The History of Trade Unionism/Appendices and Index

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APPENDICES[edit]

719

APPENDIX I[edit]

ON THE ASSUMED CONNECTION BETWEEN THE TRADE UNIONS AND THE GILDS IN DUBLIN

IN Dublin the Trade Union descent from the Gilds is embodied in the printed documents of the Unions themselves, and is commonly assumed to be confirmed by their possession of the Gild charters. The Trade Union banners not only, in many cases, bear the same arms as the old Gilds, but often also the date of their incorporation. Thus, the old society of " regular " carpenters (now a branch of the Amalgamated) claims to date from 1490 ; the " Regular Operative House-painters' Trade Union " connects itself with the Guild of St. Luke, 1670 ; and the local unions of bricklayers and plasterers assume the date of the incorporation of the Bricklayers' and Plasterers' Company by Charles II. (1670). The box of the Dublin Bricklayers' Society does, in fact, contain a parchment which purports to be the original charter of the latter Company. How this docu- ment, given to the exclusively Protestant incorporation of working masters, which was abolished by statute in 1840, came into the possession of what has always been a mainly Roman Catholic body of wage-earners, dating certainly from 1830, is not clear. The parchment, which is bereft of its seal and bears on the back, in the handwriting of a lawyer's clerk, the words " Bricklayers, 28th June, 1843," was probably thrown aside as worthless after the dissolution of the Company.

A search among contemporary pamphlets brought to light an interesting episode in the history of the Dublin building trades. It appears that, after the dissolution of the Company, Benjamin Pemberton, who had been Master, and who was evidently a man of energy and ability, attempted to form an

721


722 Appendix I

alliance between the then powerful journeymen bricklayers' and plasterers' societies and the master bricklayers and plasterers, in order to resist the common enemy, the " foreign contractor." This had long been a favourite project of Pemberton's. Already in 1812 he had urged the rapidly decaying Company to resist the uprising of " builders," and to admit Roman Catholic craftsmen. But the Company, which then included scarcely a dozen practis- ing master bricklayers or plasterers, took no action. In 1832 Pemberton turned to the men, and vainly proposed to the " Trades Political Union," a kind of Trades Council, that they should take common action against " the contract system." At last, in 1846, six years after the abolition of the Company, he seems to have succeeded in forming some kind of alliance. The journeymen bricklayers and plasterers were induced to accept, from himself and his associates, formal certificates of proficiency. Several of these certificates, signed by Pemberton and other employers, are in the possession of the older workmen, but no one could explain to us their use. The alliance probably rested, on some promise of preference for employment on the one part, and refusal to work for a contractor on the other. This close connection between a leading member of the Company and the Trade Unionists may perhaps account for the old charter, then become waste paper, finding its way into the Trade Union chest.

Particulars of Pemberton's action will be found in the pam- phlet entitled An Address of the Bricklayers, and Plasterers to the Tradesmen of the City of Dublin on the necessity of their co-operating for the attainment of their corporate rights and privileges, by Benjamin Pemberton (Dublin, 1833, 36 pages), preserved in Vol. 1567 of the Haliday Tracts in the Royal Irish Academy. In no other case, either in Dublin or elsewhere, have we found a Trade Union in possession of any Gild documents or relics.

The absolute impossibility of any passage of the Dublin Companies into the. local Trade Unions will be apparent when we remember that the bulk of the wage-earning population of the city are, and have always been, Roman Catholics. The Dublin Companies were, to the last, rigidly confined to Episco- palian Protestants. Even after the barriers had been nominally removed by the Catholic Emancipation in 1829, the Companies, then shrunk up into little cliques of middle-class capitalists, with little or no connection with the trades, steadfastly refused to admit any Roman Catholics to membership. A few well-to-do Roman Catholics forced themselves in between 1829 and 1838


Annexing Antiquity 723

by mandamus. But. when inquiry was made in 1838 by the Commissioners appointed under the Municipal Corporations Act only half a dozen Roman Catholics were members, and the Companies were found to be composed, in the main, of capitalists and professional men. There is no evidence that even one wage- earner was in their ranks. Long before this time the Trade Unions of Dublin had obtained an unenviable notoriety. Already, in 1824, the Chief Constable of Dublin testified to the complete organisation of the operatives in illegal associations. In 1838 O'Connell made his celebrated attack upon them in the House of Commons, which led to a Select Committee. In short, whilst the Dublin Companies were, until their abolition by the Act of 1840, in much the same condition as those of London, with the added fact of religious exclusiveness, the Dublin Trade Unions were long before that date at the height of their power.

The adoption by the Dublin Trade Unions of the arms, mottoes, saints, and dates of origin of the old Dublin Gilds is more interesting as a trait of Irish character than as any proof of historic continuity. Thus, in their rules of 1883, the brick- layers content themselves with repeating the original preface common to the Trade Societies which were formed in the be- ginning of this century, to the effect that " the journeyman bricklayers of the City of Dublin have imposed on themselves the adoption of the following laudable scheme of raising a Fund for friendly society purposes." A card of membership, dated 1830, bears no reference to the Gild or Company of Bricklayers and Plasterers from whom descent is now claimed. The rules of 1883 are entitled those of the " incorporated " brick or stone layers' association, and in the edition of 1888 this had .developed into the " Ancient Gild of Saint Bartholomew." Finally, the coat of arms of the old company with the date of its incorpora- tion ("A.D. 1670") appear on the new banner of the society. Similarly, the old local society of " Regular Carpenters," which was well known as a Trade Union in 1824, and was engaged in a strike in 1833 (seven years before the abolition of the " Company of Carpenters, Millers, Masons, and Tylers, or Gild of the fraternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, of the house of St. Thomas the Martyr," established by Henry VIII. in 1532), adopted for the first time, in its rules of 1881, the coat of arms and motto of the Gild, but retained its own title of " The United Brothers of St. Joseph." The card of membership, printed in 1887, boldly gives the date of establishment as 1458, whilst other printed matter places it at 1490. The Dublin painters


724 Appendix I

now inscribe 1670 on their new banner, but the earliest traditions of their members date only from 1820. In short, the Irish Trade Unionist, with his genuine love for the picturesque, and his reverence for historical association, has steadily " annexed " antiquity, and has embraced every opportunity for transferring the origin of his society a few generations further back.


APPENDIX II[edit]

RULES AND REGULATIONS OF THE GRAND NATIONAL CONSOLIDATED TRADES UNION OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, INSTITUTED FOR THE PURPOSE OF THE MORE EFFECTUALLY ENABLING THE WORKING CLASSES TO SECURE, PROTECT, AND ESTABLISH THE RIGHTS OF INDUSTRY (1834).

(Goldsmiths' Library, University of London.)

I. Each Trade in this Consolidated Union shall have its Grand Lodge in that town or city most eligible for it ; such Grand Lodge to be governed internally by a Grand Master, Deputy Grand Master, and Grand Secretary, and a Committee of Management.

II. Each Grand Lodge shall have its District Lodges, in any number, to be designated or named after the town or city in which the District Lodge is founded.

III. Each Grand Lodge shall be considered the head of its own particular trade, and to have certain exclusive powers accordingly ; but in all other respects the Grand Lodges are to answer the same ends as the District Lodges.

IV. Each District Lodge shall embrace within itself all operatives of the same trade, living in smaller towns or villages adjacent to it ; and shall be governed internally by a President, Vice-President, Secretary, and a Committee of Management.

V. Each District Lodge shall have (if necessary) its Branch Lodge or Lodges, numbered in rotation ; such Branch Lodges to be under the control of the District Lodge from which they sprung.

VI. An unlimited number of the above described Lodges shall form and constitute the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union of Great Britain and Ireland.

725


726 Appendix II

VII. Each District shall have its Central Committee, com- posed of a Deputy, or Deputies, from every District Lodge of the different trades in the district ; such Central Committee shall meet once in every week to superintend and watch over the interests of the Consolidated Union in that District, trans- mitting a report of the same, monthly, to the Executive Council in London, together with any suggestions of improvements they may think proper.

VIII. The General government of the G.N.C.T.U. shall be vested in a Grand Council of Delegates from each of the Central Committees of all the Districts in the C.U., to be holden every six months, at such places as shall be decided upon at the preceding Council ; the next Meeting of the Grand Council of the C.U. to be held on the first day of September 1834, an d to continue its sitting so long as may be requisite.

IX. During the recess of the Grand Council of Delegates, the Government of the C.U. shall be vested in an Executive Council of Five ; which Executive will in future be chosen at the Grand Delegate Council aforesaid.

X. All dispensations or grants for the formation of new Lodges shall come from the Grand Lodge of each particular trade, or from the Executive Council. Applications for dis- pensations to come through the Central Committee of the District or by memorial, signed by at least 20 Operatives of the place where such new Lodge is proposed to be founded.

XI. The Executive Council shall act as trustees for all Funds provided by the C.U., for the adjustment of strikes, the purchasing or renting of land, establishing provision stores, workshops, etc. ; or for any other purposes connected with the general benefit of the whole of the Union.

XII. All sums for the above purposes to be transmitted from the Lodges to the Executive Council through some safe and accredited medium.

XIII. District and Grand Lodges shall have the control of their own funds, subject to the levies imposed upon them by the Executive Council.

XIV. The ordinary weekly subscriptions of members be threepence each member.


The Grand 'National 727

XV. No strike or. turn out for an advance of wages shall be made by the members of any Lodge in the Consolidated Union without the consent of the Executive Council ; but in all cases of a reduction of wages the Central Committee of the District shall have the power of deciding whether a strike shall or shall not take place ; and should such Central Committee be neces- sitated to order a levy in support of such strike brought on by such reduction of wages, such order shall be made on all the Lodges ; in the first instance, in the District in which such reduction hath taken place ; and on advice being forwarded to the Executive they shall consider the case, and order accordingly.

XVI. No higher sum than los. per week each shall be paid to members during a strike or turn out.

XVII. All Lodges shall be divided into local sections of 20 men each, or as near that number as may be.

Miscellaneous and Auxiliary Lodges

XVIII. In all cases where the number of operatives in a particular Trade, in any District, is too limited to allow of such Trade forming a Lodge of itself, the members of such Trade shall be permitted to become Unionists by joining the Lodge of any other Trade in the District. Should there be several Trades in a District thus limited with respect to the number of their Operatives, they shall be allowed to form together a District Miscellaneous Lodge, with permission, in order to extend the sphere of the brotherhood, to hold out the hand of fellowship to all really useful Labourers employed productively.

XIX. And, in order that all acknowledged Friends to the Productive Classes may attach themselves to the C.U., an Auxiliary Lodge may be established in every City or Town in the Kingdom. The members of each Lodge shall conform to all the Rules and Regulations herein contained, and be bound in the same manner, and subject to all the Laws of the G U C T.U. ; and shall not, in any manner, or at any time or place, speak or write anything in opposition to these Laws or the interests of the Union aforesaid. The Auxiliary Lodge shall be liable to be dissolved according to Article XXII.

XX Lodges of Industrious Females shall be instituted in every District where it may be practicable ; such Lodges to be considered, in every respect, as part of, and belonging to, the G.N.C.T.U.


728 Appendix II

Employment of Turn Outs

XXI. In all cases of strikes or turn outs, where it is practicable to employ Members in the making or producing of such commodities or articles as are in demand among their brother Unionists, or any other operatives willing to purchase the same, each Lodge shall provide a work-room or shop in which such commodities and articles may be manufactured on account of that Lodge, which shall make proper arrangements for the supply of the necessary materials ; over which arrange- ments the Central Committee of the District shall have the control, subject to the scrutiny of the Grand Lodge Committee of the Trade on strike.

XXII. The Grand Lodge of each Trade to have the power of dissolving any District Lodge, in that Trade, for any violation of these Laws, any outrage upon the Public Peace, or for gross neglect of Duty. All Branch, Miscellaneous, or Auxiliary Lodges to be subject to the same control.

XXIII. The internal management and general concerns of each Grand or District Lodge are vested in a Committee of Management, composed of at least Seven, and not more than 25 Members, each to be chosen by Ballot, and elected by having not less than three-fourths of the Votes of the Members present, at the time of his election, in his favour. The whole of this Committee to go out of office Quarterly, eligible, however, to re-election. The Grand Master, or President, and the Secretary, or Grand Secretary of a Grand or a District Lodge, to be considered Members of its Committee of Manage- ment by virtue of their Offices.

XXIV. Each Grand Lodge, in this C.U., to be considered the centre of information regarding the general affairs of its particular Trade : each District Lodge to communicate with its Grand Lodge at the end of each month, and to give an account to it of the number of people Members in the District Lodge the gross number of hours of labour performed by them in that district the state of its funds and any local or general intelligence that may be considered of interest to the Grand Lodge.

XXV. The Committee of Management in each Lodge shall sit at least on one evening in every week for the despatch of business and oftener if necessary.


Rules 729

XXVI. Each Grand or District Lodge to hold its meetings on one evening in every month ; at which meeting a Report of the Proceedings of the Committee, during the past month, shall be laid before the Members, together with an Abstract of the state of the Funds, an account of the prospects of the Society, and any propositions or By-Laws which the Committee may have to suggest for adoption, and any other information or correspondence of interest to the Members. All nominations of fresh Officers to be made at Lodge meetings, and all complaints of Members to be considered and discussed therein.

XXVII. The Grand Master or Deputy Grand Master, President, or Vice-President, or both, shall preside at all meet- ings of Grand or District Lodges, to keep order, state and put questions according to the sense and intention of the Members, give effect to the resolutions, and cause them to be put in force ; and they shall be addressed by Members, during Lodge hours, by their proper titles.

XXVIII. No subject which does not immediately concern the interests of the Trade shall be discussed at any meetings of Committees or Lodges ; and no proposition shall be adopted in either without the consent of at least three-fourths of the members present at its proposal the question to be decided by ballot if any Member demand it. Not less than five Members of Committee of Management to constitute a Quorum, provided the rest have all been duly summoned ; no Grand or District Lodge to be considered open unless at least 30 members be present.

XXIX. Each Grand or District Lodge shall, have the power to appoint Sub-Committees to enquire into or manage any affair touching their interests, of which Committees the head officers of the Lodge are always to be considered Members.

Of Secretaries

XXX. The duties of a secretary to a Grand or District Lodge are : To attend Lodge and Committee meetings and take minutes of the proceedings, entering the same in a book to be kept for that purpose.

To conduct all the correspondence of the Society. To taki down the names and addresses of parties desirous of being initiated into the Order ; and upon receiving the initiation fee from each, and entering the amount into a book, he will give each


730 Appendix II

party a card, by which they may be admitted into the place appointed for the ceremony.

To receive the subscriptions of members, entering the same into a small account book, numbering the Subscribers from No. i, and following up the sequence in regulation order, giving to each Subscriber a card, on which his contribution or payment shall be noted.

To enter all additional weekly payments, and all levies, into separate small books ; all subscriptions and payments to be afterwards copied into a ledger, ruled expressly for the purpose.

The Secretary to be paid an adequate weekly salary ; and to be allowed an Assistant if the amount of business require it.

The Secretary of each Grand or District Lodge shall balance his books once every fortnight, and the Managing Committee shall audit them, going over each item of receipt and expendi- ture with strict attention, checking the same with scrupulous care ; and if found correct, three of the Committee shall verify the same by affixing their signatures to the page on which the balance is struck.

Initiation

XXXI. Any of the Officers or Members of a Lodge may be appointed by the Committee of Management to perform the Initiation Service ; and to have charge of the Robes, etc., for that purpose ; for which the Committee may allow him a reason- able remuneration.

Any party applying to be initiated must bring forward two witnesses as to character and the identity of his trade or occupation.

Of Branch Lodges

XXXII. Branch Lodge Meetings shall be held on one evening in every week, in the respective localities ; at which Lodges any motion, proposed by law, etc., may be discussed and considered by the Members previous to its being finally submitted to the Grand or District Lodge Committee.

XXXIII. The Members of each Branch may elect a President to preside at the Branch Lodge, and a Secretary to collect subscriptions or levies for their Grand or District Lodge ; who shall also attend meetings of the Committee of Management for instructions and information, and to submit suggestions, complaints, etc., from his Branch Lodge. No salaries or fees


Rules


731


to be allowed to officers of Branch Lodges, unless by the unanimous consent of their Members.


Wardens, Etc.

