The Husbandman and Housewife

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THE

HUSBANDMAN

AND

HOUSEWIFE:

A COLLECTION OF

VALUABLE RECIPES AND DIRECTIONS,

RELATING TO

AGRICULTURE AND DOMESTIC ECONOMY.

...............
BY THOMAS G. FESSENDEN.
...............

Boyle has observed, that the excellency of manufactures, and the facility of labour would be much promoted if the various expedients and contrivances, which lie concealed in private hands, were by reciprocal communications made generally known; for there are few operations that are not performed by one or other with some peculiar advantages, which though singly of little importance, would, by conjunction and concurrence, open new inlets to knowledge, and give new powers to diligence..........Johnson.






BELLOWS FALLS:

PRINTED BY BILL BLAKE & CO.

1820.
DISTRICT OF VERMONT, TO WIT:

Seal. BE it remembered, that on the twenty third day of May, in the forty fourth year of the Independence of the United States of America, Thomas G. Fessenden, esquire, of said District, hath deposited in this Office the title of a book, the right whereof he claims as author, in the words following, to wit:

"The Husbandman and Housewife: a collection of valuable recipes and directions, relating to agriculture and domestic economy. By Thomas G. Fessenden. 'Boyle has observed, that the excellency of manufactures, and the facility of labour would be much promoted, if the various expedients and contrivances which lie concealed in private hands, were by reciprocal communications made generally known; for, there are few operations, that are not performed by one or other with some peculiar advantages, which though singly of little importance, would, by conjunction and concurrence, open new inlets to knowledge, and give new powers to diligence'. . . . Johnson."

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States, entitled "an act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned."

JESSE GOVE,
  Clerk of the District of Vermont.

District Clerk's Office,
Vermont District, to wit:
May 23, A. D. 1820.

I hereby certify that the preceding is a true Copy of the record of the preceding title page.

J. GOVE, Clerk.

PREFACE.

THE following little work has no other claims to public patronage than what may originate in its utility. The author has compiled from a great number of volumes, written by men of acknowledged merit and standard authority, those directions and prescriptions, which it appeared to him might most benefit the largest proportion of mankind; and he has arranged them alphabetically, that they may be the more easily referred to in cases of emergency, or in the hurry of business Many of the articles, however, he believes have never before appeared in print, and are either derived from personal observation, or been furnished by the author's friends, with a view to publication. Several of the contributors alluded to are medical men, of regular standing, and established reputation. These gentlemen could have no other motive in affording their valuable assistance than what one of them has expressed in a communication to the compiler, viz. "a wish to contribute to the ameliorating of the condition of man." The same gentleman observes, in forming these recipes I have attended solely to such as would be of use to the mass of the people. Therefore I have avoided any composition, into which any ingredients entered, which were not familiar and accessible to the great body of the community; and also any which might be dangerous in the hands of persons, unacquainted with the science of medicine.

It is not our wish by the following compilation to furnish weapons for quacks, or infringe upon the province of the regular bred physician. But our object is to suggest simple remedies, for common disorders, where the symptoms admit of no doubt respecting the nature of the complaint, and where the advice of a medical practitioner cannot readily or immediately be procured. On the contrary we would not advise any person to rely upon our recipes, where the disorder appears to be acute, or its symptoms equivocal, but immediately to have recourse to a regular and professed physician. The author does not pretend that his recipes are all infallible specifics in the disorders for which they are recommended. In some cases they may effect a cure, in others, serve merely as palliatives, and give temporary relief till more effectual means can be employed under the direction of a regular practitioner.

Those articles, which relate to Agriculture and Domistic Economy it is hoped will prove universally acceptable. Some of our readers may be in possession of better means for effecting the ends proposed by our directions. To such our suggestions can do harm, and to others they may prove valuable.

THE

HUSBANDMAN AND HOUSEWIFE.




ants.

WHEN you find ants in quantities near home pour hot water on them. The farmer when he manures his land, if he uses ashes, lime or salt sand, will not be troubled with those insects. Dr. Rees' Cyclopædia recommends boiling rain water with black soap, and sulphur, and saturating the ground with it, which is infested with those insects.

apples.

TO preserve apples for winter's use let them remain on the trees till perfectly ripe. Then gather them by hand, about the middle of the day in clear dry weather. Spread them on a floor, and let them be till about the last of November, or till there is danger of their being injured by the frost. And in dry weather remove them into casks or boxes, which have previously been made free from mould or moisture and place them in a cellar out of the reach of frost. They may be packed in dry saw dust or shavings of pine in order to ensure their preservation.

apple tree.

TO propagate apple trees sow the pumice from cider mills, digging it into the earth in autumn. The plants will come up in the spring following. The next autumn they should be transplanted from the seed bed into the nursery, in rows from two to three feet apart, and one foot in the rows. The ground for a nursery should not be very rich but mellow and well pulverised, and kept clear of weeds. The young trees, on being transplanted into orchards should be put into richer land than that to which they have been accustomed.

The best mode of setting out Apple Trees and other Fruit Trees on a light soil.

DIG a hole sufficiently large to prevent the root of the tree when it is to be transplanted from being doubled or placed in an unnatural position, and to give room for the young shoots to extend themselves. Place about the roots of each tree, together with the mould, about half a bushel of small stones, the size of an ordinary apple, or somewhat less, which will give stability to the soil, and prevent the roots from being loosened by the wind.

asthma.

TO cure asthma take of powdered columbo 2 drachms, powdered ginger 2 drachms, camomile flowers 1 ounce. Pour a pint and an half of boiling water on the above ingredients. Take four table spoonfuls of this liquor cold in the morning and at mid-day.

Another Remedy.

MIX 4 ounces of honey, 2 ounces of flour of brimstone; 1 ounce of cream of tartar, 1-4 of an ounce of nitre. Take a tea spoonful often.

Another.

CUT Turkey figs in half; put a spoonful of sulphur inside and eat them in that state.

barley.

TO increase a crop of barley dissolve three pounds of copperas in a pail of boiling water. Add to this as much dung puddle water as will cover three or four bushels of barley. Stir it, and let it steep four and twenty hours; when the seed is drained and spread, sift on fine lime, which fits it for sowing. Steeping the seed about 24 hours in the wash of a dunghill, without any mixture is said to produce a very good effect.

barn-yard.

A BARN-YARD should have a high, close and strong fence; be lowest in the middle, and so high in all sides that the greatest rains cannot carry away any of the manure. If not properly shaped by nature it may be done by art, and if the soil be too loose to retain the manure a few loads of clay should be spread over its surface. The cattle should be kept constantly on the barn-yard during the foddering season, and for that purpose water should be introduced. There should be several yards where different sorts of cattle are kept. The sheep should have a yard by themselves at least, and the young stock another, that each kind may have their proper sort of food.

After the yard is cleaned in the spring the farmer should embrace the first leisure he has to store it with materials for making manure, such as swamp mud, clay, brick dust, straw, fern or brakes, weeds, leaves of trees, turfs, marsh mud, eel grass, or even sand or loam.

beans.

THE following mode of planting beans has been recommended by an English writer. The rows are marked out one foot asunder, and the seed planted in holes two inches apart: the lines are stretched across the lands, which are formed about 6 feet over, so that when one row is planted, the sticks to which the line is fastened, are moved by a regular measurement to the distance required, and the same method pursued till the field is completed. The usual price for this work is 9d. sterling per week, and the allowance two bushels per acre."

