Cynips. The group as redefined is a homogeneous unit delimited by insect morphology, gall characters, host relationships, life histories, and geographic distribution. Published records are coördinated with a large body of new data on these several aspects of the group. Of the 93 species placed in this genus, 45 have previously been described (only 26 of which have heretofore been recognized in Cynips) and 48 are new to science. To the 5 instances of alternation of generations which have previously been published for the group, 6 additional cases are added.

It should be of some moment to correlate these conclusions, concerning the nature and the origin of the species of Cynips, with the studies that have been made or remain to be made on the evolution of other groups of organisms.

TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page
Part I. The Origin of Species 7
  The Taxonomic Method 8
Basis of Present Study 11
The Species Concept 17
Mutations 25
Physiologic Species 37
The Isolation of Species 49
Hybridization 55
Phylogenetic History 61
Part II. Systematic Data
  Subgenus Cynips 87
Subgenus Antron 180
Subgenus Besbicus 222
Subgenus Philonix 242
Subgenus Atrusca 276
Subgenus Acraspis 306
Appendices
  Acknowledgments 431
Names Pre-occupied in Cynips 433
Excluded Species 446
Nomenclatorial Data 456
General Bibliography 457
Bibliography on Cynips 460
Key to Described Cynips 482
Checklist 496
Plates 502
Index 573

This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was legally published within the United States (or the United Nations Headquarters in New York subject to Section 7 of the United States Headquarters Agreement) before 1964, and copyright was not renewed.

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The author died in 1956, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 60 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.


Works published in 1930 would have had to renew their copyright in either 1957 or 1958, i.e. at least 27 years after it was first published / registered but not later than 31 December(31 December) in the 28th year. As it was not renewed, it entered the public domain on 1 January 1959(1 January 1959).