XXXIV. In addition to the Officers before mentioned in these regulations, there shall be, in each Grand and District Lodge a Warden, an Inside Tyler, an Outside Tyler, and a Conductor, whose principal duties are to attend Initiations, and see that no improper persons be admitted into the meetings. These officers to be elected in the same manner, and at the same periods, as other officers.


Miscellaneous Articles

XXXV. Any Member shall be liable to expulsion from the Lodges for any improper conduct therein ; and shall be excluded from the benefits of the Society if his subscriptions be more than six months in arrear, unless the Committee of Management shall see cause to decide otherwise.

XXXVI. The G.U.C.T.U. Gazette to be considered the official organ of the Executive Council, and the general medium of intelligence on the affairs of the Union.

XXXVII. Each Lodge shall, as soon as possible, make arrangements for furnishing the means of instituting Libraries or Reading-Rooms, or any other arrangements, affording them every facility for meeting together for friendly conversation, mutual instruction, and rational amusement or recreation.

XXXVIII. In all cases, where it be practicable, each Lodge shall establish, within its Ipcality one or more Depots for provisions and articles in general domestic use, in order that its Members may be supplied with the best of such commodities at little above wholesale prices.

XXXIX. Each District and Grand Lodge shall endeavour to institute a Fund for the support of sick and aged Members, and for defraying the funeral expenses of deceased Members, on a similar principle to that of Benefit Societies ; such fund to be kept up by small monthly contributions from those Unionists who are willing to subscribe towards it.

XL. Each Grand or District Lodge to have the power of


732 Appendix II

making its own By-Laws for purposes not comprised in these Regulations ; but such By-Laws or Laws must not be in opposition to, or in counteraction of, any of the Articles herein specified.

XLI. No Member can enter Lodge Meetings without giving the proper signs, and producing his card to prove his member- ship, and that he is not in arrears of subscription for more than one month, unless lenity Jias been granted by order of Committee.

XLII. That a separate Treasurer be appointed for every 20 of the funds collected ; and that such Treasurers shall not suffer any money to be withdrawn from their hands without a written order, signed by at least three of the Managing Com- mittee and presented by the Secretary, or one of the other officers of the Society

XLIII. All sums under 30 shall be left in the hands of the Secretary for current expenses ; but no outlay shall be made by him without an express order from the Managing Committee, signed by at least three of its Members.

XLIV. That every Member of this Union do use his best endeavours, by fair and open argument, and the force of good example, and not by intimidation or violence, to induce his fellows to join the brotherhood, in order that no workmen may remain out of the Union to undersell them in the market of labour; as, while that is done, employers will be enabled to resist the demands of the Unionists, whereas, if no operatives remain out of union, employers will be compelled to keep up the price of Labour.

XLV. That each Member of the C.U. pay a Registration Fee of 3d. to defray the general expenses ; which fee is to be transmitted to the Executive once in every month.

XLVI. That although the design of the Union is, in the first instance, to raise the wages of the workmen, or prevent any further reduction therein, and to diminish the hours of labour, the great and ultimate object of it must be to establish the paramount rights of Industry and Humanity, by instituting such measures as shall effectually prevent the ignorant, idle, and useless part of Society from having that undue control over the fruits of our toil, which, through the agency of a vicious money system, they at present possess ; and that, consequently, the Unionists should lose no opportunity of mutually encouraging


Rules 733

and assisting each other in bringing about A DIFFERENT ORDER OF THINGS, in which 'the really useful and intelligent part of society only shall have the direction of its affairs, and in which well-directed industry and virtue shall meet their just distinc- tion and reward, and vicious idleness its merited contempt and destitution.

XLVII. All the Rules and Regulations herein contained be subject to the revision, alteration, or abrogation of the Grand Delegate Council.


APPENDIX III SLIDING SCALES[edit]

THE Sliding Scale, an arrangement by which it is agreed in advance that wages shall vary in a definite relation to changes in the market price of the product, appears to have been familiar to the iron trade for a couple of generations. " About fifty years ago Mr. G. B. Thorneycroft, of Wolverhampton, head of a well- known firm of iron-masters, suggested to certain other houses that wages should fluctuate with the price of ' marked bars ' these words indicating a quality of iron that then enjoyed a high reputation. The suggestion was adopted to this extent, that when a demand was made by the men for an advance in wages, any advance that was given was proportionate to the selling price of ' marked bars.' The puddlers received, as a rule, is. for each pound of the selling price ; but on exceptional occasions, a special temporary advance or ' premium ' was conceded. The terms of this arrangement do not seem to have been reduced to writing, though they remained in force for many years, and were well known as the Thorneycroft scale/' 1 At the time of the great strike of Staffordshire puddlers, in 1865, a local understanding of a similar nature appears to have been in existence. The joint committee of iron-masters and puddlers, which was established at Darlington in 1869 as the " North of England Manufactured Iron Board," soon worked out a formal sliding scale for its own guidance. This scale, as well as that adopted by the Midland Iron Trade Board, has been repeatedly revised, abandoned, and again re-established; but its working has, on the whole, commended itself to the repre-

1 Statement furnished to Professor Munro by Mr. Daniel Jones, of the Midland Iron and Steel Wages Board, quoted in Sliding Scales in the Coal and Iron Industries (p. 141).

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Sliding Scales 735

sentatives of the ironworkers, and has, so far as the principle is concerned, produced no important dissensions among them. " We believe," said Mr. Trow, the men's secretary, to the Labour Commission in 1892, " it would be most satisfactory if this principle were generally adopted. ... In all our experience of the past we have had less trouble in the periods in which sliding scales have obtained." The cause of the exceptional satisfaction of the ironworkers with their Wages Boards and Sliding Scales is obscure, but it may be interesting to the student to note that the members of the Ironworkers Association are largely sub-contractors, themselves employing workmen who are usually outside the Union, and have no direct representation on the Board. For a careful statement of the facts as to these Wage Boards and Sliding Scales in the iron industry, see The Adjustment of Wages (by Sir W. J. Ashley, 1903), pp. 142-151, and specimen rules, reports, and scales, pp. 268-307. At present (1920) separate Sliding Scales of this nature are in force for the Cleveland and the North Lincolnshire Blast- furnacemen ; the Scottish Iron and the Consett Millmen ; Brown Bayley's No. I Mill ; the Scottish Enginemen and Steel Millmen ; the Staffordshire Sheet Trade ; the Midlands Puddling Mills and Forges ; and the South Wales and Monmouthshire Iron and Steel Trade.

Widely different has been the result of the Sliding Scale among the coal miners. Its introduction into this trade dates from 1874, though it was not until 1879 that its adoption became common. Since then it has been abandoned in all districts, and it is energetically repudiated by the Miners' Federation. The following table includes all the Sliding Scales in the coal industry known to us. Between 1879 and 1886 there were a number of informal Sliding Scales in force for particular collieries, which were mostly superseded by the more general scales, or otherwise came to an end. It is believed that no Sliding Scale is now in force in. any coal district.

July 24, 1874 South Staffordshire I. Revised 1877.

May 28, 1875 South Wales I. 1880.

April 13, 1876 Somerset. Ended 1889.

February 6, 1877 Cannock Chase I. Revised 1879.

March 14, 1877 Durham I. 1879.

November i, 1877 South Staffordshire II. 1882.

April 14, 1879 Cannock Chase II. 1882.

October n, 1879 Durham II. 1887.

October 31, 1879 Cumberland I. Ended 1881.


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Appendix III


November 3, 1879 November 10, 1879

November 15, 1879 December 19, 1879


Ferndale Colliery I. Revised 1881.

(S. Wales). Bedworth Colliery I. 1880.

(Warwick).

Northumberland I. 1883.

Ocean Colliery I. 1882.

(S. Wales).

South Wales II. 1882.

West Yorkshire. Ended ? North Wales. 1881.

Bedworth Colliery II. ?

Ashton and Oldham I. Revised 1882, Ferndale Colliery II. ?

South Staffordshire III. Ended 1884.

Durham III. Revised 1884. South Wales III. ,/ 1889.

Cannock Chase, &c. III. Ended 1883. Ashton & Oldham II. 1883.

South Wales (Anthracite). ?

Cumberland II. Revised 1884.

Northumberland II. Ended 1886. Durham IV. ,, 1889.

Cumberland III. Revised 1886.

Forest of Dean. Ended 1888 ? Altham Colliery (Northd.). ?

Cumberland IV. Ended 1888 ? Northumberland III. 1887.

Lanarkshire. 1889.

South Staffordshire IV. ?

South Wales IV. ?

Forest of Dean. ?


An exposition of the construction and working of Sliding Scales is contained in Industrial Peace, by L. L. Price. Details of numerous Scales are given in the report made by a Committee to the British Association, entitled Sliding Scales in the Coal Industry, which was prepared by Professor J. E. C. Munro (Manchester, 1885), and in the Particulars of Sliding Scales, Past, Present, and Proposed, printed by the Lancashire Miners' Federation in 1886 (Openshaw, 1886, 20 pp.). Supplementary information is given in Professor Munro's papers before the Manchester Statistical Society, entitled, " Sliding Scales in the Iron Industry " (Manchester, 1885), and " Sliding Scales in the Coal and Iron Industries from 1885 to 1889 " (Manchester, 1889). The whole question is discussed in The Adjustment of Wages (by


January 17,


1880


January 20,


1880


January 26,


1880


February 14,


1880


January i,


1881


December 31,


1881


January i,


1882


April 29,


1882


June 6,


1882


June 22,


1882


July 18,


1882


August 24,


1882


September 29,


1882


March 9,


1883


June 12,


1884


November 28,


1884


March 12,


1886


April 14,


1886


February 25,


1887


May 24,


1887


June,


1887


October,


1888


January 18,


1890


September,


1893


Arbitrations .737

Sir William Ashley, 1903), pp. 45-71 ; and in our own Industrial Democracy, 1897.

The proceedings in the numerous arbitrations in the coal and iron trade in the North of England, as well as several others which are printed, furnish abundant information on the subject of their working. A table of the variations of wages under sliding scales was prepared by Professor J. E. C. Munro for the Royal Commission on Mining Royalties, and published as Appendix V. to the First Report, 1890 (C 6195).


2B


APPENDIX IV THE SUMMONS TO THE FIRST TRADE UNION CONGRESS[edit]

No copy of the invitation to the first Trade Union Congress has been preserved, either in the archives of the Congress, the Manchester Trades Council, or any other organisation known to us. Fortunately, it was printed in the Ironworkers' Journal for May 1868. But of this only one file now exists, and as the summons is of some historical interest we reprint it for con- venience of reference.

" MANCHESTER, April 16, 1868.

"SiR You are requested to lay the following before your Society. The vital interests involved, it is conceived, will justify the officials in convening a special meeting for the consideration thereof.

" The Manchester and Salford Trades Council having recently taken into their serious consideration the present aspect of Trades Unions, and the profound ignorance which prevails in the public mind with reference to their operations and principles, together with the probability of an attempt being made by the Legislature, during the present Session of Parliament, to introduce a measure which might prove detrimental to the interests of such Societies unless some prompt and decisive action be taken by the working classes themselves, beg most respectfully to intimate that it has been decided to hold in Manchester, as the main centre of industry in the provinces, a Congress of the representatives of Trades Councils, Federations of Trades, and Trade Societies in general.

" The Congress will assume the character of the Annual Meetings of the Social Science Association, in the transactions of which Society the artisan class is almost excluded ; and papers

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The First Congress 739

previously carefully prepared by such Societies as elect to do so, will be laid before the' Congress on the various subjects which at the present time affect the Trade Societies, each paper to be followed by discussion on the points advanced, with a view of the merits and demerits of each question being thoroughly ventilated through the medium of the public press. It is further decided that the subjects treated upon shall include the following :

' i. Trade Unions an absolute necessity.

' 2. Trade Unions and Political Economy.

' 3. The effect of Trade Unions on foreign competition.

4. Regulation of the hours of labour.

5. Limitation of apprentices.

6. Technical Education.

7. Courts of Arbitration and Conciliation. ' 8. Co-operation.

' 9. The present inequality of the law in regard to conspiracy, intimidation, picketing, coercion, etc.

" 10. Factory Acts Extension Bill, 1867 : the necessity of compulsory inspection and its application to all places where women and children are employed.

"ii. The present Royal Commission on Trades Unions how far worthy of the confidence of the Trade Union interests.

" 12. Legalization of Trade Societies.

" 13. The necessity of an Annual Congress of Trade Repre- sentatives from the various centres of industry.

" All Trades Councils, Federations of Trades, and Trade Societies generally are respectfully solicited to intimate their adhesion to this project on or before the I2th of May next, together with a notification of the subject of the paper that each body will undertake to prepare, and the number of delegates by whom they will be respectively represented ; after which date all information as to the place of meeting, etc., will be supplied.

" It is not imperative that all Societies should prepare papers, it being anticipated that the subjects will be taken up by those most capable of expounding the principles sought to be main- tained. Several have already adhered to the project, and have signified their intention of taking up the subjects Nos. i, 4, 6, and 7.

"The Congress will be held on Whit-Tuesday, the 2nd of June next, its duration not to exceed five days ; and all expenses in connection therewith, which will be very small,


740 Appendix IV

and as economical as possible, will be equalized amongst those Societies sending delegates, and will not extend beyond their sittings.

" Communications to be addressed Jto Mr. W. H. Wood, Typographical Institute, 29 Water Street, Manchester.

"By order of the Manchester & Sal ford Trades Council.

" S. C. NICHOLSON, President. " W. H. WOOD, Secretary."


APPENDIX V DISTRIBUTION OF TRADE UNIONISTS[edit]

KINGDOM IN THE UNITED t


WE endeavoured in 1893-94 to analyse the membership of all the Trade Unions of which we could obtain particulars, in such a way as to show the number and percentage to population in each part of the United Kingdom. The following table gives the local distribution of 1,507,026 Trade Unionists in 1892. The distribution was, in most cases, made by branches, special estimates being prepared for us in a few instances by the officers of the Unions concerned. With regard to a few Unions having about 4000 members no local distribution could be arrived at.


Table showing the distribution of Trade Union membership in 1892 in each part of the United Kingdom, with the percentage to population in each case.




Ascertained


Number of


County.


Population in 1891.


Trade Unionists in 1892.


Unionists per 100 of population.


Bedfordshire ....


165,999


553


0'33


Berkshire


268,357


975


0-36


Buckinghamshire


164,442


720


0-44


Cambridgeshire ....


196,269


2.855


1-45



707,978


32,000


4-52


Cornwall


318,583


630


0-20



266,549


10,280


3-86



432,414


29,510


6-82



636,225


6,030


'95



188,995


35


0-16






741


742


Appendix V


County.


Population in 1891.


Ascertained Trade Unionists in 1892.


Number of Trade Unionists per 100 of population.


Durham


1,024,369


U4,8lO


II-2I


Essex


396,057


3,370


o-8<5


(without West Ham, in-




%/


cluded in London).





Gloucestershire ....


548,886


26,030


4'74


Hampshire


587,578


5,665


^ 0-96


(without Isle of Wight,





treated*separately) .





Herefordshire ....


H3,346


385


o-34


Hertfordshire ....


215,179


1,125


0-52


Huntingdonshire


50,289


20


0-04


Isle of Wight ....


78,672


295


o-37


Kent


737,044


12,445


1-69


(without Bromley, included





in London).





Lancashire


3,957,906


331,535


8-63


Leicestershire ....


379,286


27,845


7'34


Lincoln


467,281


9,48o


2-03


London


5,517,583


194,083


3'52


(including Bromley, Croydon,





Kingston, Richmond, West





Ham and Middlesex).





Norfolk


460,362


4,880


i -06


Northamptonshire


308,072


12,210


3-96


Northumberland ....


506,030


56,815


11-23


Nottinghamshire ....


505,3H


31,050


6-14


Oxford


188,220


I,8l5


0-96


Rutland .....


22,123


o


O'OO


Shropshire


2^4,76 ;


3,22<5


1-26


Somerset


J "* / J

510,076


J* ** J

6,595


1-29


Staffordshire


1,103,452


49,545


4'49


Suffolk


353,758


14,885


4-21


Surrey


275,6^8


7^o


0-26


(without Croydon, Kingston,


/ D> *j


/ ~->



and Richmond, included in





London).


'




Sussex


554,542


2,810


0-51


Warwickshire ....