Sir John Sinclair in his "Code of Agriculture" recommends cutting the tops of beans in order to accelerate their podding. This eminent writer informs us that "it was begun about the year 1804, and has already been tried on more than 200 acres. The operation is performed by means of a sharp edged instrument or knife, 12 or 14 inches long exclusive of the handle; but it may be done by a sickle or reaping hook. The expense has never exceeded 3s. per acre and it is done by contract. At a certain stage of its growth the head of the bean stalk does not seem essential to the purpose of vegetation, but by its luxuriance to exhaust the strength of the plant. The proper time to cut them off, is, when the first blossoms begin to drop: if done sooner a fresh shoot will put forth. As soon as the tops are cut off the pods rapidly increase in size, and the period of ripening is accelerated, The timely removal of these parts, where the insects chiefly lodge, materially contributes to the health and vigour of the plant, and probably increases the weight of the crop. The harvest is by this means advanced at least a fortnight. In the ordinary mode of managing a bean crop, their tops are green when reaped, consequently they absorb and retain moisture and require a considerable exposure in the field to prepare them for the stack; whereas without their tops, the crop is sooner in a condition to be carried and less risk is incurred from the effects of frost and wet seasons. The tops are left to rot on the ground."

bed bugs.

TAKE a quantity of fourth proof spirits and as much pearl ash as will dissolve in it ; put it in every crack and hole in the bed stead and wash board ; also take a clean strip of linen or muslin ; wet it with the liquor, and put it round the bed post close to the floor.

Or, make a decoction of sassafras bark or root, not so strong as to stain the furniture, and scald the wainscoting of your rooms, once a year.

Or, dissolve camphor in strong spirits and apply the solution.

Or, it has been said that the juice of cucumbers will destroy bed bugs.

Or, simple clear strong lime water, it is affirmed will be as effectual as any of the above.

beef.

Mode of preserving. See Meat

beerSpruce.

TAKE a sufficient quantity of spruce boughs; boil them in water about half an hour, or till the outward skin or rind peels off; strain the liquor, and stir in at the rate of two quarts of molasses to half a barrel. Work it with beer grounds or emptyings, or rather with yeast.

Molasses Beer.

TAKE four quarts of molasses, half a pint of yeast, and a spoonful of powdered race ginger: Put these ingredients into your vessel, and pour on them two gallons of scalding hot, soft clear water;—Shake it till it ferments; and add thirteen gallons of the same water to fill up the cask. Let the liquor ferment for about twelve hours, then bottle it off with a raisin or two in each bottle.

A good Household Beer.

TAKE a heaped half peck of wheat bran, and three or four ounces of hops: Boil them a quarter of an hour in fifteen gallons of clear water: strain the liquor through a close sieve, and sweeten it with two quarts of molasses cool it quick till it is no warmer than new milk, and fill your half barrel. Warm water may be used to fill up the cask if needful. Leave the bung but for 24. hours, that the drink may work and throw off the yeast, and it will be fit for use. About the fourth or fifth day, bottle off what remains in the vessel, especially if the weather be hot, that it may not turn sour or stale. If the cask be new, or not before used for beer, apply yest or beer grounds to ferment it; otherwise it will not be necessary.

The practice which is common of fermenting our small drinks with the sediments or dregs of the same ought to be abandoned; for this is the foulest and most unwholesome excrement of the liquor.

To cure a butt of ropy Beer.

MIX two handfulls of bean flour with one handful of wheat flour and stir it in.

To feed and give a fine flavour to a barrel of Beer.

PUT six sea biscuits into a bag of hops, and put all into the cask.

Pea-pods in Beer.

THE pods of peas, after being dried it is said are excellent in beer, affording spirit to the beer.

bees.
To preserve bees from worms or butterflies.

ABOUT the first of May, raise the hive up, and strew some fine salt under the edge, which will drive those insects away.

A method of taking the honey without destroying the Bees. From the American Farmer.

IN the evening, when the bees have retired, take the hive gently from the stand; spread a table cloth on the ground; set the hive on it, placing something under to raise it three or four inches; then draw up the corners of the cloth, and fasten them tight around the middle of the hive, leaving it so loose below that the bees will have room sufficient between them and the hive.—Then raise the lid of the hive a little, and blow in the smoke from a cigar; a few puffs of which as it is very disagreeable to them will drive them down.—Continue raising the lid gradually, and blowing in the smoke all around, and in a few minutes it will be found that they have all gone out of the hive. You may then take off the lid, and cut away as much of the honey as you think proper. If the operation be performed the beginning of July, you may take nearly all, as there will be time enough to provide a sufficiency for their support, during the winter. As soon as you have taken the honey, put on the lid, loosen the cloth, and spread it out, and in an hour or two the bees will have returned into the hive. It may then be replaced on the stand, and on the following day they will be found at work as usual.

This method is very simple, and preferable to driving the bees into another hive ; as you get all the honey, and the new comb, which is still empty, and the young bees, not yet out of their cells are preserved.

beesSting of.

THE application of laudanum gives immediate relief.

Another Remedy.

THE sting of a bee should be immediately extracted with a steady hand, for if any part of it breaks in remedies will in a great measure be ineffectual. For a remedy, the application of a strong solution of salt is said to be speedy and infallible.

bells.

THE nearer bells are hung to the ground, other things being equal the further they can be heard. Dr. Franklin has stated that some years ago the inhabitants of Philadelphia had a new bell imported from England, and in order to judge of the sound the bell was raised on a triangle in the great street of that city, and struck, as it happened on a market day; when the people coming to market were surprised on hearing the sound of a bell at a greater distance from the city than they had ever heard any bell before. This circumstance excited the attention of the curious; and it was discovered that the sound of the bell when struck in the street, reached nearly double the distance it did when raised in the steeple.

black tongue, or canker in horses, horned cattle and sheep.

A VARIETY of remedies have been recommended for this complaint. The following is said to have proved very efficacious.

Wash and cleanse the mouth with sweet oil, and get as much into the horse as he will swallow, not exceeding one pint; then rub the throat with Spirits of Turpentine, Sweet Oil and Camphor, equal quantities, and well mixed.

When this disease makes its appearance in the feet, the hoof must be pared off where it presses on the tender parts, and the remainder of the hoof kept soft with linseed oil. Hot oils are then to be used to keep down the rising flesh, such as butter of antimony, vitriol. aqua fortis, and continued till the fungus is suppressed; observing to give them purges often to carry off the humours.

bottsPreventive Means.

SCRAPE off the eggs of the horse bee, when laid on the horse, every eight or ten days with a sharp knife. This practice must be continued during the season of them. The eggs should not be scraped off where the horse can feed, as in that case the young botts may be taken in. It is difficult to remove those eggs which are laid under the throat, with a knife, but they may be destroyed with a hot iron made for the purpose.

Palliative Means.

BLOOD letting and the copious use of mild oils will always palliate, and sometimes cure that disorder.

Cure.

A WRITER in the American Centinel gives the following recipes.

Take a table spoonful of unslacked lime, and let it be given with the water or feed of a horse at night and morning for three or four days, and it will completely expel the botts.

Another Cure.

MAKE a drench composed of half a pint of new milk, a gill of molasses, an ounce of copperas, two table spoonfuls of common salt, and half a pint of warm water. Give this to the horse, once or twice a day, for a few days, and it will be sure to relieve him.

But the remedy on which we should rely with the most confidence is the following which we are told by a gentleman of undoubted veracity is

An infallible remedy for Botts.

APPLY spirits of turpentine to the outside of the breast and stomach of a horse and the botts will immediately let go their hold. Our informant assures us, that he has seen horses which seemed to be in the last agonies with this distressing complaint, relieved instantly and apparently restored to full health in five minutes.

bread.