801,738


33,600


4-19


Westmoreland ....


66,215


530


0-80


A County Census


743




Ascertained


Number of


County.


Population in 1891.


Trade Unionists in 1892.


Unionists per 100 of population.


Wiltshire


255."9


3,680


1-44


Worcestershire ....


422,530


7,840


1-86


Yorkshire, East Riding


318,570


23,630


7-42


Yorkshire, North Riding .


435,897


15,215


3'49


(with York City).





Yorkshire, West Riding .


2,464,415


141,140


5-73


Total, England


27,226,120


1,221,141


4H9


North Wales ....


451,090


8,820


1-96


South Wales and Monmouth .


1,325,315


88,8lO


6-70


Total, Wales and Monmouth


1,776,405


97,630


5-50


Total, England and Wales


29,002,525


1,318,771


4'55



4,033,103


146,925


3-64



4.706,162


40,045


0-85


Isle of Man


55,598


75


0-13


Guernsey


35,339


1,170


3-3i


Jersey


54,5i8


40


0-07


Alderney and Sark


2,415


o


O'OO


Total, United Kingdom


37,889,660


,507,026


3-98


APPENDIX

THE STATISTICAL PROGRESS

IT is unfortunately impossible to present any complete statistics appointment, in 1886, of John Burnett as Labour Correspondent statistics of the movement ; and the old Unions seldom possess of Ironfounders, it is true, has exact figures since its establish- The following tables may be useful as placing on record such

1. Amalgamated Society of Engineers.

2. Friendly Society of Ironfounders.

3. Steam Engine Makers' Society.

4. Associated Ironmoulders of Scotland.

5. United Society of Boilermakers and Iron Shipwrights.

6. Operative Stonemasons' Friendly Society.

7. Operative Bricklayers' Society.

8. General Union of Operative Carpenters and Joiners.

9. Typographical Association.

TO. London Society of Compositors.

n. Bookbinders' and Machine Rulers' Consolidated Union

12. United Kingdom Society of Coachmakers.

13. Flint Glass Makers' Friendly Society.

14. Amicable and Brotherly Society of Machine Printers.

15. Machine, Engine, and Iron Grinders' Society.

1 6. Associated Blacksmiths' Society.

17. Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners.

18. Associated Carpenters and Joiners.

19. National Association of Operative Plasterers.

20. Northumberland Miners' Mutual Confident Association.

21. United Journeymen Brassfounders' Association of Great Britain and

Ireland.

22. United Operative Plumbers' Association.

23. Alliance Cabinet Makers' Association.


744


VI

OF TRADE UNION MEMBERSHIP

of Trade Union membership at different periods. Until the to the Board of Trade, no attempt was made to collect any a complete series of their own archives. The Friendly Society ment in 1809. No total figures can be given with any confidence, comparative figures as we have been able to collect :

24. United Operative Bricklayers' Trade, Accident, Sick, and Burial Society.

25. Amalgamated Society of Tailors.

26. Amalgamated Association of Operative Cotton Spinners.

27. Glass Bottle Makers of Yorkshire United Trade Protection Society.

28. Durham Miners' Association.

29. National Society of Amalgamated Brassworkers.

30. United Pattern Makers' Association.

31. National Union of Boot and Shoe Operatives.

32. Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants.

33. Yorkshire Miners' Association.

34. United Machine Workers' Association.

35. National Amalgamated Furnishing Trades Association.

36. Railway Clerks' Association.

37. Amalgamated Tramway and Vehicle Workers.

38. National Union of Dock Labourers.

39. British Steel Smelters.

40. National Amalgamated Union of Shop Assistants.

41. Amalgamated Union of Co-operative Employees.

42. National Union of Clerks.

43. Workers' Union.

44. Amalgamated Musicians' Union.

45. National Amalgamated Union of Labour.

46. Postmen's Federation.

47. Post Office Engineering Stores.


745


2 B 2


746


Appendix VI[edit]

Table showing the Membership of certain Trade Unions at


Number of Society.


Year of Establish- ment.


1850.


1855-


1860.


1865.


1870.


I.


1851 *


5,000


12,553


20,935


30,984


34,7"


2.


1809


4,073


5,685


7,973


10,604


8,994


3-


1824


2,068


1,662


2,050


2,521


2,819


4-


1831


814


1,381


2,084


3,046


2,766


5-


1832


I.77I


3,5o


4,146


8,621


7,261


6.


1832


4,671


8,093


9,125


15,483


13,965


7-


1848


340


924


1,641


4,320


1,441


8.


1827


535


1,180


2,228


6,986


8,008


9-


1849


603


1,288


i,473


i,992


2,430


10.


1848


i, 800


2,300


2,650


2,800


3,35


ii.


1835


420


34


5


748


915


12.


1834


I 5 6 7


3,040


4,086


4,599


5,801


13-


1849


500


897


i,355


i, 606


1,776


I 4 .


184!


375


452


508


530


570


15.


I8 44


200


no


330


449


280




24,737


43,405


61,084


95, 2 89


95,o87


16.


1857





856


1,815


i,590


17-


1860





618


5,67


10,178


18.


1861






4,453


3,585


19.


1862






4.44 1


2,461


20.


1863






4,250


5,328


21.


1866



.





i,457


22.


1832


p


p


p


?


i,537


23-


1865






?


242


2 4 .


1832


?



p


p


3,850


25.


1866








4,006


26.


1853



?


?


?


10,518


2 7 .


1860





?


?


792


28.


1869








1,899








142,530


  • Established January 10, 1851. The membership given for 1850 is

1 Merged in the National Union of Bookbinders and Machine Rulers, \ In 1902 joined with the Operative Cabinet and Chair Makers Association.


Comparative Statistics


747


Successive Periods, from 1850 to 1918 inclusive.


1875.


1880.


1885.


1890.


1900.


1910.


.918.


44,032


44,692


51,689


67,928


87,672


110,733


298,782


12,336


11,580


12,376


14,821


i8,357


17,990


28,586


3,871


4,!34


5,062


5,822


8,566


14,401


27,206


4,34 6


4,664


5,6n


6,198


7,504


7,880


7,96i


16,191


17,688


28,212


32,926


47,670


49,393


95,76i


24,543


12,610


11,285


12,538


19,419


7,055


4,929


4,832


5,700


6,412


12,740


38,830


23,284


34,441


10,885


4,420


i,734


2,485


7,727


5.653


12,000


3,600


5,350


6,55i


9,016


16,179


21,436


11,602


4,200


5,100


6,435


8,910


11,287


12,230


12,940


1,670


1,501


1,788


2,910


4,064


5,027


t


7,25!


4.989


4,56o


5,367


6,536


6,854


15,118


2,005


1,963


1,985


2,123


2,409


916


775


650


690


740


860


963


983


228


390


258


277


304


433


703


746


140,802


125,339


144,717


184,948


277,616


284,538


551,075


2,113


2,002


2,335


2,300


2,933


2,953


17,238


14,917

6,642


17,764 4,673


25,781 4,535


3L495 4,742


65,012 9,808


55,785 3,964


1 124,841


3,742


3,2ii


2, IIO


4,236


11,009


6,522


4,110


17,561


10,707


13,128


16,961


23,95


37,36i


40,000


1,821


1,890


2,344


2,162



5,241


7,500


1,679


2,232


2,666


5,35


11,186


10,907


13,000


1,965


1,346


1,246


. 4,298


5,27



- *


7,350


3,282


J ,975


1,725


3,428


1,655


2,950


14,352


12,583


13,969


16,629


13,439


12,143


29,422


!4, 2 57


11,834


16,579


i8,M5


18,384


22,992


24,806


T,I20


1,061


1,522


1,899


2,840


2,45


2,800


38,000


30,000


35,00


49,000


80,260


121,805


126,250


266,321


227,924


267,907


343,890


546,135


559,3i6


944,992


that with which the amalgamation started.

ton.

of Scotland to form the National Amalgamated Furnishing Trades


748


Appendix VI


Number of Society.


Year of Establish- ment.


1850.


1855.


1860.


1865.


1870.


29.


1872


_


_


_


_


_


30-


1872








'


31-


1874









32.


1872









33-


1858





?


?


?


34-


I8 44


?


?


?


?


?


35-


IQ02





.





36.


1897









37-


1889









38.


1889









39-


1886









40.


1891









41.


1891









42.


1891









43-


1898









44.


1893









45-


1889









46.


1891









47-


1896







  • Amalgamated in 1913 with the United Pointsmen and Signalmen

Railwaymen.

f In 1917 the members of the British Steel Smelters were merged in

We have suggested that it is doubtful whether, in 1842, there A quarter of a century later George Howell and others could number was reached until the years of good trade that followed whether the aggregate of a million was again reached until the end of the century were two millions attained a number increased by over fifty per cent.


Comparative Statistics


749


1875.


1880.


1885.


1890.


1900.


1910.


1918.


5.271


4,633


3,582


7,958


8,675


7,373


25,000


418


824


1,241


2,205


4,604


7,214


10,290


4311


6,404


10,464


23,459


27,960


30,197


83,017


13,018


8,589


9,052


26,360


62,023


75,153


-(*)


8,000


2,800


8,000


50,000


54,475


88,271


100,400


276


279


455


2,501


3,7 6 9


4,843


23,374


297,615


251.453


300,701


456,373


707,641


77 2 ,367


1,187,073








6,248


6,685


47,220






(1902)










I 55


9,476


66,130






?


9,214


17,076


40,564






?


13,388


14,253


45,000






?


10,467


I7,49i


40,ooo(?)f








7,551


22,426


83,000








(1919)








6,733


29,886


87,134








82


3,166


35,00






?


2,879


5,016


230,000








3,286


6,182


14,649






?


21,111


16,017


143,93!








23,180


37,892


65,078








940


3,500


14,000






106,629


189,046


911,706






814,270


961,413


2,098,779


and the General Railway Workers' Union to form the National Union of the Iron and Steel Trades Confederation.

were as many as 100,000 enrolled and contributing members, talk vaguely of a million members, but we doubt whether this 1871. In 1878-80 there was a great falling off, and we doubt 1885. In 1892 we recorded a million and a half. Not until doubled by 1915, and in the last four or five years again


750


Appendix VI


oo i-- o o ooo

u-> M o coo

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APPENDIX VII PUBLICATIONS RELATING TO TRADE UNIONS[edit]

IN the first edition of this book we gave a list, 45 pages long, of books, pamphlets, reports, and other documents bearing on the workmen's combinations. In Industrial Democracy, 1897, we gave a supplementary list, 23 pages long. We do not reproduce these lists, to which the student can always refer ; nor have we attempted to bring them down to date. The really '^eful material for Trade Union study is to be found in the publication' 3 of the Trade Unions themselves the innumerable editions of rules, the thousands of annual and monthly reports, the voluminous lists of piece-work prices, the intricate working agreements, the verbatim reports of conferences, delegate meetings and proceedings before Conciliation and Arbitration Boards which are ignored by the British Museum, and are practically never preserved in local public libraries. We made an extensive collection in 1891-97, which we have deposited in the British Library of Political Science, attached to the London School of Economics and Political Science, where it has been, to some extent, kept up to date, and where it is accessible to any serious student. Some old pamphlets and reports of interest are in the Goldsmiths' Library at the University of London. Of Trade Union publications since 1913 the most extensive collection is that of the Labour Research Department, attached to the Labour Party, 34 Eccleston Square, London.


APPENDIX VIII THE RELATIONSHIP OF TRADE UNIONISM TO THE GOVERNMENT OF INDUSTRY[edit]

IN our work on Industrial Democracy, published in 1897, we formulated the following tentative conclusions with regard to the participation of the workmen's organisations in industrial management, and the relation of Trade Unionism to political Democracy :

f ,- ' This survey of the changes required in Trade Union policy leads us straight to a conclusion as to the part which Trade Unionism will be expected to play in the management of the industry of a democratic state. The interminable series of decisions, which together make up industrial administration, fall into three main classes. There is, first, the decision as to what shall be produced that is to say, the exact commodity or service to be supplied to the consumers. There is, secondly, the judgement as to the manner in which the production shall take place, the adoption of material, the choice of processes, and the selection of human agents. Finally, there is the altogether different question of the conditions under which these human agents shall be employed the temperature, atmosphere, and sanitary arrangements amid which they shall work, the intensity and duration of their toil, and the wages given as its reward.

" To obtain for the community the maximum satisfaction it is essential that the needs and desires of the consumers should be the main factor in determining the commodities and services to be produced. Whether these needs and desires can best be ascertained and satisfied by the private enterprise of capitalist profit-makers, keenly interested in securing custom, or by the public service of salaried officials, intent on pleasing associations of consumers (as in the British Co-operative Movement), or

752


Consumers' Control 753

associations of citizens (the Municipality or the State), is at present the crucial problem of Democracy. But whichever way this issue may be decided, one thing is certain, namely, that the several sections of manual workers, enrolled in their Trade Unions, will have, under private enterprise or Collectivism, no more to do with the determination of what is to be produced than any other citizens or consumers. As manual workers and wage-earners, they bring to the problem no specialised knowledge ; and as persons fitted for the performance of particular services, they are even biassed against the inevitable changes in demand which characterise progressive community. This is even more the case with regard to the second department of industrial administration the adoption of material, the choice of pro- cesses, and the selection of human agents. Here, the Trade Unions concerned are specially disqualified, not only by their ignorance of the possible alternatives, but also by their over- whelming bias in favour of a particular material, a particular process, or a particular grade of workers, irrespective of whether these are or are not the best adapted for the gratification of the consumers' desires. On the other hand, the directors of industry, whether thrown up by the competitive struggle or deliberately appointed by the consumers or citizens, have been specially picked out and trained to discover the best means of satisfying the consumers' desires. Moreover, the bias of their self-interest coincides with the object of their customers or employers that is to say, the best and cheapest production. Thus, if we leave out of account the disturbing influence of monopoly in private enterprise, and corruption in public administration, it would at first sight seem as if we might safely leave the organisation of production and distribution under the one system as under the other to the expert know- ledge of the directors of .industry. But this is subject to one all-important qualification. The permanent bias of the profit- maker, and even of the salaried official of the Co-operative Society, the Municipality, or the Government Department, is to lower the expense of production. So far as immediate results are concerned, it seems equally advantageous whether this reduction of cost is secured by a better choice of materials, processes, or men, or by some lowering of wages or other worsen- ing of the conditions upon which the human agents are employed But the democratic state is, as we have seen, vitally interested in upholding the highest possible Standard of Life of all its citizens, and especially of the manual workers who form four-


754 Appendix VIII

fifths of the whole. Hence the bias of the directors of industry in favor of cheapness has, in the interests of the community, to be perpetually controlled and guided by a determination to maintain, and progressively to raise, the conditions of employ- ment.

" This leads us to the third branch of industrial administration the settlement of the conditions under which the human beings are to be employed. The adoption of one material rather than another, the choice between alternative processes or alternative ways of organising the factory, the selection of particular grades of workers, or even of a particular foreman, may affect, for the worse, the Standard of Life of the operatives concerned. This indirect influence on the conditions of employ- ment passes imperceptibly into the direct determination of the wages, hours, and other terms of the wage contract. On all these matters the consumers, on the one hand, and the directors of industry on the other, are permanently disqualified from acting as arbiters. In our chapter on ' The Higgling of the Market' we described how, in the elaborate division of labour which characterises the modern industrial system, thousands of workers co-operate in the bringing to market of a single commodity ; and no consumer, even if he desired it, could possibly ascertain or judge of the conditions of employment in all these varied trades. Thus, the consumers of all classes are not only biassed in favour of low prices ; they are compelled to accept this apparent or genuine cheapness as the only practic- able test of efficiency of production. And though the immediate employer of each section of workpeople knows the hours that they work and the wages that they receive, he is precluded by the stream of competitive pressure, transmitted through the retail shopkeeper and the wholesale trader, from effectively resisting the promptings of his own self-interest towards a constant cheapening of labour. Moreover, though he may be statistically aware of the conditions of employment his lack of personal experience of those conditions deprives him of any real knowledge of their effects. To the brain-working captain of industry, maintaining himself and his family on thousands a year, the manual-working wage-earner seems to belong to another species, having mental faculties and bodily needs altogether different from his own. Men and women of the upper or middle classes are totally unable to realise what state of body and mind, what level of character and conduct, result from a life spent, from childhood to old age, amid the dirt,


Producers' Control


755


the smell, the noise, the ugliness, and the vitiated atmosphere of the workshop ; under constant subjection to the peremptory, or it may be brutal, orders of the foreman ; kept continuously at the laborious manual toil for sixty or seventy hours in every week of the year ; and maintained by the food, clothing, house- accommodation, recreation, and family life which are implied by a precarious income of between ten shillings and two pounds a week. If the democratic state is to attain its fullest and finest development, it is essential that the actual needs and desires of the human agents concerned should be the main considerations in determining the conditions of employment. Here then we find the special function of the Trade Union in the administration of industry. The simplest member of the working-class organisa- tion knows at any rate where the shoe pinches. The Trade Union official is specially selected by his fellow-workmen for his capacity to express the grievances from which they suffer, and is trained by his calling in devising remedies for them. But in expressing the desires of their members, and in insisting on the necessary reforms, the Trade Unions act within the constant friction-brake supplied by th$ need of securing employ- ment. It is always the consumers and the consumers alone, whether they act through profit-making entrepreneurs or through their own salaried officials, who determine how many of each particular grade of workers they care to employ on the conditions demanded. . . . Thus we find no neat formula for defining the rights and duties of the individual in society. In the democratic state every individual is both master and servant. In the work that he does for the community in return for his subsistence he is, and must remain, a servant, subject to the instructions and directions of those whose desires he is helping to satisfy. As a Citizen-Elector jointly with his fellows, and as a Consumer to the extent of his demand, he is a master, determining, free from any superior, what shall 'be done. Hence, it is the supreme paradox of democracy that every man is a servant in respect of the matters of which- he possesses the most expert proficiency, namely, the professional craft to which he devotes his working hours ; and he is a master over that on which he knows no more than anybody else, namely, the general interests of the com- munity as a whole. In this paradox, we suggest, lies at once the justification and the strength of democracy. It is not, as is commonly asserted by the superficial, that Ignorance rules over Knowledge, and Mediocrity over Capacity. In the administration of society Knowledge and Capacity can make


756 Appendix VIII

no real and durable progress except by acting on and through the minds of the common human material which it is desired to improve. It is only by carrying along with him the ' average sensual man,' that even the wisest and most philanthropic reformer, however autocratic his power, can genuinely change the face of things. Moreover, not even the wisest of men can be trusted with that supreme authority which comes from the union of knowledge, capacity, and opportunity with the power of untrammelled and ultimate decision. Democracy is an expedient perhaps the only practicable expedient for pre- venting the concentration in any single individual or in any single class of what inevitably becomes, when so concentrated, a terrible engine of oppression. The autocratic emperor, served by a trained bureaucracy, seems to the Anglo-Saxon a perilously near approach to such a concentration. If democracy meant, as early observers imagined, a similar concentration of Know- ledge and Power in the hands of the numerical majority for the time being, it might easily become as injurious a tyranny as any autocracy. An actual study of the spontaneous demo- cracies of Anglo-Saxon workmen, or, as we suggest, of any other democratic institutions, reveals the splitting up of this dangerous authority into two parts. Whether in political or in industrial democracy, though it is the Citizen who, as Elector or Consumer, ultimately gives the order, it is the Professional Expert who advises what the order shall be.

" It is another aspect of this paradox that, in the democratic state, no man minds his own business. In the economic sphere this is a necessary consequence of division of labour ; Robinson Crusoe, producing solely for his own consumption, being the last man who minded nothing but his own business. The extreme complication brought about by universal production for exchange in itself implies that every one works with a view to fulfilling the desires of other people. The crowding together of dense populations, and especially the co-operative enterprises which then arise, extend in every direction this spontaneous delegation to professional experts of what the isolated individual once deemed ' his own business.' Thus, the citizen in a modern municipality no longer produces his own food or makes his own clothes ; no longer protects his own life or property ; no longer fetches his own water ; no longer makes his own thoroughfares, or cleans or lights them when made ; no longer removes his own refuse or even disinfects his own dwelling. He no longer educates his own children, or doctors and nurses his own


What is Liberty ? 757

invalids. Trade Unionism adds to the long list of functions thus delegated to professional experts the settlement of the conditions on which the citizen will agree to co-operate in the national service. In the fully-developed democratic state the Citizen will be always mining other people's business. In his pro- fessional occupation he will, whether as brain-worker or manual labourer, be continually striving to fulfil the desires of those whom he serves; whilst as an Elector, in his parish or his co-operative society, his Trade Union or his political associa- tion, he will be perpetually passing judgment on issues in which his personal interest is no greater than that of his fellows.

" If, then, we are asked whether democracy, as shown by an analysis of Trade Unionism, is consistent with Individual Liberty, we are compelled to answer by asking, What is Liberty ? If Liberty means every man being his own master, and following his own impulses, then it is clearly inconsistent, not so much with democracy or any other particular form of government, as with the crowding together of population in dense masses, division of labour, and, as we think, civilisation itself. What particular individuals, sections, or classes usually mean by ' freedom of contract,' ' freedom of association,' or ' freedom of enterprise ' is freedom of opportunity to use the power that they happen to possess that is to say, to compel other less powerful people to accept their terms. This sort of personal freedom in a community composed of unequal units is not distinguishable from compulsion. It is, therefore, necessary to define Liberty before talking about it ; a definition which every man will frame according to his own view of what is socially desirable. We ourselves understand by the words ' Liberty ' or ' Freedom,' not any quantum of natural or inalienable rights, but such conditions of existence in the community as do, in practice, result in the utmost possible development of faculty in the individual human being. Now, in this sense democracy is not only consistent with Liberty, but is, as it seems to us, the only way of securing the largest amount of it. It is open to argument whether other forms of government may not achieve a fuller development of the faculties of particular individuals or classes. To an autocrat, untrammelled rule over a whole kingdom may mean an exercise of his individual faculties, and a development of his individual personality, such as no other situation in life would afford. An aristocracy or government by one class in the interests of one class, may


758 Appendix VIII

conceivably enable that class to develop a perfection in physical grace or intellectual charm attainable by no other system of society. Similarly, it might be argued that, where the ownership of the means of production and the administration of industry are unreservedly left to the capitalist class, this ' freedom of enterprise ' would result in a development of faculty among the captains of industry which could not otherwise be reached. We dissent from all these propositions, if only on the ground that the fullest development of personal character requires the pressure of discipline as well as the stimulus of opportunity. But however untrammelled power may affect the character of those who possess it, autocracy, aristocracy, and plutocracy have all, from the point of view of the lover of liberty, one fatal defect they necessarily involve a restriction in the opportunity for development of faculty among the great mass of the population. It is only when the resources of the nation are deliberately organised and dealt with for the benefit, not of particular individuals or classes, but of the entire community ; when the administration of industry, as of every other branch of human affairs, becomes the function of special- ised experts, working through deliberately adjusted Common Rules ; and when the ultimate decision on policy rests in no other hands than those of the citizens themselves, that the maximum aggregate development of individual intellect and individual character in the community as a whole can be attained.

" For our analysis helps us to disentangle from the complex influences on individual development those caused by democracy itself. The universal specialisation and delegation which, as we suggest, democratic institutions involve, necessarily imply a great increase in capacity and efficiency, if only because specialisa- tion in service means expertness, and delegation compels selection. This deepening and narrowing of professional skill may be expected, in the fully-developed democratic state, to be accom- panied by a growth in culture of which our present imperfect organisation gives us no adequate idea. So long as life is one long scramble for personal gain still more, when it is one long struggle against destitution there is no free time or strength for much development of the sympathetic, intellectual, artistic, or religious faculties. When the conditions of employment are deliberately regulated so as to secure adequate food, education, and leisure to every capable citizen, the great mass of the population will, for the first time, have any real chance of


Need for Knowledge 759

expanding in friendship and family affection, and of satisfying the instinct for knowledge or beauty. It is an even more unique attribute of democracy that it is always taking the mind of the individual off his own narrow interests and immediate concerns, and forcing him to give his thoughts and leisure, not to satisfying his own desires, but to considering the needs and desires of his fellows. As an Elector still more as a chosen Representative in his parish, in his professional association, in his co-operative society, or in the wider political institutions of his state, the ' average sensual man ' is perpetually impelled to appreciate and to decide issues of public policy. The working of democratic institutions means, therefore, one long training in enlightened altruism, one continual weighing, not of the advantage of the particular act to the particular individual, at the particular moment, but of those ' larger expediencies ' on which all successful conduct of social life depends.

" If now, at the end of this long analysis, we try to formulate our dominant impression, it is a sense of the vastness and complexity of democracy itself. Modern civilised states are driven to this complication by the dense massing of their populations, and the course of industrial development. The very desire to secure mobility in the crowd compels the adoption of one regulation after another, which limit the right of every man to use the air, the water, the land, and even the artificially produced instruments of production, in the way that he may think best. The very discovery of improved industrial methods, by leading to specialisation, makes manual labourer and brain- worker alike dependent on the rest of the community for the means of subsistence, and subordinates them, even in their own crafts, to the action of others. In the world of civilisation and progress, no man can be his own master. But the very fact that, in modern society, the individual thus necessarily loses control over his own life, makes him desire to regain collectively what has become individually impossible. Hence the irresistible tendency to popular government, in spite of all its difficulties and dangers. But democracy is still the Great Unknown. Of its full scope and import we can yet catch only glimpses. As one department of social life after another becomes the subject of careful examination we shall gradually attain to a more complete vision. Our own tentative conclusions, derived from the study of one manifestation of the democratic spirit, may, we hope, not only suggest hypotheses for future verification, but also stimulate other students to carry out original investiga-


760 Appendix VIII

tions into the larger and perhaps more significant types ol democratic organisation."

In 1920, after nearly a quarter of a century of further experi- ence and consideration, we should, in some respects, put this differently. The growth, among all classes, and especially among the manual workers and the technicians, of what we may call corporate self -consciousness and public spirit, and the diffusion of education coupled with further discoveries in the technique of democratic institutions would lead us to- day to include, and even to put in the forefront, certain additional suggestions, which we can here only summarise briefly.

There is, in the first place, a genuine need for, and a real social advantage in giving recognition to, the contemporary transformation in the status of the manual working wage-earners, on the one hand, and of the technicians on the other, as com- pared with that of the manager or mere " captain of industry." This change of status, which is, perhaps, the most important feature of the industrial history of the past quarter of a century, will be most easily accorded its legitimate recognition in those industries and services in which the profit-making capitalist proprietor is dispensed with in favour of public ownership, whether national, municipal, or co-operative. This is, incident- ally, an important reason for what is called " nationalisation." It is a real social gain that the General Secretary of the Swiss Railwaymen's Trade Union should sit as one of the five members of the supreme governing board of the Swiss railway administra- tion. We ourselves look for the admission of nominees of the manual workers, as well as of the technicians, upon the executive boards and committees, on terms of complete equality with the other members, in all publicly owned industries and services ; not merely, or even mainly, for the sake of the advantages of the counsel and criticism that the newcomers may bring from new standpoints, but principally for the sake of both inspiring and satisfying the increasing sense of corporate self- consciousness and public spirit among all those employed in these enterprises.

In the second place we should lay stress on the change that is taking place in the nature (and in the conception) of authority itself. In our analysis of 1897 we confined ourselves unduly to a separation of spheres of authority. Whilst still regarding that analytic separation of " management " into three classes of iudgements or decisions as fundamentally valid, we should


Much more Consultation 761

nowadays attach even more importance to the ways in which authority itself, in industry as well as in the rest of government, is being rapidly transformed, alike in substance and in methods of expression. The need for final decisions will remain, not merely in emergencies, but also as to policy ; and it is of 'high importance to vest the responsibility for decision, according to the nature of the case, in the right hands. But we suggest that a great deal of the old autocracy in industry and services, once deemed to be indispensable, is ceasing to be necessary to effi- ciency, and will accordingly, as Democracy becomes more genuinely accepted, gradually be dispensed with. A steadily increasing sphere will, except in matters of emergency, be found for consultation among all grades and sections concerned, out of which will emerge judgements and decisions arrived at, very largely, by common consent. This will, we believe, produce actually a higher standard of industrial efficiency than mere autocracy could ever hope for. Where knowledge is a common possession the facts themselves will often decide ; and though decisions may be short, sharp, and necessarily formulated by the appropriate person, they will not inevitably bear the impress of (or be resented as) the dictates of irresponsible autocracy. We may instance two large classes of considerations which will, we think, with great social advantage, come to be matters for mutual consultation in those committees and councils which already characterise the administration of all industry on a large scale, whether under private or public ownership, and which will, in the future, be increasingly representative of all grades of workers by hand or by brain. To such committees and councils there will come, as a matter of course, a stream of reports from the disinterested outside costing experts, which will carry with them no coercive authority, but which will graphically reveal the efficiency results, so far as regards cost and output, of each part of the enterprise, in comparison both with its own past, and with the corresponding results of other analogous enterprises. Similarly, there will come a stream of financial and merely statistical reports from equally disinterested outside auditors and statisticians, making graphic revelations as to the progress of the enterprise, in comparison with its own previous experience and with the progress of like enterprises elsewhere. Further, there will be a stream of what we may call scientific reports, also from disinterested outside experts, not only describing new inventions and discoveries in the technique of the particular enterprise, but suggesting, in the light of recent surveys of the


762 Appendix VIII

work, how they could be practically applied to its peculiar circumstances. These three classes of reports, all of them by disinterested experts, engaged in keeping under review all analogous enterprises at home or abroad, and having neither interest in, nor authority over, any of them, will, we suggest, be discussed by the members of the committees and councils on terms of equality ; the decisions being taken, according to the nature of the case, by those in whom the responsibili ty for decision may be vested.

But there will be a second extensive class of reports of a different character, conveying not statements of fact but views of policy. There will, we must assume, be reports from those responsible, not merely or mainly for satisfying the existing generation of consumers, producers, or citizens, but for safe- guarding the interests of the community as a whole, in the future as well as in the present. There will be the reports from the organs of the consumers or users of the particular commodity or service (such as the District Committees representing tele- phone users set up by the Postmaster-General as organs of criticism and suggestion for his telephone administration). Finally there will be reports conveying criticisms and suggestions from committees or councils representing other enterprises, or other sections of producers (whether technicians or manual workers), which may have something to communicate that they deem important. These reports will, none of them, come with coercive authority, but merely as conveying information, to be considered in the consultations out of which the necessary decisions will emerge.

Opinions may differ as to the competence to take part in such consultations of the selected representatives of the manual workers and the technicians respectively. We are ourselves of opinion that, taking the business as a whole, such representatives will be found to compare, in competence, quite favourably with the average member of a Board of Directors. But whether or not the counsels and decisions of great industrial enterprises are likely to be much unproved by such consultations and we confidently expect that they will be we suggest that it is predominantly in this form that the principles of Democracy may, in practice, be applied to industrial administration ; and that it will be for the Professional Associations of the technicians and the Trade Unions of the manual workers to prove them- selves equal to the transformation in their status that this or any other application of Democracy involves.


A Future Work 763

But here we must pause. In a future work on the achieve- ments, policy, and immediate controversies of the British Labour and Socialist Movement we shall give the historical and the psychological analysis, in the light of the experience of the past few decades, upon which we base our present conclusions.