THE carbonate of magnesia of the shops, when well mixed with new flour, in the proportion of from 20 to 40 grains to a pound of flour materially improves it for the purpose of making bread. Loaves, made with the addition of the carbonate of magnesia, rise well in the oven; and after being baked the bread is light and spongy, has a good taste, and keeps well. In cases where the new flour is of an indifferent quality, from 20 to 30 grains of the carbonate of magnesia to a pound of flour will considerably improve the bread.—When the flour is of the worst quality 40 grains to a pound of flour, is necessary to produce the same effect. As the improvement in the bread from the new flour depends upon the carbonate of magnesia, it is necessary that care should be taken to mix it it intimately with the flour previous to making the dough. A pound of carbonate of magnesia would be sufficient to mix with two hundred and fifty-six pounds of new flour at the rate of 30 grains to a pound.

Method of making good Bread at about half the common price.

BOIL potatoes not quite so soft as common, then turn the water out and let them hang over the fire and dry a short time; then peal and mash them as fine as possible, then take a small quantity of pearl ash, which should be added to new yeast, which is working briskly; add the potatoes to these ingredients, and knead them together; then add as much rye meal, or flour as you can possibly work in—the whole should be pounded together with a pestle or something of the kind; no water to be added at any time. After the dough is thus prepared let it stand an hour and an half or two hours before it is put into the oven. Be particular in following these directions and you may make as good bread as can be made from the best rye and Indian meal; indeed many give it the preference. It does not require quite so long a time to bake as common brown bread.

Another improvement in making Bread.

TO every five pounds of flour add one pound of rice that has been previously boiled to a jelly over a slow fire; then, when lukewarm, add your usual quantity of yeast, and make up your bread. Should you judge your jelly to be too thick add luke-warm water; a method by which thirty pounds of flour and six of rice produce eighteen loaves each four pounds and an half weight. Five pounds of flour produce eight pounds of bread; but with the addition of a pound of rice twelve and an half.

burns and scalds.

PULVERISED chalk mixed with the whites of eggs to the consistence of cream, kept frequently applied to prevent its congealing, is declared to be an excellent remedy for burns and scalds.

Another Remedy.

A PLASTER composed of Burgundy pitch, bees wax. and a little oil. Or. some say that common tar is the most sovereign remedy that can be applied.

Another Remedy.

TAKE a piece of the thickest coarse brown paper, and dip it in the best salad oil. then set the paper on fire and carefully preserve all the oil that drops for use.

burnt clay

IS an absorbent and acts much like lime as a manure, but not so powerfully. The method of burning it is as follows:— Procure eight loads of clay, cut into spits about as thick as a brick; let it be pretty well dried in the sun and having made a heap of brush and other wood, coals or other combustibles, and laid one upon another, about as large as a small bonfire, in a pyramidical form, bring the spits of clay and lay them round the same two or three spits thick, leaving only room to put in the fire, and light it. The clay will soon take fire, and as it advances outwards lay on some more spits of clay, placing them in such a manner that the fire may be pent up within the heap up and not suffered to go out. After having burnt up the eight loads of clay the heat within will be so great as to fire any thing; and then you may lay on the clay green as it is dug from the pit, being always watchful to keep adding to it, but not so fast as to smother the fire. The heap you may enlarge and Spread out at the foot, keeping the fire constantly burning night and day; for the larger the heap grows the easier burns the clay. This is a cheap dressing for all sorts of land, excepting perhaps light sandy soils and being laid pretty thick about the roots of fruit trees. enlarges, multiplies and accelerates the growth of fruit.

butterhow made.

THE dairy house should be kept neat, should never front the south, southeast or southwest. It should be situated near a good spring or current of water. The proper receptacles for milk are earthen pans not lined or glazed with lead, or wooden trays. In warm Weather milk should remain in the pail till nearly cool before it is strained, but in frosty weather it should be strained immediately, and a small quantity of boiling water may be mixed with it, which will cause it to produce cream in great abundance, and the more so if the pans or vats have a large surface.

In hot weather the cream should be skimmed from the milk at or before sunrise, before the dairy gets warm, nor should the milk, in hot weather stand in its receptacles longer than twenty four hours. In winter, milk may remain unskimmed thirty six or forty eight hours. The cream should be deposited in a deep pan, kept during summer in a cool place, where a free air is admitted. Unless churning is performed every other day the cream should be shifted daily into clean pans, but churning should be performed at least twice a week, in hot weather; and this should be done in the morning before sun rise, taking care to fix the churn where there is a good draught of air. If a pump churn is used it may be plunged a foot deep in cold water, and remain in that situation during the whole time of churning, which will much harden the butter. A strong rancid flavour will be given to butter if we churn so near the fire as to heat the wood in the winter season.

After the butter is churned it should immediately be washed in many different waters, till it is perfectly cleansed from the milk; and it should be worked by two pieces of wood, for a warm hand will soften it, and make it appear greasy.

Butter will require and endure more working in winter than in summer.

Those who use a pump churn must keep a regular stroke: nor should they permit any person to assist them unless they keep nearly the same stroke ; for if they churn more slowly, the butter will in the winter go back, as it is called; and if the stroke be more quick, it will cause a fermentation, by which means the butter will acquire a very disagreeable flavour.

Cows should never be suffered to drink improper water; stagnated pools, water wherein frogs spawn, common sewers, and ponds that receive the drainings of stables are improper.

The operation of churning may be very much shortened by mixing a little distilled vinegar with the cream in the churn The butter being afterwards well washed in two or three changes of water. The whole of the acid will be caried off; or if any remain it will not be perceived by the taste. A table spoonful or two of the vinegar to a gallon of cream.

To take the rancid taste from Butter.

WHEN fresh butter has not been salted in proper time, or when salt butter has become rancid or musty, after melting and simmering it, dip in it a crust of bread well toasted on both sides; and in a few minutes the butter will loose its disagreeable taste.

Butter made from scalded Cream.

AS soon as the milk is taken from the cow let it be placed on a steady wood fire, free as possible from smoke and scalded for thirty minutes—particular care must be taken not to allow it to boil. It must then be placed in a cool situation, and on the following day a thick rich cream will appear on the surface of the milk (which is excellent also for dessert purposes) this may be taken off and made into butter in the common way. This method is practiced in England, and it is said that a greater quantity of butter, and of a better quality can be made by this than by the common mode.

Receipt for curing Butter.

TAKE two parts of the best common salt, one part of sugar and one part salt petre; put them up together so as to blend the whole completely: take one ounce cf this composition for every sixteen ounces of butter, work it well into the mass and close it up for use.

cabbage.

MANURING with ashes and lime has a tendency to preserve cabbages from insects; and to guard against the grub or black worm a little circle of quick lime is said to be of service. Lice on cabbages may be destroyed by washing the plants with strong brine. The under leaves of cabbages, when they begin to decay may be taken off and made food for cattle, but decayed leaves should never be given to milch cows as they give the milk a bad flavour.

Method of preserving Cabbages, so as to have them good in the spring.

[From the New England Farmer.]

MAKE a trench in the driest sandy ground, nine inches wide, and of equal depth; in which, place a row of Cabbages, with the roots upwards, contiguous to each other. Fill the cavities about them with some dry straw, and then shovel the earth up to the stalks on each side, almost as high as the roots, shaped like the roof of a house. The Cabbages will come out in May as sound as when they were put in. and be outer green leaves will be turned quite white. As they are not apt to keep well after they are taken out, two or three at a time may be taken as they are wanted for use, and the breach immediately closed up with straw and earth as before.

canada thistles.

MOW Canada thistles in the old of the moon in August or any time in that month or in the beginning of September, and rake them into heaps and burn them.

cancer.