INDEX[edit]

Aberdare, 514

Aberdare, Lord, 276-7, 285

Aberdeen, cotton- weavers of, 82 ; tailors of, 79

Abnormal place, 513-16

Abraham, William, 596

Acetylene Welders, 495

Acland, Sir A. H. Dyke, 308

Actions for damages, 597-634

Actors' Association, 507

Actuarial position of T.U., 267-8

Adamson, W., 699

Admiralty Constructive Engineers, 507

Agricultural Labourers, 136, 144-6, 328-34, 405, 416, 439-40. 488-9, 624, 648

Agriculture, Royal Commission on, 648

Albert Hall, 666, 669

Alison, Sir Archibald, 170, 173

" All Grades Movement," 525-6

Allan, Wm., 210-14, 232, 234 (life), 233-40, 243, 248, 350, 362, 419

Alliance Cabinet Makers' Associa- tion. See Cabinet Makers

Almshouses, provided by the Liver- pool Shipwrights, 39

Althorpe, Lord, 132

Amalgamated Association of Boot and Shoe Makers, 436

Amalgamated Association of Miners, 306, 349, 511

Amalgamated Engineering Union, 488, 551

Amalgamated Metal Wire and Tube Makers' Society, 359

Amalgamated Society of. See Car- penters, Engineers, Cotton-spin-


ners, Cotton-weavers, Boot and Shoemakers, Builders' Labourers, Card and Blowing Room Opera- tives, Metal Planers, Railway Servants, Tailors, Watermen and Lightermen

Amalgamated Tramway and Vehicle Workers, 744

Amalgamations and Federations, 546-554

American Federation of Labour, 135, 556

Amicable and Brotherly Society of Machine Printers (Cotton and Calico), 70, 75

Amicable Society of Woolstaplers, 83

Anderson, W. C., 699

Anti-corn Law League, 174, 176

Applegarth, Robert, 232, 233-40, 236-7 (life), 248, 350, 362, 391, 419, 680

Appleton, W. A., 556

Apprentices, 27, 29, 38, 45, 47, 83, 267

Apprentices, Statute of, 47, 59, 66, 250-51

Arbitration, 29, 71, 226-7, 337*

643

Arch, Joseph, 329, 334, 680, 682

Armstrong, Lord, 315

Arnot, R. Page, 489, 511, 524,

532, 633, 662 Ashley, Sir W. J., 4, 5, 13, 15, 29,

5", 735-7

Ashton, murder of, 122 Ashton, Thomas, 311, 356 Ashton-under-Lyne, strikes at, 119,

122


765


766


Index


Ashworth, 169

Asquith, H. H. f 528-9, 636, 645, 692

Assinder, G. F., 599

Associated. See Blacksmiths, Car- penters, Engineers, Iron-forgers, Railwaymen, and Shipwrights

Associated Society of Locomotive Engineers and Firemen, 439, 505, 527, 530, 535, 539, 545- See also Railwaymen

Associations of Consumers, 706-18

Associations of Producers, 653-63, 704-18, 752-62

Atchison's Haven, 10

Austin, Michael, 596

Ayrshire Miners, 68 1

Bachelor Companies, 4, 5, 6, 7

Baernreither, Dr., 220, 300

Baker, C., 634

Bakers, 369, 438, 559

Bamford, Samuel, 96, 164

Bank Officers' Guild, 505

Barker, Ernest, 414

Barnes, Geo. N., 490, 692-3, 695, 698

Barnsley, first working-man Town

Councillor elected in, 305 Basketmakers, 14, 45, 438, 552 Bass, Michael, 523 Bass-dressers, 336 Beale, C. G., 530 Beamers, 477

Beehive, the, 36, 254-5, 298 Beer, M., 131, 157, 162, 175, 414,

680 Beesly, Professor E. S., 222, 231-2,

236, 238, 246, 250, 263-4, 269,

275, 288, 293, 298, 312, 341, 362,

415, 510. See Positivists Belfast, 123, 136, 523 Belfast and Dublin Locomotive

Engine-drivers' and Firemen's

Trade Union, 523 Bell, Sir Hugh, xiv Bell Inn, Old Bailey, 205, 243, 245 Bell, Richard, 526-7, 601, 684 Bell, Robert, 58 Benbow, William, 163-4 Bennett, T. R., 246 Bentham, Jeremy, 96, 178 Bernstein, Eduard, 652 Besant, Mrs. Annie, 396, 399, 402


Bevan, G. Phillips, 347 Bibliography, 751

Birmingham, building tiades of, 129 ; " Builders' Parliament " at, 130 ; tailors of, 32 ; Trade

Unionism in, 358-9 ; Trades Coun- cil of, 280, 329-30, 399 ; trades

procession at, 177 Birtwistle, Thomas, 309 Bit and Spur Makers, 92 Blackburn, 307, 697 ; riots at, 344 Blackburn List, the, 226 " Black-coated proletariat," 503-9 Blacklisting, 284, 598 Blacksmiths, Associated Society of.

Scotland. See Smiths Blastfurnacemen. See Ironworkers Bleachers, 478, 480 Block Printers, Glasgow, 552 Blok, P. J., 24 Boa, Andrew, 290 " Board of Green Cloth " at Dublin,

104 Boilermakers, 174, 205, 230, 247,

259, 261-2, 314, 321-2, 348, 353,

365, 37 8 - 428-31, 490-91, 559, 744 Bolton, calico - printers at, 79 ;

cotton operatives of, 81, 92, 307 ;

engineers of, 207-8 Bondfield, Miss Margaret, 496 Bookbinders, 23, 77, 79, 91, 176,

188, 196-7, 201, 244-5, 437-8, 744 Boot and Shoe Operatives, 57, 68,

77, 79-80, 143, 150, 192, 228,

236, 336, 47, 436-7, 493-4, 744-

See also Shoemakers Booth, Charles, 375, 380-81 Bowerman, C. W., 362 " Box Club," 36-7 Boy labour, 202 Brace, W., 692 Bradford, woollen strike of 1825,

in

Bradlaugh, Charles, 289, 370-71 Bradninch, woolcombers in, 34 Brain workers, inclusion of, 697 ;

organisations of, 503-9 Bramwell, Lord, 279, 363 Branch meeting, description of,

446-8

Brassey, Lord, 269 Brassfounders. See Brassworkers


Index


7 6 7


Brass-workers, 323, 353, 358-9, 430-31, 486-8, 744

Braziers, 80, 91

Breeches Makers' Benefit Society, 24

Brentano, Dr. Luigi, 9, 12, 13, 15, 16, 25, 39, 47, 52, 209, 212, 339, 677

Brett, Lord Justice, 285

Bricklayers, 125, 169, 223, 226-32, 241, 245, 275, 282, 354, 365, 407, 428-9, 431-3, 559, 744

Bricklayers' and Plasterers' Com- pany, Dublin, 721-4

Brickmakers, 241, 267-9; Hebrew in Egypt, 2

Brief Institution, 40, 67

Bright, John, 35-6, 178, 247, 293, 382

Brighton Trades Council, 558

Bristol, 14, 33, 35, 53, 133, 243, 252, 350

British and Foreign Consolidated Association of Industry, Human- ity, and Knowledge, 167

British Association of Steel Smelt- ers. See Steel Smelters

Broadhead, W., 268-9

Broadhurst, Henry, 240, 285, 289, 295, 311-12, 325, 353, 362-3, 365, 37. 37 2 . 395, 4i. 48, 635, 680

Bronte, Charlotte, 89

Brooklands Agreement, 476

Brooks, J. G., 655

Brougham, Lord, 156, 178

Brushmakers, 14, 45, 75, 84, 91, 438

Buchez, 225

Builders' Labourers, 125, 483

" Builders' Parliament " of 1833, 130 ; of 1918-19, 483, 649 .

Building Trades, early combina- tions, 8-1 1 ; lock-out in 1833, 150 ; in 1860, 228-32 ; in 1912, 690 ; nine hours movement in, 312-17 ; statistics of, 407, 428-9, 431-3, 481-3

Bull & Co., 343

Bullinger, 4

Burdett, Sir Francis, 69, 109

Burgess, Joseph, 412

Burnett, John, 19, 36, 211, 314-15 (life), 316, 325, 347, 368, 423, 530

Burns, John, 298, 375, 383, 3 8 5


(life), 387-8, 396, 400, 402-3, 407-13, 419, 490, 636, 682

Burrows, Herbert, 402

Burt, Thomas, 181, 289-90, 296, 307, 340, 342, 362, 510-1 1, 625, 635, 680

Burton, hatters of, 53

Bussy, J. F. Moir, 524

Buxton, Lord, 404

Buxton, Sir T. Fowell, 264

Byron, Lord, 89

Cab-fare regulations, 9 Cabinetmakers, 76-8, 83-4, 136, 243, 248, 290, 389, 432-3, 481,

744-5

Cabmen, 369 " Ca' Canny," 487 Cairns, Earl, 275 Calender-men, Glasgow, no Calhoun, J. C., 167 Calico Engravers of Manchester, 80 Calico-printers, 45, 56-7, 70, 75,

79, 90, 121, 193, 436 Callender, W. R., 272 Cambridge, tailors of, 68 Campbell, Alexander, 30, 240, 243,

249-53

Campbell, G. L., 366 Campbell-Bannerman, Sir Henry,

635

Candidatures, independent, 287-9

Canning, 60

Capitalist, elimination of, 673-6

Card and Blowing Room Operatives, Amalgamated Association of, 435, 475-80. See also Cotton Opera- tives and Textiles

Carlisle, cotton-weavers of, 82

Carmarthenshire, coal-miners of, 44

Carmen, 439-40

Carpenters, 18, 75, no, 125, 169, 192, 202, 224, 228-32, 245, 254, 259, 265-7, 313, 319, 323-4, 343. 346, 354-5, 39i, 4!5, 432-3, 4*>i, 744 ; Company of London, 18 ; of Dublin, 721-4

Carpet- weavers, 112, 224, 435-6

Cartwright, 36

Census of Trade Unionists, 741-750

Central Institute, 593

Chalmers, G., 62

Chamberlain, Joseph, 370, 373


768


Index


Champertors, 67 Champion, H. H., 387, 400 Chandler, F., 354 Channel Isles, etc., T.U. in, 743 Chapel, 27, 74, 489 Character Note, 29, 284 Chartism, 164, 174-8, 649, 653 Checkweigher, 302, 304-6, 466, 489 Chester, hatters of, 53 Chimney-sweeps, 136 Chinese Labour, 691 Chippers and Drillers, 548 Chipping Norton case, 332 Christian Socialists, the, 215, 225,

246, 263-4, 77- $ ee a ^ so Hughes,

Ludlow and Neale Churchill, Winston, 494, 501 Cigarmakers, T.U. among, 438 " Citizen Guard," 544 City of Glasgow Bank failure, 345 Civil Service, 507-8 ; Arbitration

Tribunal, 508-9 Clark, W. S., 601, 607, 634 Clayden, A. W., 329 Clerical Workers' Union of Ireland,

473

Clerks, 440, 473, 504-5, 744 Clode, 3, 6

Clothiers, 33-6, 40, 67-8, 151 Clothiers' Community, the, 40 Clothing Trades, statistics of, 428-

429, 436-7

Clothworkers' Company, 5, 33-4 Clyde, depression on, 346 ; engineers

on, 690 ; ferment on, 656, 659 ;

shipyard workers of, 256 ; shorter

day on, 316; strike on, in 1877,

343 ; " Weekly Pays " on the,

552 Clyde Workers' Committee, 488, 640,

659

Clynes, J. R., 497, 692 Coachmakers, 46, 80, 230, 423, 438,

744 Coal Industry Commission, 511,

518-22, 648, 662-3 Coal-miners. See Miners Coal-porters, 18, 439, 500-501 Cobbett, Wm., 94, 96, 132, 154-5 ;

the younger, 253 Cobden, Richard, 178, 382 Cohen, H., 599, 601


Cokemen, 434, 512, 549

Cole, G. D. H., 485, 524, 532, 553, 633. 637, 660

Cole, Percy, 491

Colliery Clerks, 513, 549; Engine- men, 434, 512,549; Mechanics, 434

Combe, Delafield & Co., 150

Combination Acts, 64, 251

" Committee Liquor," 203

Common employment, 364-6

Common Rules, 758

Composite Branches, 483

Compositors, 27, 57-8, 77-8, 169, 176, 181, 196, 198-9, 201, 205, 361, 389, 398-9, 415, 437-8, 492-3, 606, 666, 671, 744. See also Typographical

Conditions of Employment, 754

Confederation Gen6rale de Travail,

655

Conference of Amalgamated Trades, 263-83

Confiscation of funds proposed, 140

Congress, Trades Union, origin of, 280-81; description of, 561-6; summons to, 738-40

Congreve, Richard, 269

Connolly, T., 248, 273 ; James, 47 2 -3, 655-7

Conscription, 639-40, 666-7

Consolidated Society of Book- binders, London. See Bookbinders

Conspiracy, law of, 67, 367, 598 ; to injure, 598

Constitution of Labour Party, 697 ; of Trade Unions, 716

Consumers, organisation of, 762

Contagious Diseases Acts, 237

Contracting Out, 366

Cook, A. G., 399

Co-operative Employees, 504, 559, 744; Movement, 225, 647, 675, 752-62 ; production, 168, 194, 225-6, 335-6, 650-^1, 659, 707-8; Society of Smiths. See Smiths; Union, the, 545, 691 ; Wholesale Society, 541; workshops, 194

Coopers, 74-5, 104, 230, 350, 423, 438, 548, 685

Co-partnership, 653

Copper-miners, absence of T.U. among, 434


Index


769


Cordwainers. See Boot and Shoe

Operatives

Corn Production Act, 475, 498 Costing experts, 761 Cotton-spinners, 7, 41, 56, 81, 92,

116-24, 127, 151-2, 170-71, 176,

181, 191, 226, 259, 307-13, 415-16,

4 2 3. 435. 475-So, 744 Cotton-weavers, 56-9, 81-2, 86,

109, 307-13. 344. 435. 475-8o Coulson, Edward, 233 - 40, 248,

252, 255, 282, 362 Coventry, 95 Cowen, Joseph, 316 Cox, Harold, 391, 393 Craft Gilds, 4-21 ; labourers ex- cluded from, 43 Cranmer, Archbishop, 4 Crawford, William, 296, 303-4, 391 Crayford, calico-printers of, 193 Cremer, Sir W. R., 248, 289, 682 Criminal Law Amendment Act of

1871, 282-3, 290-91, 364 Crompton, Henry, 265, 278, 282,

284, 286, 298, 338, 362, 374. See

Positivists Cromwell, combinations reported

to, 3

Crooks, W., 685

Cross, Viscount, 291, 312, 618, 624 Cruikshank, James, 20 Cubitt's, Messrs., strike at, 150 Cunningham, Dr. William, 9, 15, 16,

49, 52, 55, 62, 308 Curriers, 37, 45, 46, 59, 90, 92, 181,

236

Customs officers, 507 Cutlers, 73, 80, 92, 108, 241 Cutlers' Company, 39


Daily Citizen, 689

Daily Herald, 502, 542, 689

Dale, David, 328, 339

Danter, 255, 318

Dartmouth, 34

Davenport, W., 30

Davis, J. E., 251

Davis, R. J., 503

Davis, W. J., 281, 324, 356, 358-9

(life), 368, 391, 395. 4 OJ . 554>

60 1, 680


Davitt, Michael, 473 Defoe, Daniel, 35 Delahaye, Victor, 385 De Leon, Daniel, 656 Demarcation disputes, 247, 353 Democracy, nature of, 704-18 ;

analysis of, 752-62 Deportation of Clyde workers, 640 Deputies, 513, 549 Derby, hatters of, 53 ; potters of,

133 ,* " turn-outs " of, 137-8 Devon, clothiers of, 33-5, 68 Devonport, Lord, 501-2 Dilke, Sir Charles, 238, 494, 617 Dilution, 637-43 Direct action, 663-73, 712 Directory of Trade Unions, 244-5 District Committee, 221-2, 449 ;

Councils, 547

District Delegate, 322, 462-3 Dock Foremen and Clerks, London

Society of, 440 Dockers, 401-5, 416, 420, 439, 497-

502, 744 Document, the, 130, 150-51, 164,

193, 215-16, 244, 255 Doherty, John, 107, 117-18, 122, 124 Doll6ans, E., 175 Dorchester labourers, 138, 144-8 Dowlais iron workers, 224 Drake, Barbara, 637 Dronfield, William, 240, 252, 257-8 Druitt, 278-9 Drummond, C. J., 398 Drummond, Henry, 277 Drury, John, 184, 186 Dublin, 14, 37, 53, 76, 104, 172, 243,

55i. 721-4 Dugdale, 6 Duncombe, Thomas Slingsby, 185-7,

193-5, 277 Dundee, 136 Dunning, T. J., 23, 188, 228, 240,

243, 245, 252, 321 Dunsford, Martin, 34 Durham, coal-miners of, 44, 181-2,

186, 304, 342, 349, 386, 391-2,

511-12, 517 Dyer, Colonel, xiv Dyers, 100, 243, 436, 478, 480, 552

Eastern Counties Labour Federa- 2C


770


Index


tion, 405. See also Agricultural Labourers

Edinburgh, compositors of, 58 ; trade clubs of, 177; Trades Council of, 242, 252 ; Uphol- sterers' Sewers' Union at, 336