THE herb Pipsissawa called winter green, ever green, winter berry, &c. drank as a strong tea, and a strong decoction applied externally has cured inveterate cancers in about a month's time. The application of leaches is said to have produced a similar result.

Another.

SPREAD a plaster of shoe maker's wax on a linen cloth, the size of the sore, with as much corrosive sublimate as will adhere to it.— Let this plaster be kept on the sore for twelve hours—a large one is necessary over the small one to keep it in its place. After this wash the sore once a day with poke root. It can afterwards be treated as a common sore.

Aonther.

FIRST take borax, make it a powder, and cover the wound, then take blue stone[1] and powder it, mix them together, making what is called drawing salve; the salve will be blue. Mix hog's lard, bees wax and rosin; spread the salve with lint and lay it on the wound; let it remain for three days; so continue it till the cancer is taken out, then dust in loaf sugar, and every third dressing, put in some burnt alum over the wound—with a soft rag every time it is dressed. After the cancer is taken out make a healing salve of fresh butter, elder and a little bees wax, and you will find the place become quite well, and leave little or no scar behind. "This evidence of cure," says the Richmond Compiler, a newspaper, printed in Richmond, Vir. "has been kept a secret in a family in this state for a number of years, and has succeeded in a number of cases."

Another.

BURN half a bushel or three pecks of green old field red-oak bark to ashes, boil the ashes in three gallons of water, until reduced to one, strain that gallon off, and boil it away to a thick substance, similar to butter, apply a small quantity on a piece of silk or lint to the cancer, no bigger than the place or part affected. The medicine must be repeated every two hours, until the cancer roots are sufficiently killed, then apply healing salve with a little mercurial ointment mixed therein, and dress it twice a day until cured, which will surely be in about twenty or thirty days at farthest.

candles.

To purify Tallow for Candles.

TAKE 5-8 of tallow, and 3-8 of mutton suet, melt them in a copper chaldron, with it mix 8 ounces of brandy, one of salt of tartar, one of sal ammoniac, two of dry potash. Throw the mixture into the chaldron, make the ingredients boil a quarter of an hour then set the whole to cool. Next day the tallow will be found on the surface of the water in a pure cake. Take it out and expose it to the air for some days on canvass. It will become white and almost as hard as wax. The dew is favourable to its bleaching. Make your wicks of fine even cotton; give them a coat of melted wax, then cast your mould candles. They will have the appearance of wax in a degree, and one of them (six to a pound) will burn fourteen hours and not run.

canker in trees.

SIR Humphrey Davy, in his "Elements of Agricultural Chemistry," attributes canker in trees to an "excess of alkaline and earthy matter in the descending sap"; and says "Perhaps the application of a weak acid to the canker might be of use; or where the tree is great, it may be watered occasionally with a very diluted acid."

caterpillars. Remedy for.

THE following method of destroying caterpillars is recommended in the "American Gardener's Calender. "Dissolve a drachm of corrosive sublimate in a gill of gin or other spirits, and when thus dissolved incorporate it with four quarts of soft water. This solution will be found to be the most effectual remedy ever applied to trees, both for the destruction of worms of every species, and of the eggs of insects, deposited in the bark. No danger to the tree is to be apprehended from its poisonous quality, which as it respects them is perfectly innocent.

Another.

THE following mode of destroying caterpillars has been recommended, and would probably prove effectual.

Take live coals in a chafing dish; throw thereon some pinches of brimstone in powder; place the same under the branches that are loaded with caterpillars. The vapour of sulphur, which is mortal to these insects will not only destroy all that are in the tree, but prevent its being infested by them afterwards. A pound of sulphur will clear as many trees as grow on several acres. A chafing dish, or something to contain coals may be fixed on a pole, and put near the nest.

The hon. Timothy Pickering, in a letter to the corresponding secretary of the Massachusetts Agricultural society has recommended an instrument, which he has found simple, and more convenient than any he had used for the destruction of caterpillars. It is made by inserting some hog's bristles between a twisted wire, in such a manner as to form a cylindrical brush, which will present bristles on every side. This is attached to a pole of such length as the trees may require, and the caterpillars are brought down by it, and then crushed.

It is likewise affirmed that caterpillars, and other insects which infest our fruit trees, may be destroyed, by casting over the tree a few handfuls of ashes, in the morning before the dew is dissipated from the foliage, or after a shower of rain. The former is the preferable time.

A strong white wash of fresh stone lime applied by the means of a mop or a sponge fixed on the end of a pole is by some recommended. A little spirits of turpentine would, probably, be still more efficacious. And it is affirmed that sprinkling the leaves and shoots of plants infested by those insects when wet, with fine sand will cause the caterpillars to drop off in apparent agony.

It is said to be a good practice to examine the trees in autumn, and remove the eggs which are deposited for a next year's stock from the twig, on which they are fastened. repeat the examination in the spring. If those which have escaped notice fasten on a limb it is sometimes best to cut it off. A little oil of any kind it is said will kill all the caterpillars that it touches.

cattlehoven or swollen.

A PINT of lie made of wood ashes, or about an ounce of pearl ash or potash turned down the throat, will immediately cure cattle which have become hoven or swollen, by eating too much green or succulent food. A proportionably less quantity will answer for sheep. It gives instant relief by neutralizing the carbonic acid gas, which causes the swelling, and other symptoms of the complaint.

cheeseMethod of making.

[From the Massachusetts Agricultural Repository.]

THE milk is universally set for cheese as soon as it comes from the cow.

The management of the curd depends on the kind of cheese: thin cheese requires the least labour and attention.

Breaking the curd is done with the hand and dish. The finer the curd is broken the better, particularly in thick cheeses. The best colour of this kind of cheese is that of bees wax, which is produced by Annotta, rubbed into the milk after it is warmed. The dairy woman is to judge of the quality by the colour of the milk, as it differs much in strength. The runnel is prepared by taking some whey and salting till it will bear an egg; it is then suffered to stand over night, and in the morning it is skimmed and racked off clear; to this is added an equal quantity of water brine, strong as the whey, and into this mixture, some sweet briar, thyme, or some other sweet herbs, also a little black pepper and salt petre; the herbs are kept in the brine three or four days, after which it is decanted clear from them. Into six quarts of this liquor four large calves' bags or more properly called calves' stomachs are put. No part of the preparation is heated, and frequently the calves' bags are only steeped in cold salt and water. Turning the milk differs in different dairies, no two dairy women conduct exactly alike.

Setting the milk too hot inclines the cheese to heave, and cooling it with cold water produces a similar effect. The degree of heat varies according to the weather. The curd when formed is broken with what is called a treple cheese knife. The use of this is to keep the fat in the cheese; it is drawn the depth of the curd two or three times across the tub, to give the whey an opportunity of running off clear; after a few minutes the knife is more freely used, and the curd is cut into small pieces like chequers, and is broken tine in the whey with the hand and a wooden dish. The curd being allowed about half an hour to settle, the whey is laded off with the dish, after it is pretty well separated from the curd.

It is almost an invariable practice to scald the curd. The mass is first broken very fine, and then the scalding whey is added to it and stirred a few minutes; some make use of hot water in preference to whey, and it is in both cases heated according to the nature of the curd; if it is soft, the whey or water is used nearly boiling; but if hard, it is only used a little hotter than the hand. After the curd is thoroughly mixed with the hot stuff, it is suffered to stand a few minutes to settle, and is then separated as at the first operation. After the scalding liquor is separated, a vat, or what is often called a cheese hoop, is laid across the cheese ladder over the tub, and the curd is crumbled into it with the hands and pressed into the vat to squeeze out the whey. The vat being filled as full and as firmly as the hand alone can fill it, and rounded up in the middle, a cheese cloth is spread over it and the curd is turned out of the hoop into the cloth; the vat is then washed and the inverted mass of curds, with the cloth under it, is returned into the vat and put into the press; after standing two or three hours in the press, the vat is taken out and the cloth is taken off washed and put round the cheese, and it replaced in the vat and in the press. In about seven or eight hours it is taken out of the press and salted, the cheese is placed on a board and a handful of salt is rubbed all over it and the edges are pared off if necessary; another handful of salt is strewed on the upper side, and as much left as will stick to it; afterwards it is turned into the bare vat without a cloth, and an equal quantity of salt is added to it, and the cheese is returned into the press; here it continues one night and the next morning it is turned in the vat, and continues till the succeeding morning, and the curd is taken out and placed on the dairy shelf: here they are turned ever, day or every other day, as the weather may be. If it is hot and dry, the windows and door are kept shut, but if wet or moist, the door and windows are kept open night and day.

Cleaning the Cheese.

The cheeses having remained about ten days after leaving the press, are to be washed and scraped in the following manner; a large tub of cold sweet whey is placed on the floor, the cheeses are immerged in it, where they continue one hour, or longer if necessary, to soften the rind. They are then taken out and scraped with a common case knife, with great care, so as not to injure the tender rind, till every part of the cheese is smooth; they are after the last operation rinsed in the whey and wiped clean with a coarse cloth and placed in an airy situation to dry, after which they are placed in the cheese room. The floor of the cheese room is generally prepared by rubbing it with bean or potatoe tops or any succulent herb, till it appears of a black wet colour; on this floor the cheeses are placed and turned twice a week, their edges are wiped hard with a cloth once a week, and the floor is cleansed and rubbed with fresh herbs once a fortnight.—They must not lie too long or they will stick to the floor. This preparation of the floor gives the cheese a blue coat, which is considered of great consequence.

Stilton Cheese—how made.

THE Stilton Cheese, which may be called the Parmesan of England, is not confined to Stilton and its vicinity, for man farmers in Huntingdonshire, and also in Rutland and Northamtonshire make a similar sort, sell them for the same price, and give them the name of the Stilton Cheeses.

Take the night's cream and put it into the morning's new milk with the rennet; when the curd is separated let it not be broken as is done with other cheese, but lake it out, disturbing it as little as possible, and suffer it to dry gradually in a sieve; and as the whey separate, compress it gradually till it has acquired a firm consistence then place it in a wooden hoop and suffer it to dry very gradually on a board, taking care at the same time to turn it daily with close binders round, and which must be tightened as the cheese acquires more solidity.

Cheese skippers in.

WRAP the cheese in thin brown paper, so thin that moisture may strike through soon—dig a hole in good sweet earth about two feet deep, in which the cheese must be buried about 36 hours, and the skippers will be found all on the outside of the cheese, brush them off immediately and you will find your cheese sound and good.

To prevent Cheese having a rancid nauseous flavour.

PUT about one table spoonful of salt to each gallon of milk when taken from the cows in the evening, for the cheese to be made the next day; put the salt at the bottom of the vessel that is to receive the milk; it will increase the curd and prevent the milk from growing sour or putrid the hottest nights in the summer.

chillblains.

To cure Chillblains before they are broken

WASH them in water as hot as you can bear, and dry them with a cloth; rub them with spirits of turpentine before the fire and keep them warm.

Another Remedy.

A PLASTER of common turpentine applied to chilblains, or frosted heels, will it is said in a few days effect a cure.

chinahow mended.

TAKE apiece of flint glass, beat it to a fine powder and grind it well with the white of an egg, and it joins China without riveting, so that no art can break it again in the same place. The composition must be ground extremely fine, on a painter's stone.

chintz, washing of.

How to wash Chintz so as to preserve its beauty.

TAKE two pounds of rice and boil it in two gallons of water till soft; when done pour the whole into a tub; let it stand till about the warmth you use for coloured linens, then put your Chintz in and use the rice instead of soap, wash it in this till the dirt appears to be out; then boil the same quantity as above, but strain the rice from the water. Wash in this till quite clean: afterwards rinse it in the water you have boiled your rice in, and this will answer the end of starch, and no dew will affect it, as it will be stiff as long as you wear it. If a gown it must be taken to pieces; and when dried, be careful to hang it as smooth as possible; after it is dry rub it with a slick stone but use no iron.

cholera morbus.

TAKE a soft cork and burn it thoroughly in the fire when it ceases to blaze, mix it up on a plate with a little milk and water, or any thing: more agreeable, and repeat the dose till the disorder ceases; which it commonly does in the second or third administration of the remedy by correcting the acidity of the stomach.

Another Remedy,

TAKE a small handful of the leaves of either peppermint or spearmint, rather more than half as much of the leaves of tansey, mix them, and put them in a soft thin flannel bag, large enough to cover the stomach and bowels; quilt the bag through in several places so as to prevent the herbs from falling to one place, which would be very oppressive and injurious, then put in a sufficient quantity of hot brandy to wet it through, and apply it over the stomach and bowels, about blood heat; wet the bag several times through the day with warm brandy, and change the herbs every evening—it must not be taken off until the patient is quite recovered. The above will render the stomach retentive; then give them every morning or two a teaspoonful of the syrup of rhubarb, and in the latter part of the afternoon, about eight drops of sweet nitre every hour for three hours in succession. By continuing the above for a few days, more or less, according as the child might seem to require it, the writer has had the satisfaction of seeing a great many children perfectly restored, and never knew it fail—but they must not eat or drink any thing the least sour, such as unripe fruits, new cheese or any thing that is hard of digestion; ripe blackberries are very good, or if they should wish old cheese, fresh butter, a little sweet ham or eggs, either boiled or fryed, they may be indulged with safety. The quantity of rheubarb and sweet spirits of nitre is for a child of one year old.

Another.

RICE-WATER, very strong, with much sugar and a little laudanum in it drank plentifully.

cider.

IN making cider see that the mill, the press, and all the materials be sweet and clean and the straw free from must. The fruit should be ripe, but not rotten, and when the apples are ground, if the juice is left in the pumice 24 hours, the cider will be richer, softer and higher coloured. If the fruit be all of one kind, it is generally thought that the cider will be better; as the fermentation will be more regular. The juice of the fruit, as it comes from the press should be placed in open headed casks or vats: in this situation, it is likely to undergo a proper fermentation, and the person attending may with great correctness ascertain when the first fermentation ceases; this is of great importance, and must be particularly attended to. The fermentation is attended with a hissing noise, bubbles rising to the surface and there forming a soft spongy crust over the liquor. When this crust begins to crack, and a white froth appears in the cracks level with the surface of the head, the fermentation is about stopping. At this time the liquor is in the fine genuine clear state, and must be drawn off immediately into clean casks; and this is the time to fumigate it with sulphur. To do this, take a strip of canvas or rag, about two inches broad and twelve inches long, dip this into melted sulphur, and when a few pails of worked cider are put into the cask, set this match on fire and hold it in the cask till it is consumed, then bung the cask and shake it that the liquor may incorporate with, and retain the fumes; after this, fill the cask and bung it up This cider should be racked off again the latter part of February, or first of March; and if not as clear as you wish it, put in isinglass, to fine; and stir it well; then put the cask in a cool place where it will not be disturbed, for the finery to settle. Cider, prepared in this manner will keep sweet for years.