Educational Institute of Scotland,

473 Eight Hours Bill, textile agitation

for, in 1867-75, 309 ; general,

387, 390-92, 48, 648 Eight hours day, 402-3 ; demanded

in 1834, 151 ; on the railways,

535

Elcho, Lord. See Wemyss, Earl of Eldon, Lord, 105 Election expenses, 368 Electioneering by Trade Unions,

274-5

Electrical Trades Union, 488, 551

Elizabeth, Act of, 47-9

Ellenborough, Lord, 59-60, 144

Ellicott, Dr., Bishop of Gloucester, 332

Ellis, Sir T. Ratcliffe, 530

Ely, Bishop of, 3

Emblem, 450

Emigration, 201-2, 328

Employer and Workman Act, 291, 625

Employers' Associations, service of, 479 ; as combinations, 73

Employers' liability, 364-6, 370, 373

Employers of Labour, National Federation of Associated, 326-7

Employment Exchanges, 646

Engels, Friedrich, 186

Engineering and Shipbuilding Federation, 552-3

Engineers, 174, 176, 178, 196-7, 201, 204-24, 230, 232-4, 245, 255, 259, 261, 313-17, 346, 348, 353, 355, 384-5, 408, 415-16, 420-21, 551, 555, 559, 636, 643, 692, 744 ; statistics of, 407, 428-31, 484-490 ; strike of 1836, 206 ; strike of 1852, 214-16; strike of 1897, 484-5

Enginemen, 440

Equalisation of funds, 220

Erie, Sir William, 195, 264, 279


Evans, D , 511 Evans, Frederick, 523 Eversley, Lord, 228 Excess Profits Duty, 641 Excise officers, 507-8 Exeter, 34-5, 136

Fabian Research Department. See

Labour Research Department Fabian Society, 375, 399, 414, 561,

642, 662, 680-82, 684 Factory Acts, 679 Factory Acts Reform Association,

310-13

Factory inspectors, 371-2 Fagniez, 3, 7, 8 Fairbairn, Sir W., 84, 205 Fair Trade League, 394-5 " Fair Wages " agitation, 398-9,

558

Fair, Dr. William, 228 Farriers, 46 Farringdon, prosecution of

labourers at, 332 Farwell, Lord Justice, 627 Faulkner, H. V., 175 Fawcett Association, 508 Fawcett, Henry, 228, 238, 312 Federal Council of Secondary School

Associations, 506 Federation of British Industries,

545 Federation of the Engineering and

Shipbuilding Trades, 355, 421,

552-3 Federation of Organised Trade

Societies, 356 Felkin, W., 38, 52, 169 Feltmakers' Company, 28, 30, 52-3 Female Umbrella Makers, 337 Fenwick, Charles, 362 Fernehough, Thomas, 260 Ferrand, M.P., 186 Fielden, J., 132, 151, 158 Fielding, Sir John, 54 Figgis, J. N., 611 Filesmiths of Sheffield, 80 Findlay, Sir George, 525 Finlaison, 268

Flannel- weavers of Rochdale, 127 Flax Roughers, 473 ; workers, 133,

435-6


Index


771


Flint Glass Makers, 181, 183-4, r 97. 199-202, 228, 230, '379-80, 423,

744 Forbes, Archibald, 329

Foreign policy of Labour Party, 695-6

Foremen, 440, 506

Forest of Dean Miners' Association, 434. See also Miners

Forster, W. E., 228

Foster, Thomas, 118-20; (another) 648

Foxwell, Professor H. S., 58, 155, 157, 162, 308

Framework-knitters, 14, 38-9, 51, 51-2, 62, 75, 88-9, 94, 121

Franchise, 368, 372, 624, 672

Franklin, Benjamin, 27

Free Colliers of Scotland, 20

Freemasons, 19

French Polishers, 432-3

Friendly Benefits, 222, 445, 620-21

Friendly Societies, 19, 24 ; Act for, 261

Friendly Society of Oddfellows, 19

Friendly Society of Operative Stonemasons. See Stonemasons

Friendly Union of Mechanics, 208

Friendly United Smiths of Great Britain and Ireland, 207. See also Smiths

Friziers, 91

Frost, Williams, and Jones, New- port Chartists, 177

Froude, J. A., 48

Furnishing Trades, 481

Fynes, Richard, 90, 124, 181, 186

Gaevernitz, von Schulze, 339, 414

Galloway, 61, 205

Galton, F. W., 23, 97, 150

Gammage, R. G., 175

Garibaldi, 247

Garment Workers. See Tailors

Garton Foundation, 648

Gascoyne, Colonel, 71

Gas-stokers, London (1872), 284-5;

strike of (1834), 138, (1888)

395. See Gas-workers Gast, John, 84-5, 107, in, 115 Gas-workers, 402, 406, 420, 439,

497. 499


Gateshead Trades Council, 561

Geddes, Sir Auckland, 536-7

Geddes, Sir Eric, 536-8

Geldart, W. M., 609, 634

General Federation of Trade Unions. 554-7, 603-4, 7

General Labourers' National Coun- cil, 499

General Railway Workers' Union, 45-6, 524, 530. See also Rail- waymen

General staff, need for, 546

General Union of Carpenters. See Carpenters

General Union of Sheet Metal Workers. See Sheet Metal Workers

General Union of Textile Workers 480

General Workers, 497-502

George, D. Lloyd, 509, 518, 522, 527. 537-9, 54 1 . 543-4. 645, 692, 694-5

George, Henry, 375-6, 389

Gierke, O., 611-12

Giffen, Sir Robert, 424

Gig-mill, 48

Gild of St. George, Coventry, 6

Girdlestone, Canon, 329

Gladstone, W. E., 248, 262, 284-6, 302, 365

Glasgow, calico-printers of, 75 ; cotton operatives of, 56, 58-9, 89, 170-71 ; gilds of, 14 ; labourers' society in, 417 ; stonemasons of, 347 ; Trades Council of, 240, 242-3, 252-3, 258, 280; violent Trade Unionism of, 165

Glass bottle Makers, 259, 423, 441,

744

Glass - workers. See Flint Glass Makers and Glass-bottle Makers

Glaziers of London, 66

Gloucestershire, clothiers of, 33-5 ; weavers of, 50 ; woollen -workers of, 33-4. 50

Glovers, 43, 437

Goderich, Lord. See Ripon, Mar- quis of

Gold, Silver, and Kindred Trades Society, 551

Goldasti, 20


772


Index


Goldbeaters, 37, 91

Gompers, Samuel, 556

Qorgon, the, 99

Government of Industry, 752-62

Government officials, 507-8

Graham, Sir James, 60, 185

Graham, R. B. Cunninghame, 386,

682

Grain-porters, 501 Grand National Consolidated Trades

Union, 125, 417 ; rules of, 725-

733

Grey, Sir George, 185 Grinders, 80, 260 Gross, Dr., 15 Grote, George, 178 Guild Socialism, 548, 660-1 Guilds. See Craft Gilds Guile, Daniel, 233-40, 238 (life of),

252, 291, 362 Gurney, J. and W. B., 89 Gurney, Russell, 275

Haddleton, 197

Halevy, Elie, 648

Halifax, woollen-workers of, 35

Hall, Rev. Robert, 94 .

Halliday, Sir Leonard, 4

Halliday, Thomas, 289

Hallsworth, Joseph, 503

Halsbury, Lord, 610, 614

Hamilton, A. H. A., 33

Hammond, J. L. and B., 70-71, 82, 86, 89, 100, 105, 112, 115, 144

Hanley Trades Council, 558

Hansom, 130

Hardie, J. Keir, 396, 681-4, 688

Harford, E., 390

Harrel, Sir David, 530

Harrison, Frederic, 246, 262, 263, 265, 267, 270-71, 273-4, 275, 279, 284, 286, 295-7, 2 98, 362, 374, 6 10. See also Positivists

Harvey, George, 511

Hasbach, Dr. W., 329, 405

Hatters, 28, 30, 45, 52-3, 68, 90, 437. See also Feltmakers' Com- pany

Headlam, Rev. S. D., 399

Heath, F. G., 329

Henderson, Arthur, 490, 529-30, 666, 669, 680, 685, 692, 694-5, 699


Henson, Gra verier, 38, 77, 81, 89, 94, 100, 105

Hepburn, Tommy, 124

Herald of the Rights of Industry, The, 158

Herbert, Hon. Auberon, 329

Hewins, W. A. S., 49

Hexham, hatters of, 53

Hibbert and Platt, 214

Hill, Frank, 14, 228

Hill, Frederic, 257, 272

Hilles, Richard, 4

Hobhouse, Benjamin, 69, 70

Hobhouse, John Cam, 122

Hobson, S. G., 660

Hodge, John, 491, 692, 695

Hodges, Frank, 517, 673-5, 715

Hodgskin, T., 162

Holders-up. See Boilermakers

Holland, John, 124

Holland, Lord, 70

Holyoake, G. J., 302

Holytown, miners of, 193

Hornby v. Close, 262

Hosiery-workers, 435-6. See also Framework-knitters

Hour, payment by the, 245-6

House of Call, 69, 77, 445

Hovell, Mark, vi, 158, 164, 170, 175

Howell, George, 12-13, 1 7> 2 7> 3. 40-41, 65, 71, 100, 105, 139, 144, 17, 173. 188, 195, 228, 240, 245, 248, 255, 275, 281, 285-6, 289, 291-2, 295, 298. 325, 329-30, 352, 36i, 370, 37 2 . 39i, 395, 4i6, 599, 601, 616-17, 623, 665, 682, 748

Ho wick, Lord, 146

Hoxie, R. F., 717

Hozier, J. H. C., 393

Huddersfield, 125

Hughes, Judge Thomas, Q.C., 216, 228, 244, 246, 265, 270, 274-5, 282, 290, 263-4, 34 J - Set also Christian Socialists

Hughson, David, 32, 34

Hull, ropemakers of, 91 ; Trade Unionism at, 136

Hume, James Deacon, 158

Hume, Joseph, M.P., 72, 81, 99- 108, 142, 186, 251, 277, 415


Index


773


Humphrey, A. W., 2^7, 275, 289,

604, 680

Humphries, E., 195 Hunt, D. R. C., 599 Hunt, Henry, 96, 164 Hunter, Thomas, 170 Huskisson, W., M.P., 60, 105-6 Hutchinson, Alexander, 153, 207-8 Hutton, R. H., 228, 246 Hutton, W., 177

Huysmans, Camille, 666, 669, 670 Hyde, spinners' strike at, 117 Hyett, W. H., in Hyndman, H. M., 376-7, 387, 400,

409-11

"' Illegal men," 59

Incorporation of Trade Unions, 596

Independent Labour Party, 384,

652, 680-84, 692 Independent Order of Engineers

and Machinists. See Engineers Index numbers, 339 Industrial Conscription, 639-40 Industrial Courts Act, 1919, 643 Industrial Remuneration Confer- ence, 380

Industrial Unionism, 656-9 Industrial Unions, 548-50 Industrial Workers of the World, 655 Industries, difficulty of delimiting,

7H

Ingram, Dr. J. K., 26

Initiation Parts, 149

Injunctions, 599, 600, 688

Inspectors, 504-5

Insurance Agents, 440, 507

Inter- Allied Conferences, 693-6

Interlocutor, 581

International Association of Work- ing-men, 235-6, 248, 297, 316, 379, 396-7, 421, 666, 693-6

International Federations of Trade Unions, 555-6

Intimidation, 597

Ireland, laws in, 68-9 ; Trade Unionism in, 472-3

Irish Bank Officials' Association, 505

Irish Clerical Workers' Union, 505

Irish Labour Party, 473

Irish Railway Workers' Trade Union, 524


Irish Teachers' Society, 473

Irish Textile Workers' Federation, 473

Irish Trades Union Congress, 473

Iron and Steel Trades Confedera- tion, 492, 552, 749

Iron and Steelworkers, Associated Society of. See Ironworkers

Iron Forgers, Associated Fraternity of, or Old Smiths, 205

Ironfounders, 78, 121, 174, 176, 198-9, 200-203, 205, 213, 226, 233, 2 45. 261, 319-20, 348-9, 353, 391, 415, 429-30, 488, 685, 692, 744

Irongrinders, 744

Ironmoulders. See Ironfounders

Iron shipbuilders. See Boiler- makers

Iron Trade Midland Wages Board, 734-5 ; North of England Wages Board, 734-5

Ironworkers, 240, 259, 273, 324, 339. 349, 430-3 1 - 491-2, 734~5 ; of Dowlais, 224 ; of Staffordshire, 256 ; sliding scales of, 734-5

Jackson and Graham, 290 Jackson, Col. Raynsford, 344 James, 37 James of Hereford, Lord, 206, 493,

610, 615-16, 618, 626 Jeffrey, Lord, 72 Jevons, H. Stanley (the younger),

186, 511, 516 Jewish Unions, 478 Joiners. See Carpenters Joint Board, 700 Joint Committees. See Arbitration,

Whitley Councils Jones, Benjamin, 225, 708 Jones, Daniel, 734 Jones, Lloyd, 243, 298, 329, 340-41

(life), 510 Jones, W. C., 341 Journalists, 493, 507 Journeyman Fraternities, 4-9 Journeymen Steam Engine and

Machine Makers and Millwrights

Friendly Society, 204-20. See

also Engineers Jude, Martin, 182, 209 Junta, the, 233-98


774


Index


Jupp, 1 8

Jury service, 367-8, 372

Justices of the Peace, 372, 594

Kane, John, 240 (life of), 273, 286,

289, 299, 324, 339 Karslake, Sir John, 275 Kay-Shuttleworth, Sir James, 228 Keeling, F., 500 Keelmen, 44

Kenney, Rowland, 524, 527 Kettel, F. E., 329 Kettle, Sir Rupert, 338-9 Kidderminster, 112; carpet- weavers

of, 224 Kitchen-range, etc., Fitters' Union,

323

Knight, Charles, 141, 178 Knight, Robert, 322, 324, 351, 355,

378, 421, 554 Knights of Labour, 135

Laboratory workers, 506

Labour and the New Social Order,

679, 697 Labour Commission, 595-6, 602,

650, 735

Labour Department, 596 Labour Elector, The, 387 Labour Electoral Committee, 680 Labour League, London and Coun- ties, 417, 439 Labour members, characteristics of,

701-2

Labour Party, 604 Labour Representation League,

287-9, 680 Labour Research Department, 225,

542, 561, 751

Labour Standard, The, 298 Labour Time, 162-3 Labourers, no early organisation

among, 43 ; statistics of, 428-9,

438-40 ; increase of, 497-502 Lacemakers, 435-6, 441, 559 Ladies' Shoemakers' Society, 238 Laisser-faire, 56 Lanarkshire, cotton-weavers of, 58,

170 Lancash i re Federation of Protection

Societies, 478


Lancashire Miners, 182, 433, 511

Land Nationalisation, 389, 390, 395

Langford, 32

Lansbury, George, 689

Larkin, James, 472-3

Lathom, R. M., 680

Laundresses, T.U., 336

Law, Bonar, 668

Law reforms, 367-8

Lawrence, F. Pethick, 68 1

Lawrence, Miss Susan, 494, 496

Laws, Mr., 287

Lay ton, W. T., 527

Lead miners, absence of T.U. among,

434

Leathergrounders, 92 Leatherworkers, 437, 552 Lee, H. W., 501 Leech, H. J., 293 Leeds, 35 ; clothing trade of, 35,

40, 127 ; Clothiers' Union, 133,

  • 47

Leeds, Huddersfield, and Bradford District Union, 147

Legal assaults, 597-634

Legal Minimum Wage, under Trade Boards Act, 494-5 ; under Corn Production Act, 498 ; under Mines Act, 514-16

Leicester, 94, 125, 137 ; hosiery workers of, 335 ; Trades Council, 558 ; woolcombers of, 36

Levi, Leone, 424

Levine, Louis, 655

Lewis, Sir G. C., 247

Liberty, analysis of, 757

Lichfield, Earl of, 254

Life Assurance Agents. See Insur- ance Agents .