Mr. Deane observes "I have found it answer well to do nothing to cider till March, or the beginning of April, except giving a cask a small vent hole, and keeping it open till the first fermentation is over; then draw it off into good casks; and then fine it with skim milk, eggs broke up with the shells, or molasses. A quart of molasses will give a fine flavour to a barrel of cider, as well as carry all the lees to the bottom. But lest it should incline the liquor to prick I put in at the same time a quart of rum or brandy; and it seldom fails of keeping well to the end of summer. Cellars in which cider is kept should have neither doors nor windows kept open in the summer, and the casks should stand steady and not be shaken to disturb the sediment.

The casks which contain new cider should be filled perfectly full to permit the froth or pummice to discharge itself at the bung. The pressure of the pummice should be slow that the liquor may run the clearer. Some say that if the cider be racked off in a week after it is made, ceasing the moment it becomes muddy; in ten days a second time, and in fifteen days a third time, it will need no other process for fining or purifying it. In every instance the casks should be clean, and perfectly filled, and when filled for the last time should be bunged up close, and placed in a deep, dry cellar, never to be moved till drawn off for use.

The later the apples hang on the trees, the more spirit the cider will contain. In bottling cider it is recommended to raise the proof of the cider by putting in about two tea spoonfuls of French brandy to each bottle, which will check fermentation, and prevent the bursting of the bottles.

cock-roaches.

IT is said that a few leaves of elder, strewed on the floor of a room infested with cock-roaches will extirpate those insects.

cod-fish.

DUN, or dried cod-fish ought not to be boiled to have it tender; it operates as on an egg, an oyster or a clam, the more you boil it the harder it grows. Let it simmer on or near the fire, in a kettle, two or three hours according as the fish is hard, and then change the water; and before dishing, put this up to near boiling heat but not higher. This management does not draw out but revives the glutinous, and enlivens the nutritious substance in them, and leaves the fish tender and delicious.

coffee.

Art of making Coffee.

THE celebrated Count Rumford observes, "There is no culinary process that is liable to so much uncertainty in its results, as the making of Coffee; and there is certainly none, in which any small variation in the mode of operation produces more sensible effects—Of the various modes recommended, we believe the following the most advantageous.

Take of ground coffee one ounce, to one pound or a pint of water; this proportion agrees pretty nearly with that presented by the count;—put the coffee into a coffee pot, the shape of it cylindrical, and the spout placed near the top; pour the water upon it boiling; place the pot over a slow fire or a lamp; there will appear, upon the surface, almost immediately, innumerable small bubbles; in a few seconds these will form themselves into one hemispherical bubble, extending to the side of the pot; on this bursting; ebullition follows, and it must be taken from the fire; throw into it the white of an egg, a small piece of isinglass, hartshorn shavings, or any other tasteless mucilaginous substance; and in three or four minutes the grounds will be carried down, the liquor left perfectly clear and fit for use. If no mucilaginous substance is at hand, in two or three minutes more, the grounds will subside of themselves, and the liquor be left sufficiently clear.

coffeeHow made of Rye, &c.

SEE Rye Coffee in the following pages.

cold.

SWEET oil and loaf sugar made up like a syrup is recommended for a cold, especially when attended with a sore throat.

An excellent vegetable balsam for soreness of the breast, coughs, &c.

DISSOLVE over the fire, one pound of white sugar candy in a quantity of white wine vinegar, say about three pints, until it is reduced by evaporation to one pint; during the operation let as much garlick as possible be dissolved with it. This preparation will answer all the purposes of Godbold's vegetable balsam, and is probably the same.

Another Remedy for a Cold.

IF a person is attacked with unusual chilliness, pain in the head and back, oppression of the breast, on the first appearance of those symptoms bathe the feet in warm water for fifteen minutes, wipe them dry, draw on the stockings and immediately go to bed, and drink freely of strong snake root tea.

Another.—For an ulcerated soar throat.

DROP some good brandy on a piece of refined lump sugar till it has absorbed as much as it will contain, which suffer to remain in the mouth till it be gradually dissolved.—Repeat the same four or five time a day; and in the course of a few days the ulcer will wholly disappear.

colic bilious.

TAKE one quart of hickory ashes, one tea cup full of soot, add to it three quarts of water poured on boiling hot, pour it into an earthen pot, cover it close and let it remain twelve hours, then pour it off clear, or filter it through s paper, put it into bottles and keep it in a cool place and it is fit for use. For a grown person take a wine glass full of it, and if that don't remove the pain, repeat the dose every half hour until relieved: if the pain is not very acute, one or two doses will be sufficient; to a child a tea spoonful will do for a dose.

consumption.

TAKE a handful of the herb called Horehound, put it into two quarts of water, boil it down one half—after straining put in some honey or molasses; put it on the fire to incorporate; then add a little old rum, and cork it up Take half a tea-cup full filled up with warm milk; if you cannot readily procure milk warm from the cows, make cold milk blood warm.—Take a tea cup full before breakfast, and another about noon upon an empty stomach.

Dissolve over a chaffing dish of coals in a tight room an equal quantity of rosin and yellow wax. Let the patient remain in the room as long as convenient, and his strength will admit, and repeat the operation three or four times a day.

corks of Wine-Bottles, how secured.

CUT the Cork off even, wipe the Cork and neck of the bottle dry, dip it in a melted composition of wax two ounces, rosin four ounces.

corn, musty, cure for.

IMMERSE it in boiling water, and let it remain till the water becomes cold The quantity of water should be at least double the quantity of corn to be purified.

corns.

A remedy for corns on the feet.

ROAST a clove of garlick on a live coal, or in hot ashes, apply it to the corn, and fasten it on with a piece of cloth. This must be made use of the moment of going to bed.

Some assert that if you take a little unwrought cotton, lay it on the part affected, and wear it a week or two the corn will disappear.

It is likewise asserted that chalk formed into a paste will cure corns.

Take the skin of a codfish, after it has lain in the cellar, or a place where it has gathers d moisture a day or two, and bind it on the corn, and keep it till it is perfectly sound.

cough.

Whooping Cough.—THE sulphate of potass (formerly called liver of sulphur) has been extolled as a remedy in this disease. Dose, six grains every four hours for an adult.

Another remedy.

TAKE equal portions of new milk, and the lye strained from ashes of hickory bark, of which one table spoonful may be given every hour through the day to a child of seven years old.

Cough in the early stage of Consumption.

Let ten grains of crude opium be rubbed with thirty grains of volatile alkali, two drachms volatile spirits of ammonia, and one half ounce of peppermint water—of this well shaken, a tea spoonful may be taken three times a day in a little weak tea.

Gentleman' s Magazine.

IT is said that innoculation for the cow pox will arrest the whooping cough.

Another remedy for Whooping Cough.

TAKE dried colt's-foot leaves (that have not been gathered more than a year) a good handful, cut them small, and boil them in a pint of spring-water, till half a pint is boiled away; then take it off the fire, and when it is almost cold, strain it through a cloth, squeezing the herb dry as you can, and then throw it away. Dissolve in the liquor an ounce of sugar candy, finely powdered, and to a child three or four years old give one spoonful of it, cold or warm as the season favours, three or four times a day or oftener if the fits of coughing come frequently, till well. For older or younger person the quantity may be increased, or diminished as thought proper.

This preparation is useful also in asthmas phthysic, shortness of breath consumptions, &c.

N. B. When sugar candy cannot conveniently be had, perhaps honey or good clean brown sugar would answer. Sugar candy is, however to be preferred.

Another.

DISSOLVE a scruple of salt of Tartar in a gill of water; add ten grains of cochineal finely powdered, sweeten this with fine sugar. Give to an infant the fourth part of a table spoonful four times a day; and from four upwards a spoonful may be taken. The relief is immediate, and the cure in general effected within 5 or 6 days.

cramp.