Linen Weavers, 436

Link, The, 402

Liquor, 448 ; allowance, 203-4

Litchfield, R. B., 246

Liverpool, building trades of, 128- 130 ; dockers of, 405 ; hatters of, 53 ; ropemakers of, 91 ; shipwrights of, 551 ; Trades Council, 242-3, 252, 354-5

Liverpool, Lord, 105

Liverpool Sailmakers' Friendly Association of Shipwrights. See Shipwrights


Index


775


Liverpool, Trades Guardian Associa- tion of, 243

Lloyd, C. M., 1 60

Local Government elections, 305, 399, 413; employees, 508 ; suc- cesses, 703-4

Local versus Central Administra- tion, 714

Lock-out, . the, 255-6 ; of agricul- tural labourers, 332, 334

London and Counties Labour League, 417, 439

London Carpenters' Company, 18 ; city companies of, 14 ; coal- porters of, 1 8 ; early combina- tions in the City of, 2, 3 ; frame- work knitters of, 14, 38, 51-2 ; joiners' company of, 18 ; ship- wrights' company of, 18 ; Trades Council, 231, 236, 238, 285, 333, 558-60 ; woodsawyers of, 18

London Consolidated Society of Bookbinders, 188, 196

London Society of Compositors, 181,

399, 415, 437-8, 492 London Working Men's Association,

298, 680

Londonderry, Lord, 90, 166, 186 Longe, F. D., 228 Looms, renting of, forbidden, 48 Loveless, George, John, and James,

144-6, 148 Lovett, Samuel, 96 Lovett, William, 84, 114, 145, 156,

157, 172, 174 Lowe, Robert. See Sherbrooke,

Lord, 285

Lucraft, Benjamin, 235, 289 Luddites, the, 87-9 Ludlow, J. M., 14, 26, 216, 228,

246, 264, 341. See Christian

Socialists Lushington, Sir Godfrey, 228, 246,

264 Lushington, Vernon, 264

Macarthur, Miss Mary, 494. 496 Macclesfield, hatters of, 30 M'Connel and Co., 308 M'Culloch, J. R., 23, 99, 197 Macdonald, Alexander, 240, 249, 252, 277, 286, 289, 290, 299, 300


(life of), 301-7, 338, 342, 362, 393 510, 680

MacDonald, J. Ramsay, 23, 337. 529, 666, 669, 684-5, 688, 699

M'Gowan, Patrick, 118, 120

Machine, Engine, and Iron Grin- ders' Society, 744-7

Machine Printers, 744. See also Compositors

Machine Workers. See Engineers

Machinery, export of, 100, 103

M'Hugh, Edward, 582

MacManus, A., 619

Madox, T., 612

Maitland, F. W., 611-12

Maitland, General, 88

Man, The, 134

Management, analysis of, 752

Manchester Association of T.U. Officials, Manchester and District, 324 ; brickmakers of,268 ; building trades of, 130-31, (strike of 1846) 193 ; carpenters of, 343 ; cotton- spinners of, 8 1 ; lengthening of hours at, 348 ; painters of, 275 ; Trades Council, 243, 280, 558-60, 738-40

Mandamus, 600

Manley, Thomas, 22

Mann, Tom, 383-4 (life), 396, 402, 406-7, 409, 412-14, 419, 490, 595-6, 651-2, 657-8

Manners, Lord John, 186

Manning, Cardinal, 332, 404

Marcroft family, the, 152

Marine Engineers' Union. See Engineers

Marlborough, Duke of, 332

Marshall, James, 170

Martineau, Harriet, 141

Marx, Karl, 162, 235, 297, 367, 376,

389

Masons. ' See Stonemasons Master and Servant, law in 1844

185-6 ; Act of 1867, 249-53 Match girls, London strike of, 402 Maudsley, 61 Maurice, Rev. F. D., 228 Mavor, James, 524 Mawdsley, James, 379, 479, 596 Mawdsley, Thomas, 311 Maxwell, William, 598


776


Index


May, John, 33 Mayhew, n

Mechanics' Friendly Union Institu- tion, 208

Mechanics' Magazine, the, 197 Medico-Political Union, 506-7 Melbourne, Lord, 138-48 Memorandum on War A ims, 695 Memorial of Freedom and Peace,

593

Menger, Anton, 155, 157, 162 Mercantile Marine Offices, Super- intendents of, 507 Merchant Shipping Acts, 607 Merchant Taylors' Company, 3, 6 Mersey Quay and Railway Carters'

Union. See Carmen Merton College buildings, 10, n Mess, H. A., 500 Middleton, J. S., 691 Midland Iron Trade Board, 734 Miles, Wm., 185 Military Service Acts, 639-40 Mill, James, 96, 157 Mill, John Stuart, 287, 617 Millers, 59, 438 ; of Kent, 59-60 Millmen. See Ironworkers Millwrights, 45, 69, 83-4, 92, 204-6 Miners, 415, 510-22, 624, 690 ; Amalgamated Association of, 289 ; Co-operative Production and, 335 ; Association of, G. B. and I., 181,

182, 1 86, 299, 517-18 ; Eight Hours Act, 686 ; Federation, 393-4, 408, 433-4, 510-22, 538, 549-50. 553. 555. 648, 661, 662-3, 665, 668, 673-5, 685, 715 ; Mini- mum Wage Act, 687 ; of Ayr- shire, 68 1 ; of Carmarthenshire, 44 ; of Durham, 44, 124, 166, 182-3, 296, 304, 335, 338, 342, 349. 386, 391, 392, 434. 5H-I2, 517, 744 ; of Holytown/193 ; of Lancashire, 111-12, 123, 143, 182-

183, 188, 392-3, 433, 511 ; of Lothian, 434 ; of Midlands, 349, 393, 511 ; of Monmouthshire, 89 ; of Northumberland, 124, 127, 182, 296, 335, 338, 340, 342, 347, 349.386, 391-2, 433, 511-12; of Nottiugham, 258 ; of Scotland, 192, 393, 434, 5H ; of Somerset,


44 ; of Staffordshire, 124, 511 ; of South Wales, 89, 343, 349, 434, 511, 640, 690; of York- shire, 124, 182, 228, 230, 256, 301-2, 304-5. 335. 338, 349, 3?o, 392-3, 433, 510-11, 522, 744 ; reorganisa- tion of, in 1858, 300-7 ; statistics of, 407, 428-9, 433-4; strike of 1810, 90. See also Iron-miners, Lead-miners, Copper-miners Miners' Attorney-General, the, 183 Miners' Next Step, the, 657 Minimum to Sliding Scale, 340-42 Minimum Wage Commission, 648 Mining Association of Great Britain,

553

Ministry of Reconstruction, 647-8 Mogul Case, 598 Molestation, 597 Moncrieff, Lord, 343 Moore, Peter, 251 Morley, Samuel, 310, 332 Morris, William, 377 Morrison, James, 131 Mottershead, 289 Mulineaux, Thomas, 30 Mundella, A. J., 264-5, 274-5, 282,

288, 290, 310, 338-9, 362 Municipal Employees' Association,

508 Munitions, Levy, 641 ; Ministry of,

637-43 ; Munitions of War Acts,

637, 643 ; Tribunals, 639, 643,

646 Munro, Prof. J. E. Crawford, 308,

734-7

Murphy, J. T., 490, 659 Musical Instrument Makers, 92 Musicians, 744 Mutual Association of Coopers.

See Coopers Mutuality, 487

Nash, Vaughan, 404

National Amalgamated Furnishing Trades Association, 551, 744. See also Furnishing, French Polishers, Cabinetmakers, Upholsterers

National Amalgamated Sailors' and Firemen's Union. See Sailors

National Association for the Pro- tection of Labour, 120-24


Index,


111


National Association of Miners, 299-

300 National Association of Operative

Plasterers. See Plasterers National Association of United Trades for the Protection of Labour, 186-95 National Association of United

Trades, 277

National Companies, 160 National Cordwainers' Society, 192 National Council of Colliery

Workers, 550

National Federation of Building Trade Operatives, 482-3 ; of Colliery Enginemen, 550 ; of Colliery Mechanics, 550 ; of Deputies, 550 ; of General Workers, 459 - 500 ; of Mine Managers, 550 ; of Professional Workers, 506-7 ; of Women Workers, 495 National Guilds, 660-61 National Industrial Conference,

648 National Insurance Act, 475, 495,

498, 503. 555. 636, 689 National Society of Amalgamated Brassworkers. See Brassworkers National Transport Workers' Feder- ation, 500-502, 538, 543 National Typographical Associa- tion, 181, 191

National Union of Boot and Shoe Operatives. See Boot and Shoe Operatives

National Union of Clerks, 505 ; of Dock Labourers. See Dockers ; of General Workers, 692. See also Gas - workers ; of Miners, 300-307, 511-12; of Railway Clerks, 524 ; of Railwaymen, 530-46. See also Railwaymen ; of Teachers, 440, 473, 506; of the Working Classes, 156 National United Trades' Associa- tion for the Employment of Labour, 192

Nationalisation, 651 ; of the coal supply, 517-22; of Mines Bill, 662-3 ; of railways, 534. Navvies, 439. See also Labourers


Neale, E. Vansittart, 216, 341. See Christian Socialists

Neale, Professor, 264

New Age, the, 660

New Sarum, Cordwainers at, 57

"New Unionism," the, of 1833-34, 153-67; of 1845-52, 195-204; of 1889-90, 414-21

Newcastle, potters of, 133 ; rope- makers of, 91 ; Trades Council, 252

Newcastle - on - Tyne engineers' strike at, 315-16; gilds of, 14; shoemakers at, 24

Newton, George, 258

Newton, William, 206-24, 2 34 243, 680

Newton - le - Willows, trial of engi- neers of, 209-10

Nine Hours' Bill, 311-12, 625

Nine Hours' Day, 245, 391, 397 ; attack on, 347, 355 ; in building trades, 228-32 ; movement in engineering and building, 313-17

Nixon, J., 340

Non-Unionists, 441, 4431 refusal to work with, 295-6

Normal Day, the, 246

Normansell, John, 305

North of England Manufactured Iron Board, 734-5

Northern Counties' Amalgamated Association of Weavers, 423, 478 -Northern Star, The, 166, 174-7, 181-2, 186, 216

Northumberland Miners, 181-2, 304, 340, 342, 347, 349, 386, 391-2, 511-12, 625, 744

Notes and Queries, 34

Nottingham, 52 ; framework knit- ters of, 52 ; Hosiery Board, 338 ; stockingers of, 62 ; Trades Council, 252, 558

O'Brien, J. Bronterre, 178 Obstruction, 597 O'Connell, Daniel, 148, 171, 173 O'Connor, Fergus, M.P., 174-5,

177-8, 182, 188. See Northern

Star Odger, George, 233-98, 238 (life),

243, 245, 247-8, 361-2, 680


778


Index


O'Grady, J., 683

Oldham, cotton operatives of, 307 ;

strike of, in 1834, 151-2 ; cotton

spinners of, 41, 559 ; strike of, in

1871, 310 ; engineers of, 214 " One Big Union," 114 Onslow, Serjeant, 61-2 Operative Society of Bricklayers.

See Bricklayers Operative, The, 213 Orage, A. R., 660 Osborne Judgement, 608-34, 686 Osborne, W. V., 608-9, 628 Ouseburn Engine works, 335 Outrages, Glasgow, 165, 170-71 ;

Manchester, 268 ; Sheffield, 259-

260, 268

Overlap. See Demarcation Overlookers, 477 Overmen, 434, 513, 549 Over-steaming, 679 Overtime, 317 ; in Government

Departments, 390-91 ; prevalence

of, 348 Owen, Robert, 130, 132, 134-5,

154-64, 167-8, 177, 251, 341,

409-10, 418-19 Owenism, 653, 707 Oxford, Cordwainers at, 5

Pacifists, the, 691-6 Packing-case Makers, 432 Painters, 125, 275, 432-3, 481, 548 ;

of Dublin, 721-4 ; of Liverpool,

128 ; of London, 66 Paisley, operatives at, 23 ; weavers

of, 23

Papermakers, 68, 77, 90, 92, 438, 493 Paris, Comte de, 272 Parker, James, 692, 698 Parliamentary Committee of Trades

Union Congress, 361, 554-6, 700 ;

cotton officials demur to alliance

with, 310 ; origin of, 281, 283 Parnell, Sir Henry, 172-3 Particulars Clause, 679 Patent laws, 368-9 Paterson, Mrs., 336-7 (life) Patrimony in apprenticeship, 83 Patternmakers, 205, 353, 430, 488,

551; society formed, 322;

statistics of, 745, 749


Payment by Results, 643 ; in

engineering, 485-7 Payment of members, 368, 374, 631 Peasant proprietorship, 368, 389-

390, 395

Pease, E. R., 414, 680 Peel, Sir Robert (the elder), 57, 60 ;

(the younger), 139 Pemberton, Benjamin, 721-2 Pension Committee, 594, 646 Penty, A. J., 660 Percy, M., 511 Perthshire, 136

" Philanthropic Hercules," 114 Pianoforte Makers, 230 Picketing, 278, 598, 607 ; legalisa- tion of, 291 Picton, Sir J. A., 40 Piecers, 435 ; associations of, 7 Piecework Lists in cotton industry,

307-9 Pilots, 440

Pinmakers, Corporation of, 42 Pioneer, or Trades Union Magazine,

The, 131 Pipemakers, 91 Pit Committee, 521 Pitt, William, 69, 71 Place, Francis, 32, 61, 73, 84-5, 89,

94, 96-110, 114, 117, 156, 159,

175, 251, 415, 416 Plasterers, 125, 354, 432-3, 744 ; of

Dublin, 172, 721-4, Platers' Helpers, 353-4, 360 Plimsoll, S., 354, 370 Ploughmen's Union, Perthshire, 136 Plumbers, 125, 169, 316, 348, 429,

432-3, 481, 744 Podmore, Frank, 130, 160 Police Union, 509 Political expenditure, 632 Pollock, Sir F., 597 Poor Man's Advocate, The, 117,

120

Poor Man's Guardian, The, 114, 134,

136, 142-3, 155 Porters, 442 Positivists, 246, 262-4. See Beesly,

Crompton, and Harrison Post Office annuities, 248, 296-7 ;

employees, 507-8, 539 ; Savings

Bank, 262


Index


779


Post Office workers,. 440, 744 ; union of, 508, 661

Postal and Telegraph Clerks' Asso- ciation, 507-8, 662

Postmen's Federation, 507-8

Potter, Edmund, 274

Potter, George, 231

Potter, George, 248, 252, 254-5, 272-3, 289, 298, 361, 680

Potters, 133, 147, 168-9, 181, 185, 192, 201, 438, 552 ; and co- operative production, 336 ; of Staffordshire, 123; of Wolver- hampton, 143 ; Union, 181, 197

Potters' Examiner, The, 197, 202

Precious metals, workers in, 431, 551

Premium Bonus System, 643

Pressmen, 27 ; prosecution of, 78. See Compositors

Preston, carpenters of, 75 ; cotton- spinners' strike of 1836, 169; gilds of, 14

Price, Rev. H., 112

Price, L. L., 338, 736

Printers. See Compositors, Press- men, and Typographical

Printing Trades, statistics of, 428, 437-8, 744-9

Prior, J. D., 240, 324, 362-3, 372

Prison Officers' Federation, 507

Production for use, 709

Professional Association, 711-12

Profiteering Act, 675

Profit-sharing, 403

Publicity, use of, 222-3

Puddlers. See Iron-workers

Pugh, Arthur, 491

Purcell, A., 560

Quarrymen, 433-4 Quittance Paper, 208.