RUB the part with camphor dissolved in oil.

croup.

Cure for the Croup, vulgarly called the Rattles.

IT is allowed by the best physicians in the country, that the croup, formerly a very fatal disease, is now successfully treated with a weak solution of corrosive sublimate, to be given in small quantities every fifteen minutes till it causes puking. This medicine, though a dangerous instrument in the hands of ignorance, when judiciously managed has snatched many a child from the jaws of death.

Another remedy for Croup.

[By Dr. John Archer of Hartford County, Maryland.]

MAKE a strong decoction of the Seneka root in the following manner, viz. half an ounce of Seneka, in coarse, powder boil in eight ounces of water down to four. Of this give a teaspoonful every half hour, as the urgency of the symytoms may require, and at intervals a few drops to keep up the stimulus, until it either acts as an emetic or cathartic. Then repeat it in similar quantities, so as to preserve the stimulus of seneka constantly in the mouth or throat.

If the disease be more advanced, and the breathing more difficult, give calomel frequently and freely, and rub mercurial ointment on the throat and contiguous parts so as to effect the glands of the throat and mouth as quickly as possible, that the mercury may co-operate with the action or stimulus of the seneka.

cucumber.

TAKE a very tight barrel tub; fill it up to the bung with stones, then a little straw, and earth enough over the straw to fill the barrel. Fill the lower half with water, but instead of letting it steep through the earth, it should be passed through a tube, placed in the earth for that purpose, as often as more water is wanted. The bung should be left out and the water kept as high as the hole by repeated waterings. The plants lying so high will be kept out of the way of insects, nor will they suffer by drought. The plants, however, should once in a while be a little sprinkled with water if the season be very dry.

To preserve Cucumbers and Squashes from bugs and flies.

SPRINKLE the plants with a strong infusion of elder leaves; and that of hops is likewise recommended. Or,

Suspend a diamond formed piece of white paper, shingle or other piece of wood by a thread, tied to the end ©f a stick stuck in the ground a small distance from the hill so that the paper will hang directly over the hill, and near the plants. The air by constantly vibrating the paper or shingle will have a tendency to prevent insects from alighting on the plants. Or,

In the morning when the dew is on sprinkle the plants with fine dust of slacked lime.

To render Cucumbers wholesome.

SLICE cucumbers into a basin of cool spring water, and it will render them not only more crisp and fine but much more wholesome, and prevent their rising in the stomach. The water will completely take away the pernicious juice of the cucumber; which is the principal cause of its disagreeing with the stomach.

curculio.

THE curculio is a genus of insects belonging to the Beetle-order. In its maggot state it is bedded in apples and other fruits, producing what is vulgarly called wormy fruit. Poultry and hogs are great devourers of this insect both in the beetle and maggot state. Pasturing orchards with swine sufficient to eat all the apples which fall is a good antidote to the ravages of these insects. Placing little bits of board, about the size of a case knife dipped in tar or turpentine in the tops of fruit trees is recommended, as all terebenthinate substances are very offensive to all kinds of insects. From three to five bits according to the size of the tree are said to be sufficient. They should be placed soon after the trees are in full bloom, and the application of the tar frequently renewed while the fruit hangs on the tree.

currants.

Directions for the culture of the Currant-bush.

THE currant-bush, though a shrub that grows almost spontaneously, requires nevertheless some dressing; in regard to which the following directions may be of service.

Plant them round the quarters of your garden, that they may have the benefit of the dung and culture annually bestowed thereon, which will consequently make the berries large and the juice rich.

The red currant is preferable to the white, as yielding richer juice and in much greater quantity.

Take the most luxuriant slips or shoots of a year's growth, set them in the ground about eight inches deep, and not less than twenty four distant from each other; these never fail of taking root, and generally begin to bear in about two years. For the rest, let them from time to time be treated as espaliers (but not against a wall) observing to keep the roots, especially in the spring of the year, free from suckers and grass.

currant wine.

PICK the currants clear from the stalk, put them into an earthen vessel, and pour on a gallon of currants one quart of hot water. Mash them together and let them stand and ferment; cover them for twelve hours, and then strain them through linnen into a cask, add a little yeast and when worked and settled bottle it off, In one week's time it will be fit for use.

Another Receipt.

GATHER your currants when full ripe, which will commonly be about the middle of July; break them well in a tub or vat, (some have a mill constructed for the purpose, consisting of a hopper, fixed upon two lignum vitæ rollers) press and measure your juice, add two thirds water, and to each gallon of that mixture (i.e. juice and water) put three pounds of muscovado sugar (the cleaner and drier the better; very coarse sugar, first clarified, will do equally as well) stir it well, till the sugar is quite dissolved, and then turn it up. If you can possibly prevent it, let not your juice stand overnight, as it should not ferment before mixture.

Observe, that your casks be sweet and clean, and such as have had neither beer nor cider in them, and if new let them be first well seasoned.

dairy secret.

HAVE ready two pans in boiling water; and on the new milk's coming to the dairy, take the hot pans out of the water, put the milk into one of them, and cover it with the other. This will occasion great augmentation in the and quality of the cream.

deafness.

PUT a table spoonful of bay salt into nearly half a pint of cold water; and after it has steeped twenty-two hours (now and then shaking the phial) cause a small tea-spoonful to be poured into the ear most affected every night on going to bed, for eight nights successively.

dentifrice.

TAKE of myrrh, Peruvian bark, and calicined oyster shells, all finely powdered, each an ounce, and of powdered charcoal half an ounce; if too black you may reduce the quantity of the last article to a quarter at an ounce. See Teeth in the following pages.

dieBlack for linnen.

MIX in a large bottle, with a quart of soft water, two and a half ounces of common aquafortis, and, adding gradually the same quantity of litharge, slightly cork the bottle, occasionally shake it, and keep it in a warm situation; after a few days the liquid may be poured into a deep earthen, leaden, or pewter vessel, in which the linnen to be dried, being first well washed, though not bleached, should be immersed for ten or twelve hours; being then taken out and three times washed and rinsed in cold water, it is to be dipped in a weak solution of common glue, again rinsed and hung in a shade to dry. In a quart of rain or other soft water, three quarters of an ounce of well bruised galls are next to be boiled for eight or ten minutes, when the like quantity of common salt must be added; as soon as the salt is dissolved, the linen should be boiled seven or eight minutes in the liquor, after which it must be taken out, washed, wrung three times as before, and dried in the shade. At this stage of the process the linnen will receive a dark gray yellowish tinge, which disposes it for the better reception of the colour. It is now to be immersed for eight or ten hours, in a liquid composed of three quarters of an ounce each of copperas, or vitriol of iron, and common salt, dissolved in a quart of hot water, after which it is to be again washed, rinsed, and hung to dry in the shade. For striking the black colour, three quarters of an ounce of logwood is to be boiled for seven or eight minutes in somewhat more than half a gallon of rain or river water, when a quarter of an ounce of white starch, previously mixed with a little cold water, to prevent its rising in lumps, must be added; this being perfectly dissolved, the linnen is to be boiled in the liquor for seven or eight minutes, when it must again be rinsed and dried as before. It will then acquire a fine black tinge; but if the die be not deep enough, it is again to be dipped and treated in the same manner, as often as may be necessary to effect this purpose. As, however, the linen will not in this state admit of being washed in lie or soap water without losing its colour, it is to be dipped in a cold solution, prepared by boiling seven or eight minutes, an ounce of well bruised galls in a quart of the glue water, wherein an ounce of copperas must then be dissolved. The linen having remained an hour in this liquor, must be pressed and dried in the shade: when it will have acquired a beautiful, deep, and durable black colour capable of being washed with the same security as any other died colour whatever.

dropsy.

MIX a pound of the coarsest sugar, a pint of juice of pelitory of the wall, bruised in a mortar, boil it as long as any scum rises, when cool bottle and cork it. If very bad take three spoonfuls at night and one in the morning.

Another.

MAKE a tea of the roots of dwarf elder, and after every discharge of urine drink a tea cup full.

Another.

COVER the whole belly with a large new sponge, dipped in strong lime water, and squeezed out This bound on often cures without any evacuation of water.

Another.

TAKE a six quart jug of old hard cyder, put therein a pint of mustard seed, one double handful of lignum vitæ shavings, one double handful of horseradish roots; let them simmer together over a slow fire forty-eight hours, when it will be fit for use. Take a teacup full three times a day.

drowned personsdirections for recovering.

THE following directions have been published by the Dublin Humane Society:—

"What thou doest, do quickly."

1. Convey the body carefully, with the head a little raised to the nearest convenient house.

2. Strip and dry the body; clean the mouth and nostrils.

3. An adult lay the body on a bed or blanket near the fire or in a warm chamber; if in the summer, expose it to the sun.

4. A child; place it between two persons in a warm bed.

5. Rub the body gently with flannel, sprinkled with spirits.

6. Restore breathing by introducing the pipe of a bellows (where the apparatus cannot be immediately procured) into one nostril, keeping the other and the mouth closed, gently inflate the lungs, alternately compress the breast, and then let the mouth and nostrils free.

7. Apply warm bricks to the soles of the feet, and warm spirits to the palms of the hands, and the pit of the stomach.

8. Persist in these means for three hours at least, or until life be restored.

Cautions.—1. Never to be held up by the heels.

2. Not to be rolled on casks, or other rough usages.

3. Not to allow into the room more than six persons.

4. Not to rub the body with salt.

General Observations.—On signs of returning life, and if swallowing be returned, a small quantity (often repeated) of warm wine and water, or diluted spirits, should be given; the patient put into a warm bed, and if disposed put to sleep.

Electricity and bleeding are never to be employed, unless by the directions of a medical gentleman.

Dysentery.

Dr. Boyle's remedy for Dysentery.

TAKE new churned fresh butter, melt it over a clear fire, and skim off the curdy part. Give two spoonfulls of the clarified remainder two or three times a day. It seldom fails to effect a speedy cure.

Another remedy.

TAKE two glasses of sweet oil—two glasses West India molasses—two glasses West India rum—simmer well together over a fire till it becomes the thickness of honey, so that the oil may not separate from the rest. While on the fire keep it well stirred, and when taken off, continue the same till cool. Then the parent, if a grown person, should take a spoonful once in an hour till he finds the disease abating—then once in two hours, or as the judgment may suggest until cured.

Indian cure for the Dysentery or Bloody Flux.

TAKE the root of cat-tail, (a flag) boil it moderately in sweet milk, and take as much as you please, as it hurts none and will soon cure that complaint.

ear ache.

PUT a clove of garlick into the ear, or apply a poultice of one over it. A blister behind the ear: the juice of rue, or cotton wet with laudanum and put into the ear.

eels, method of roasting.

HAVING skinned and washed some of the finest large eels, cut them in three, four, or five pieces, according to their lengths. Make a seasoning of grated nutmeg, pepper and salt, with a little thyme, sage and lemon peel, all well beaten or shred, and mixed plentifully with crumbs of bread. Strew this well on the eels, stick them across on skewers, tie the skewers to the spit, baste them continually, and let them roast till they begin to crack and appear white at the bone. When taken up send them to the table with melted butter and lemon juice, which will make the best sauce for them, as the seasoning gives them an exquisite relish. They may be fried or broiled thus seasoned, with very good effect,

elder juice, kills skippers in meat cheese, &c.

TAKE the leaves of elder and bruise them in a mortar. Rub the leaves thus bruised over the meat, (hams, smoked beef, &c) and if there are any holes in meat in which the skippers have found their way, pour in a little of the juice, and they will roll out in a short time. The application of elder juice does not communicate any bad taste to the meat.

eggs

MAY be preserved by anointing them with lard or any greasy or oily substance for months, and some say years. The oily substance closes the pores, hinders the access of air, and thus prevents putrefaction. They should be anointed soon after they are laid.

Superior mode of cooking Eggs. "A boiled egg is a spoiled egg." Apicius.

BOIL a quantity of water, sufficient, for the eggs you wish to use in a saucepan. Take it off when boiling, and place it a little distance from the fire. Put in the eggs cover them over with the lid, and let them continue in the water for two, three or four minutes, according as you wish them to be done. Eggs thus cooked are far more delicate than those boiled in the usual manner, even one half minute's boiling on the fire being sufficient to destroy that delicate flavour found in coddled eggs. They may be thus cooked even at the table, a kettle with boiling water being brought in, and the water poured from it on the eggs in a basin, which being closely covered immediately, will nearly answer the same purpose.

elixirStoughton's.

PARE off the thin yellow rinds of six large Seville oranges, and put them into a quart bottle, with an ounce of gentian root scraped and sliced, and half a dram of cochineal. Pour to these ingredients a pint of the best brandy; shake the bottle well, several limes, during that and the following day – let it stand two days more to settle; and clear it off into bottles for use. Take one or two spoonsful morning and evening, in a glass of wine, or even in a cup of tea. As a pleasant and safe family medicine this elixir of Dr. Stoughton is highly recommended.

epileptic electuary, for the cure of the falling sickness, hysterics, &c.

TAKE six drams of powdered Peruvian bark, two drams of pulverized Virginia snake root, and a sufficient quantity of sirup of piony to make it up into a soft electuary. This is said, by a celebrated physician, to have been experimentally found a most prevalent and most certain remedy. One dram of this electuary, after proper evacuations having been had, being given to grown persons, and a less dose to those who are younger, every morning and evening for three or four months, and then repeated for three or four days before the change and full of the moon, absolutely eradicates epileptic and hysteric diseases, and also those strange epileptic saltations called St. Vitus's dance.

eye-stone.

IT is said that a grain of flax seed possesses all the valuable properties of the eye stone.

eye-water.

Edinburgh Eye-Water.

PUT white vitriol the bigness of a nut into two gills of white rose water; with as much fine loaf sugar as vitriol. When it is dissolved shake the bottle, and on going to bed wash the eyes with it using a soft clean cloth.

For curing weak and weeping Eyes.

MAKE a strong decoction of camomile boiled in sweet cows' milk; with this let the patient's eyes he bathed several times a day as warm as can be suffered without uneasiness. Persons, almost blind, have been cured by persevering in the use of this prescription. It is proper, however, to observe that frequently 5 or 6 weeks bathing of the eyes is necessary.

For inflamed Eyes.

TO two ounces of water add two grains of lapis caliminaris, and the same quantity of white vitriol.

feathers, bones, &c.how coloured

FEATHERS, Bones, &c. may be coloured blue, red, green, yellow, &c by the following process. After boiling them in allum water, steep them in an infusion of red wood to form a red—in a blue pot, or juice of elder berries for blue—in lime water and verdigris, or nitrate of copper for green, and in a tincture of saffron for yellow.

fellon.

An effectual cure for a Fellon.

BATHE the part affected in ashes and water; take the yolk of an egg, six drops of the spirits of turpentine, a few beet leaves cut fine, a small quantity of hard soap, due teaspoonful of snuff or fine tobacco; then add one

  1. Blue vitriol, or sulphate of copper.

This work was published before January 1, 1923, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.