Radstock Miners' Association. See Miners, Somersetshire

Rae, Sir William, 95

Railway Clerks' Association, 504-5, 523. 534> 539, 545, 661, 744

Railway Telegraph Clerks' Associa- tion, 523

Railway Working Men's Benefit Society, 523

Railwaymen, 365, 390, 47 439,


442, 504-5. 522-46, 550, 559, 600-634, 661, 666, 684, 687, 690, 744 ; statistics of, 407, 744-9

Railway Women's Guild, 497

Ramsey, conference at, 117

Rattening, 260

Raynes, Francis, 89

Razor-grinders, 184, 343

Reade, Charles, 257

" Red Van " Campaign, 405

Reform Act of 1832, 155-6, 177; of 1867, 248; of 1918, 698

Registrar of Friendly Societies, Chief, 261, 423, 619

Renals, E., 339

Rennie, 84

Representative actions, 602

Restoration of Trade Union condi- tions, 642-3

Restraint of trade, 67, 262, 617

Revolution in Thought, 649-76

Rhondda, 514

Ribbon-weavers, Coventry, 95

Ricardo, David, 178

Richmond the spy, 89

Rick-burning, 144

Riley's Memorials, 3, 6

Ripon, Marquis of, 215, 244

Rites of admission, 127

Roberts, G. H., 666, 692, 698

Roberts, W. P., 182-5, 210, 510

Rochdale, flannel-weavers of, 127; Pioneers, 177, 225

Roebuck, J. A., 148

Rogers, J. E. Thorold, 10, 49, 56

Rollit, Sir Albert, 501

Roman Catholic Unions, 478

Ropemakers, 91, 438

Rose, George, 61, 70

Rosebery, Lord, 374

Rosenblatt, F. F., 175

Rosslyn, Lord, 108

Rotherhithe Watermen, n

Rowlands, J., 682

Rowlinson, John, 208

Ruegg, A. H., 599

Rules, Trade Union, 651

Rutland, Duke of, 332

Ryan, W. P., 473

Saddlers, 92 ; of London, 3 Sadler, Michael, 123


8o


Index


Sailmakers, 46, 120, 430 Sailors, 405-6, 438, 440, 500-501, 607, 665 ; on North-East Coast, 104, 106, 108

St. Leonards, Lord, 230

Salisbury, bootmakers of, 57

Samuel, Herbert, 508

Sankey, Mr. Justice, 518-22, 668

Saturday half-holiday, 229 ; Old- ham Spinners' strike for, 310

Saw-grinders, 260

Sawyers, 433

Scale Beam-makers, 92

Scalemakers, 92

Schoenlank, Dr. Bruno, 25

Scissorsmiths, 39, 80

Scott, W., 124

Scottish Farm Servants' Union, 498-9

Scottish National Operative Tailors' Society. See Tailors

Scottish Society of Railway Ser- vants, 524-5

Scottish Typographical Association, 181, 423, 437, 482. See also Compositors

Scottish United Operative Masons, 196

Seagoing Engineers' Union. See Engineers

Seaham, 166

Secondary School Teachers, 506

Secular Education, 628

Self-governing Workshops, 225

Selley, Ernest, 329, 405

Selsby, 209-10, 234

Senior, Nassau, 103, 139-41, 173

Serfdom of miners, 89

Sewing-machine, introduction of, 228

Shackleton, Sir D., 685

Shaen, Roscoe & Co., 275

Shaftesbury, Lord, 293, 434

Shale Oil-workers, 434

Shaw, Lord, 626

Shearmen of Dundee, 136 ; of Wilt- shire, 144

Sheet Metal-workers, 431

Sheffield, 94 ; carpenters of, 232, 236 ; conference at, 257 ; cutlery made, 39 ; gilds of, 14 ; Mercan- tile and Manufacturing Union,


73, 80; outrages at, 259-61, 263, 268-9; prosecution at, 184-5; Trades Council, 242-3, 252, 280, 299; United Trades of, 184, 187

Shepton Mallet, woollen-workers of, 5i

Sherbrooke, Lord, 285

Sheridan, R. B., 57, 71

Ship Constructors' and Shipwrights' Association, 551. See also Ship- wrights

Shipton, George, 240, 290, 298, 325, 331, 362, 395, 406, 408

Shipwrights, 45, 77, 247, 353, 429-30, 490-91, 551 ; of Deptford, 85 ; of Liverpool, 39-40, 71 ; of London, 104, no; of Newcastle, 106 ; of the Clyde, 256

Shirland Colliery, 335

Shirt and Collar-makers, Women's Society of, 336

Shoemakers' wages in London in 1669, 21 ; of Wisbech, early combination of, 3

Sholl, S., 37, 55

Shop Assistants, 440, 503-4, 744 ; of Sheffield, 109 ; organisation among, 136-7; statistics of, 745- 749

Shop Stewards, 488-90, 659, 690

Shopmen, Railway, 531

Shorrocks, Peter, 278-9

Short Time Committees, 194

Show Stewards, 716

Sidgwick, Henry, 308

Sigismund, the Emperor, 20

Silk-weavers, 37, 54-5, 66, 68, 98, 112, 121, 435-6; at Coventry, 95 ; at Spitalfields, 37 ; at Dublin, 37

Silversmiths, 80, 91, 551

Simpson, Mrs., 141

Six Acts, the, 95

Six Hours' Day, 517-22

Skelton, O. D., 414

Slaters, 432

Slesser, H. H., 601, 607, 634

Sliding Scales, 338-42, 391, 510.

734-7

Slosson, P. W., 175 Smart. W., 511


Index


Smillie, R., 513

Smith, Adam, 23, 49, -55, 73, 162

Smith, Adolphe, 379

Smith, Frank, 68 1

Smith, Sidney, 216, 287, 347

Smith, Sir H. Llewellyn, 404

Smith, Toulmin, 8

Smiths, 46, 121, 205, 207-8, 213, 323, 430-31, 487-8, 491, 744 ; early clubs of, 46. See Blacksmiths and Engineers

Snowden, Philip, 688, 699

Social Contract, 674, 715

Social Democratic Federation, 376-

377. 384-5. 387-9. 4, 409-14. 652, 685

Social Science Association Report, 14, 23, 227-8

Socialism, revival of, 374-414

Socialist Labour Party, 659

Socialist League, 388

Society for National Regeneration, 132

Society for obtaining Parliamentary Relief, 62

Somers, Robert, 272

Somerset, clothiers of, 33-5 ; coal- miners of, 44 ; weavers of, 49, 51, 65 ; woollen-workers of, 33-4, 49. 5i

South Metropolitan Gas Company,

43 South Wales, depression in, 343 ;

miners of, 511, 514, 640, 690,

692 ; ferment among, 657, 659 Sparkes, Malcolm, 483, 648 Spitalfields, 37. 54-5, 61, 66, 98,

112

Spyers, T. G., 596 Stabilisation of Wages, 643 Staffordshire, iron-workers of) 256 Stalybridge, cotton-spinners of, 2 Standard of Life, the, 303, 369 " Standardisation " on the railways,

535-4 6

Stationers' Company, 27 Stationmasters, 504-5 Statistics, 422-44, 741-50 Status, rise in, 634-6 Statute of Apprentices, 47-9 ; repeal

of, 57-61. See Apprentices Statute of Labourers, 250


Steadman, W. C., 362, 684

Steam-engine makers, 203, 205. See Engineers

Steel-smelters, 430, 491-2, 552, 559,

692, 744

Steffen, Gustav, 86 Stephen, J. Fitzjames, 70, 279 Stephens, Rev. J. R., 302, 309

Stevedores, 403

Stockholm, 694

Stocking Makers' Association, 52

Stockingers. See Framework- knitters

Stockport, cotton-spinners of, 41

Stone, Gilbert, 511

Stonemasons, 125, 127, 149, 151, 166, 172, 176, 184, 191, 196, 199, 200, 202, 213, 223, 226-32, 241, 243, 248, 274, 277, 313, 316, 319-20, 343, 347, 348-9, 354, 383, 408, 429, 432-3, 744 ; early combinations among, 8 ; Friendly Society of Operative, 8 ; of Scotland, 174 ; of Sheffield, 80

Stonemasons' Fortnightly Circular, The, 185, 196, 202

Strike, first use of the word, 46 ; " in Detail," 199-200 ; origin of the term, 46 ; the General, 163-4, 658, 671-3 ; the right to, 664

Strikes of 1876-89, 347 ; in 1891-99, 603 ; in 1900-1910, 603-4 .' f miners (1912), 513 ; of police, 509 ; of railwaymen, (1912) 508- 530, (1919) 535-46

Stroud, woollen-workers of, 50

Sturgeon, Charles, 277

Summons to the first T.U. Congress, 738-40

Supply and Demand, 201

Surface workers, 513

Sutherland, Sir William, 541

Sweating, 371, 380-81

Swinton, Archibald, 170

Swinton, potters of, 133

Swiss Railway Management, 760

Symes, Inspector, 509

Symons, J. G., 170

Syndicalism, 654-9, 690

Taff Vale Strike and Case, 526, 600- 608


782


Index


Tailoresses, 136

Tailors, 44, 77, 97, 192, 259, 319, 360, 369, 371, 478, 551, 555, 744 ; early combination of, in London, 3 ; First Grand Lodge of Opera- tive, 149; of Cambridge, 68; of London, 67-8 ; of Nottingham, 75 ; of Sheffield, 80 ; statistics of, 436-7 ; strike of, in London, 1833, 149 ; strike of, in 1867, 278

Tankard-bearers, 42

Tanners, Bermondsey, prosecution of, 143

Tape Sizers, 477

Tarleton, General, 71

Taunton, 35

Taylor, Henry, 331

Taylor, Sir Herbert, 138, 141

Taylor, W. C., 48

Taylor, William, 23

Teachers, 505-6

Teachers, National Union of, 691

Tea- workers' and General Labourers' Union, 403-4

Technical Engineers, Society of, 506

Telegraph clerks, 440

Terra-cotta, 354

Tester, John, 127

Textile Factory Workers, United Association of, 435, 478, 623

Textile operatives. See Cotton- spinners, Cotton-weavers, Woollen- workers, etc.

Textile Trades, statistics of, 428-9, 434-6, 475-80, 744-9

Thomas, J. H., 524, 526, 543-4, 680

Thompson, James, 36

Thompson, J. B., 181

Thompson, Colonel Perronet, 148

Thompson, William, 116, 162

Thome, Will, 402, 497, 684

Thorneycroft, G. B., 734

Thornton, W. T., 272

Ticket-collectors, 504

Tildsley, John, 175

Tillett, B., 402-3, 406, 414, 501

Times, prosecution by the, 78-9

Tinplate Workers, 92, 431, 492 ; Co-operative Production and, 336; of Wolverhampton, 243 ; strike of, 194-5


Tiverton, 33-5, 93 ; woollen- workers of, 34, 35

Tolpuddle, 145

Tomlinson, 139

" Tommy Shops," 89

Trade Boards, 647 ; Acts, 475, 494- 495, 686

Trade Disputes Act, 606-8, 686

Trade Disputes Commission, 605-6

Trade Union Act of 1913, 631-4, 687

Trade Union conditions, 637-43

Trade Union, definition of, i ; and the wage-system, i ; legal defini- tion of, 617 ; life, 444-71 ; origin of term, 113

Trades A dvocate and Herald of Pro- gress, The, 211

Trades Councils, 242-9, 354-5, 453-7, 557-61, 685 ; exclusion from Con- gress, 557 ; federations of, 557 ; in Labour Party, 557 ; meetings in Municipal Buildings, 558

Trades Journal, The, 171, 208

Trades' Newspaper and Mechanics' Weekly Journal, The, m

Trades Union Congress, 350, 358- "375, 700, 738-40

Trafalgar Square, 386-8

Tramping, 451-2

Transport and General Workers' Union, 472-3, 499, 656

Transport workers, 438-40 ; in Ireland, 472-3

Trant, William, 3

Treasury Agreement, 637-8, 642

" Triple Alliance," the, 516, 517

Trollope & Sons, 229, 328

Trow, Edward, 735

Truck, 50, 89, 371

Trusts, 675

Tucker, 268

Tuckwell, Miss Gertrude, 494

Tufnell, E. Carlton, 141

Turner, Ben, 480

Turner, William H., 5

Tyneside and National Labour Union, 439

Typographical Association, 181, 4 2 3 437, 482. See also Com- positors

Typographical Society, 692. See also Compositors


Index


783


Unemployed agitation, 385, 387-8

Unemployment benefit, 644, 646

Unemployment, failure to prevent, 644 ; prevention of, 696

Union Pilot and Co-operative In- telligencer, The, 124

Union of Post Office Workers, 508, 551. See also Post Office Em- ployees

United Garment Workers' Trade Union, 551. See also Tailors

United Kingdom Alliance of Organised Trades, 258-9

United Signalmen and Points- men, 524, 531

United Textile Factory Operatives' Association, 478

United Textile Factory Workers' Association, 435, 478, 623

United Trades Association, 207

United Trades' Co-operative Journal, The, 121

United. See Boilermakers, Brass- workers, Bricklayers, Coach- makers, Curriers, Machine- workers, Patternmakers, Pilots, Plumbers, Stonemasons, etc.

Unskilled Labourers. See General Workers

Unwin, George, vi, 5, 12, 1 8, 29, 30,

34

Upholsterers, 432-433 ; Sewers' Society (first women's union), 336

Vehicular workers, 442

Verinder, F., 329

Villiers, Rt. Hon. C. P., 186

Vincent, Charles Bassett, 523

Vincent, J. E. Matthew, 329

Vogel, P., 684

Voice of the People, The, 117/122-4

Wade, Rev. A. S., 147

Wage, a legal minimum in Glouces- tershire, 50

Wage-System, relation of Trade Unions to the, i

Wages in London in 1669, 21

Waiters' Union, 684

Wakefield, cloth trade of, 35

Wakefield, E. G., 35, 61

Wakley, Thomas, 148, 171, 173, 186


Wallace, 106

Wallas, Professor Graham, vi, 32,

62, 89, 97, 175 Walton, A. A., 289 Wapping Society of Watermen, 1 1 War Cabinet Committee on Women

in Industry, 642 War Emergency Workers' National

Committee, 691 War Office and strike-breaking, 247,

332-3 War, Trade Unions during the, 636-

649

Warde, Mark, 128 Wardle, G. T., 689, 695 Warehousemen, 442, 503-4 Warpdressers, 477 Waterguard Federation, 507 Watermen, London, n, 14, 21 Watermen's Protective Society, u Watson, Aaron, 181, 296, 511, 625 Watson, R. Spence, 339 Watts, Dr. John, 211 Weavers, an Act touching, 48, 50 ;

Paisley, 23 See also Cotton- weavers Webb, J. J., 37 Weeks, Joseph D., 338 Weiler, Adam, 389-90 Wellington, Duke of, 145 Wemyss, Earl of, 253 West Bromwich Miners, 434 Whewell, 617 Whitbread, W., 68, 69 White, George, 40, 57, 61, 76, 77,

81, 89, 94, 100, 105, 251 Whitley Councils, 490, 646-8, 718 Widnes election, 699 Wilkinson, Rev. J. Frome, 128 Williams, John, 146 Williams, J., 387, 400 " Williams, J. E., 526 Williams, R., 497, 500 Williamson, S., 393 Wilson, J., 511 Wilson, J. Havelock, 406, 665-6,

669-70, 682 Wilson, John, 680 Wiltshire, shearmen of, 144 ;

weavers of, 49 ; woollen -weavers

of, 65 ; woollen-workers of, 49 Winters, Thomas, 195


7 8 4


Index


Wisbech, shoemakers of, 3 Witanagemot, 20

Wolverhampton, 248, 259 ; Build- ing Trades Joint Committee,

308 ; tinplate workers of, 243 ;

(strike), 194-5 ; Trades Council,

399 Women Clerks and Secretaries,

Association of, 505 Women in Engineering, 638, 642-3 Women in Trade Unionism, 335-6,

424, 426-7, 474, 494-7 Women's Co-operative Guild, 497 Women's Labour League, 497 Women's Protective and Provident

League, 336

Women's Wages, 424, 642 Wood, G. H., 86, 308 Woods, Samuel, 362, 684 Woodsawyers, 18 Woolcombers, 36-7, 44-5, 90, 127,

436, 480 Woollen Cloth Weavers, Act of

1756, 50-51 Woollen Cloth Weavers, Fraternity

of, 66 Woollen Workers, 40-41, 435-6 ; or


Yorkshire, 123, 125 ; statistics

of, 480 Woolstaplers, 37, 45, 83, 90, -178,

203 ; London Society of, 203 ;

Old Amicable Society of, 37 Woolwich, 697 Worcester, Gild Ordinances of, 8 ;

Trades Council, 558 Workers' Union, 498-9, 744 Working Men's Association, 255,

298, 680

Working Rules, 228 Workmen's Compensation Act,

364-6 Works Committee, 490, 647, 707,

716

Worsted manufacture, 36-7 Wright, Justice R. S., 68, 279, 362


Yearly bond, 44, 89, 169

Yeomen, 4, 5, 6

Yorkshire, clothiers of, 35-6, 67 ;

miners, 182, 301, 304-5, 349, 370,

433. 5i-i i 522, 744 Young, Ralph, 340, 342 Young, Robert, 490


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The history of trade unionism 1920 (Rev. ed. extended to 1920)